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Full text of "Thoreau's fact book in the Harry Elkins Widener collection in the Harvard College Library"

The 

Thoreau Library 

of Walter Harding 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/thoreausfactbook03thor 



THOREAU'S FACT BOOK 

IN THE HARRY ELKINS WIDENER COLLECTION 

IN THE HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 
ANNOTATED AND INDEXED 

By 
KENNETH WALTER CAMERON 

Trinity College, Hartford 

VOLUME 
I II 




HARTFORD 

TRANSCENDENTAL BOOKS - BOX A, STATION A - 06106 



COPYRIGHT 1987 BY 
KENNETH WALTER CAMERON 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Pursh: Flora Americae Septentrionalis : or. . .Description of the Plants 

of North America . (2nd ed., 2 vols.) London, 1816 . '. '. '. T". . 402 

Raffles: The History of Java . (2 vols.) London, 1817 405 

Reid: The Bov Hunters , or Adventures in Search of a White Buffalo . 

Boston, 1853 410 

Reid: The Desert Home , or the Adventures of a Lost Family in the 

Wilderness . Boston, 1853 412 

Reid: The Forest Exiles ; or . the Perils of a Peruvian Family amid the 

Wilds of the Amazon . Boston, 1855 414 

Reid: The Hunters' Feast : or . Conversations Around the Camp -F ire . 

New York, [1856] 420 

Reid: The Young Vovageurs . or The Bov Hunters in the North . Boston, 1854 426 

ii 
Reid: The Young Yagers , or A Narrative of Hunting Adventures in 

Southern Africa . Boston, 1857 436 

Richardson: Arctic Searching Expedition: A Journal of a Boat -Voyage .. . 

in Search of... Sir John Franklin . New York, 1852 437 

Richardson: Fauna Boreali-Americana ; or the Zoology of the Northern 

Parts of British America . ^2 vols.) London, 1829-1831 . T". . . 447 

Sabine: Report on the Principal Fisheries of the American Seas 455 

Sagard-Theodat : Le Grand Voyage du Pays Pes Hurons . 3itu^ en l'Amer - 

iaue . Paris, 1632 456 

Sagard-Theodat: Histoire du Canada et Voyages que les Freres Mineurs 
Recollects y ont faicts pour la Conversion des Infidelles . 
Paris, 1636 458 

Scott, Sir Walter: See Mallet. 

Sitgreaves: Report of an Expedition Down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers . 

Washington, D. C, 1854 460 

Sleeman: Rambles and Recollections of An Indian Official . (2 vols.) 

London, 1844 462 

Smithsonian Institution: Fifth Annual Report of the Board of Regents . 

Washington, D. C., 1851 467 

Snorri Sturleson: The Heimskringla ; or . Chronicle of the Kings of Nor - 
way . (3 vols.) London, 1844 468 

Springer: Forest Life and Forest Trees: Comprising Winter Camp-Life... 

Maine and New Brunswick . New York, 1851 475 

Squier: Waikna ; or . Adventures on the Mosquito Shore . New York, 1855 . 478 

Stanley: A Familiar History of Birds ; Their Nature . Habits , and In - 

stincts. London, 1851 480 

Stoever: The Life of Sir Charles Linnaeus . Knight of the Swedish Order 

of the Polar Star . London, 1794 490 

Talbot: Five Years' Residence in the Canadas : Including a Tour... in... 

1825 . London, 1824 496 

Tanner : A Narrative of the Captivity and Adventures of John Tanner dur - 
ing Thirty Years Residence Among the Indians . New York, 1830 . . . 498 

Tienhoven: "Information Relative to Taking up Land in New Nether- 
land" (1650) 502 

Torrey and Gray: "Report of the Botany of the Expedition" 522, 531 



Toussenel: L 'Esprit des Betes: Zoologje Passionnelle — Mammiferes 

de France . (2nd ed.) Paris, 1855 ! '. . . . '. 7~. .. ~ 504 

Trench: On the Study of Words . (From the 2nd London ed., revised and 

enlarged) Redfield, 1852 506 

Tuckerman: An Enumeration of North American Lichenes . Cambridge, [Mass.], 

1845 514 

Tufts: "Of the word Schooner : A Communication" 517 

United States Navy: The U. S. Naval Astronomical Expedition to the 

Southern Hemisphere during the Years 1849-1852: Vol. I: Chile 
(Washington, D. C, 1855) 518 

United States War Department: Reports of Explorations and Surveys... 
for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean 
[1853-1856] . Vol. II — III (Washington, D. C, 1855-1857). . . 520, 542 

Van der Donck : A Description of the New Netherlands. . .Peculiar Customs 
of the Savages , or Natives of the Land .. .Habits of the Beaver... 
Advantages of the Country " (2nd ed.) Amsterdam, 1656 . '. . . . . . 544 

Vincent: The Voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates .. .First 
Navigation Attempted by Europeans in the Indian Ocean . 
London, 1797 547 

Warren: Para : or, Scenes and Adventures on the Banks of the Amazon . 

New York, 1851 552 

Webster: The Private Correspondence of Daniel Webster . Ed. Fletcher 

Webster. (2 vols.) Boston, 1857 . '. '. '. '. 7~ 553 

White: The Natural History of Selborne with Observations on Various 

Parts of Nature ! London (Bohn) 1854 '. '. ". '. '. '. !! '. ". I 7~ . . . . 555 

Wilkinson: The Human Body and its Connection with Man . Illustrated by 

the Principal Organs . Philadelphia, 1851 559 

Wilkinson: A Popular Account of the Ancient Egyptians . Revised and 

abridged from his larger work. (2 vols.) London, 1854 562 



Wood: A Class-Book of Botany . Designed for Colleges . Academies , and 

other Seminaries . (23rd ed., rev. and enlarged) Boston, 1851 . . 



565 



Wood: The Illustrated Natural History .. .with 450 Original Designs by 

William Harvey . New York, 1854 569 

Wood: New-Engl and's Prospect . Being a True . Lively , and Experimental 
Descript ion of... New England . (3rd ed.") London, Printed 1639. 
Boston, New-England, Re-printed, 1764 „ . 571 

Wordsworth: Memoirs of William Wordsworth . Poet-Laureate . D.C.L . 

(2 vols. ) London, 1851 . '. ". '. \ ~ 584 

Wrangell: Narrative of an Expedition to the Polar Sea , in the Years 

1820, 1821, 1822, and 1823 . New-York, 1842 . . 585 



TRANSCRIPTION OF THOREAU'S FACT BOOK 596 



INDEX TO THOREAU'S FACT BOOK 648 



400 



seldom they are local terms, or the names of the first discoverers. 
The last-mentioned method, could it have been universal, would 
have had the advantage of conveying somewhat like a chrono- 
logical history of each plant, and, at the same time, of perpetu- 
ating to the discoverer due credit. Before trivial names came 
into use, botanists were obliged to quote an entire description 
of a plant, to point out the species they chanced to allude to, 
thus burthening the memory, and creating a jargon which rather 
obstructed than facilitated the purposes of science. The first 
hint of this important improvement in botany was p robably bor- , 
rowed from Rivini;( but Linnaeus is indisputably the first author 

who actually put it into practice ; 

u5y 



12.. Sponsalia. Plantarum. Rcsp. J. G. Wahlbom.. 1746' 
Those who would see all the arguments, and the result of 
the experiments, on which the doctrine of the sexes of plants 
is founded, are referred to this dissertation,, as containing by far 
the most clear, comprehensive,, and copious view of that subject. 
It is professedly a commentary on the 5th chapter of Linnaeus's 
Fundamenta, or Philosophia Botani cg* from section 132 to 150 in*,, 
^elusive, and contains 49 pages, l it is out of our plan to detail 

360 
all the arguments; suffice it to say, that although, from the 
writings of Theophrastus and Pliny, Ave learn that the antients 
had some idea of an analogy, as to sex, between the animal 
and vegetable kingdoms (drawn principally, perhaps, from the 
artificial manner of fecundating the date-tree), yet, so crude and 
erroneous were their ideas, that in many instances those plants 
which they pronounced male or female, modern observations 
have taught us are exactly the reverse. Indeed it does not ap- 
pear that any very precise ideas on this subject were established 
till late in the 17th century. Were it a matter of importance to 
determine to whom applause is due for the discovery, the English 
perhaps might with justice claim the honour, and bestow that 
applause on Sir Thomas Millington, Savilian Professor of 
Geometry in the University of Oxford, who appears to have 
been the first that gave the hint to Dr. Grew ; since whose time 
the doctrine has received so much light, that, we presume, few 
persons can now doubt the following position, which briefly con- 
tains the whole of what is at present understood by this analogy: 
namely, " That the influence of the farina from the anthene of 
flowers upon the stigma is essentially necessary to give fertility to 
the seed." If any of our readers wish to see what arguments 
may be adduced against this doctrine, they are referred to the 

Anthologia of Pontedera, and to Alston's Dissertation on Botany. 

378 



[31. Nova Plantarum Genera. Resp. L. J. Chenon. 1751. 
A description, chiefly, of new genera and species of plants^ 



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sustained solely by the Rein-deer Liverwort (Lichen rangifcri mix), 
with which the A lps of the north a rc covered.. / ~" 

420 

. * i 

[84^ Culinamutata. Resp. M. G. Osterman. 1757- J 
In a former paper was exhibited a list of vegetables which are 
eaten in a crude state, as sallads. The present is intended to 
show the change that has taken place in the choice of vegetable 
aliments, since the time of the ancients, a number of more 
bland, agreeable, and nutritive plants being now substituted for 
those which were then in use. 

In this review of the alteration which part of the culinary 
system has undergone, the writer gives, under each article, a 
comparative sketch of its qualities, and shows the superiority of 
the modem substitute. To mention some of the most material : 



(The Nuts and Acorns of the primitive days have giyen. way to) 
I all the variety of sweeter farinaceous seeds and roots^/ 
_jTo the Malvaceous tribe of plants, so much used by the Greeks^ 
| and Romans, has .succeeded the more grateful Spinach; and toj 
\the_ Blite, the Garden Orach, j 

The rough Borage is supplanted by the acescent - Sorrel; and) 



421 



Asparagus has banished a number of roots, recorded by the) 
Roman writers under the name of Bulbs, tho ugh at this day it, 
is no t easy to determine the several species^ 

_J Our author thinks that the Parsnips however, has usurped the 
p lace of the Skirret undeservedly. f ~ 

jThe Bean of the antients, improperly so* called (being the 
'root* as well as other pacts, of the Indian Water Lily, Nymphcca 



\ 



Nelumbo\ is superseded by the Kidney Bean^f 

(The Garden Rocket (Brassica Eruca) eaten with, and an anti- 
/ootc against, the chilling Lettuce, is banished by the more agree- 
able Cresses and Tarragon; the Apium by the meliorated Celery; 
the Pompion, and others of the Cucurbitaceous tribe, by the 
Melon ; and the berries of the Sumach by the fragrant Nutmeg.. 

The Silphium, ox Succus. Cynenaicus, (which the Romans pur- 
chased from Persia and India, at a great price,, and which" is 
thought by some to be the Asafxtida of the present time) is no 
longer used in pre ference to the Alliaceous tribe.} 

To turn from the vegetable to some of the animal substitutes .:. 
we may mention the Carp among Fishes, as having excluded a 

grea t number held in h igh, estim ation in ancient Rome. 

jThe change of Oil for Butter; of Honey for Sugar; of Mulsa 
(liquors made with wine, water, and honey) for the exquisita 
wines of modern times; and that of the ancient Zythm for the 
improved Malt Liquors of this day, are all recited. Ave may 
mention. also the exchange of the Calida of t he Roman for, the^ 
[bewitching Tea and Coffee of modern tavcrns.f^ 




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142 

1 82, IVEKBASCUM.) Gen . pi. 331. 

1. V. foliis decurrentibus utrinquc tomentosis, caule sim- 
plici. IVilld. sp. pi. 1. p. KOI. 

Icon. Engl. lot. .0I(). Fl.dan. 631. 

O n road sides and in neglected fields ; common 
fbly introduced^ $ . July, Aug. v. v. A singular 
circumstance frequently struck iny attention, respect- 
ing this plant, as it appears in great abundance in 
fields newly cleared and burnt in the most remote 
part of the country, where sometimes not a plant of 
it is found within the compass of more than a hun- 
dred miles. How the seed is brought there I cannot 
imagine. 

,. 169 

2Q9. )VIT1S.( Gen.pl.39G. 

I. V. foliis lato-cordatis snblobnto-angulatis subtus incano- \Lalrusca.) 
tomentosis, racemis fertilibus pars is, baceis majoribus. , 
Mich.fi. amcr. 2. p. 230. IVilld. sp. pi. 1. p. 1181. 
V. taurina. Wall.fi. cur. 1A1. 
Icon. Jneq. schaenbr. 426. 

In shady woods : Canada to Florida, h . June, Julvj 

;reea'ole fox-snielL~| 



Cv.v. Berries black, large, of a disagree! 
{commonly called Fox-grape.\ TrTere is 
white berries called Bland's-^ rap e . 



a variety with 



__^ 193 

243. ANGELICA. ) Gen. pi. 479. 



A. petiolo tripartito, partitionibns pinnato-5-foliolatis, ' Irlquinala. 

foliolis inciso-dentatis : terminalium impari rhombeo 

sessili, lateralibus decursivis, Mich. Jl. amet. 1. 

p. 167. 
In Canada and on the mountains of Virginia. If.. June, 

July. v. v. Smooth. 



2. A. foliis compositis, foliolis oblongis sublobatis serratis \atropurpU'\ 

subsessilibus : extimo pari coadunato : terminali petio- J Tea. J 

lato. — IVilld. sp. pi. 1. p. 1430. ■ 

In Canada and on the mountains of Virgin ia. 1/. July, 
Aug. v. v. From three to six feet high jjroot very fra-j 
[gr ant; petals purplef] 

3. A. foliolis sequalibus ovatis inciso-serratis. Willd. sp. lucida. 
pi. I. p. 1430. 



In shady woods : Canada to Pensylvania. ~il . June, July. 
v. v. Flowers white. 

261 

338. (0EN0THERA.) Gen. pi. 637. 

, O. caule villoso icabro, foliis ovato-lanceolatis planis 
dentatis, rloribus termiualibus subspicatis sessili bas, 
staniinibus corolla brcvioribus. — IVilld. sp. pi. 2. 
p. 300. 
Icon. Fl. dan. 446. Alp. exot. t. 324. 
Common in old fields : New England to Carolina. <J. 
Lane, J uly, y. v. — — __ 



I_ have frequently observed n singularity in this plant, 
3tid it might be interesting to make further inquiry 
into its cause ; it is, that in a dark night, when no 
objects can be distinguished at an inconsiderable di- 
stance, this plant when in full flower can be seen at 
a great distance, having a bright white appearance, 
which probably may a rise from some phosphoric pro- 
perties of the tiuwcrs.( 



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404 
V. disomorphum. Miih.Jl. amer. I. p. 231. 
V. album. Lam. encyd. l.p.J3. 

In swamps and wet woods : Canada to Virginia. ^ . 
,Fune. v. v.; v. s. in Herb. Banks. A shrub, rising 
sometimes to the height of seven or eig ht feet -. flow- 
ers white, sometimes tinged with red :' | berries hlr.nl- A 
ImhiukI, 'j 



VI. DEC AG YNIA. 



decandra.\ 



398. PHYTOLACCA.) Gen. pi. 800. 



P. foliis ovatis utrinque acutis, floribus decandris deca- 
gynis. — Willi, sp. pi. I. p. 822. 

Icon. Dill. elth. t. 33g. f. 3QQ. Pluk. aim. t. 225./ 3. 

In open woods and old fields : New England to Carolina. 
11 . June, July. v. v. Flowers white, on red pedun- 
cles j berries black, and give an elegant purple colour 
to any liquor. I The young sprouts in spring give a fine! 
vegetable for the table, resembling asparag us. The\ 
plant is known by the name of Pokt-wcea\/~~ 




Flora Americm Septentrionalis; 



OR, A 



8 Y S T E MAT I CARRANGE M EN T 

AND 

D ESCRIP T I N 



NORTH AMERICA, 



VOL. II. 
SECOND EDITION. 



JLontion : 



PRINTED FOR JAMES BLACK AND SON. 

TAVISTOCK-STREET, COVENTJZAKDEX. 



MDCCCXVt. 



362 

1 ' " 
glalra. 



424. 



T1LIA. 



Gen. pi. 894. 



. T. foliis suborbiculato-cordatis abruptc acuminatis argute 
serratis subcoriaceis glabris, pctalis apice truncatis cre- 
natis, stylo pctalis subirquali, nuce ovata subeostata. — 
Foil, in mem. rle t instil, sc. pfujs. 4. p. 9. /. 2. 
T. americana. IVilld. sp.pl. 2. p.ll62. 
T. caroliniana. Iftaigh. amer. 56. 
T. canadensis. Mich.Jl. amer. I. p. 306. 

Jcon. Vent. 1. c. t 2. Mich. arb. t 

In the woods of Canada and the northern United States, 
and on the mountai ns, as far south as Carolina. h . 
May, June, v. i>. { This tree is known by the name! 
(of L'-me- or Line- tree ; Basv wood ; Spoonwood ; and \t\ 
(both useful and ornamental./ 







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410 



— - 

TUE BOY 


HUNTERS, 




Oil 


ADVENTURE 


S IN SEARCH 




OP 


A WHITE 


BUFFALO. 




IlY 


C ATTAIN M 


AYNE RE ID, 


Author of "The 


DKSEKT llOHB," KTC. 


"WITH ILLUSTRATION'S, 


BY WILLIAM HARVEY. : 


BOS 


TON: 


TICKNOR, REED, AND FIELDS. 


il DCCC LIU. 



92 THE CHAIN OF DESTRUCTION. 

[HUMMINGBIRDS] 

It is their breeding season. 
No doubt their nest is near." 

" Shall \vc try to catch them ? " inquired Francois. 

" That \vc could not do, unless we had a net." 

" I can shoot them with small shot." 

" No, no," said Lucien, " the smallest would tear 
them to pieces. They arc sometimes shot with pop- 
py seeds, and sometimes with water. But never 
mind. I would rather observe them a bit as they 
arc. I want to satisfy myself upon a point. \ou 
may look for the nest, as you have good eyes. 
You will find it near — in some naked fork, but not 
among the twigs or leaves." 

Basil and Francois set about looking for the nest, 
while Lucien continued to watch the evolutions of the 
tiny little creatures. The " point" upon which our 
young naturalist wished to be satisfied was, whether 
the hummingbirds eat insects as well as honey — a 



point which has been debated among ornithologists. 

As he stood watching them, a large bumblebee 
(apis hnmbylirus) came whizzing along, and settled 
i n one of the flowers, j its feet had scarcely touched^ 
Mho bright petals, when the male ruby throat darted [ 

] towards it, and attacked it li ke a little fury.) Both 
came out ot the flower together, carrying on their 
miniature battle as they flew; but, after a short con- 
test, the bee turned tail, and flew off with an nngry- 
likc buzz — no doubt occasioned by the plying of 
his wings more rapidly in flight. 

A shout from Francois now told that the nest 
was discovered. There it was, in the fork of a low 
branch, but without eggs as yet — else the birds 

93 
would not both have been abroad. The nest was 
examined by all three, though they did not disturb 
it from its position. It was built of fine threads of 
Spanish moss, (lillundsia,) with which it was tied 
to the branch ; and it was lined inside with the silken 
down of the anemone. It was a semi-sphere, open 
at the top, and but one inch in diameter. In fact, so 
small was the whole structure, that any one but 
the sharp-eyed, bird-catching, nest-seeking Francois 
would have taken it for a knob on the bark of 
the tree. 

All three now returned to watch the manoeuvres 
of the birds, that, not having seen them by the nest, 
still continued playing among the flowers. The boys 
stole as near as possible, keeping behind a large 
bunch of hanging vines. Lucien was nearest, and 
his face was within a few feet of the little creatures, 
so that he could observe every motion they made. 
He was soon gratifie d with a sight that determined 
his " point" for him, j A swarm of small blue-winged 
flies attracted his attention. They were among the J 
blossoms, sometimes resting upon them, and some- 

1 times flitting about from one to another. He saw the [ 

(birds several times dash at them with open bills, and 
pick them from their perch ; so the question was d c- 

Lcid ed — the hummingbirds were insect caters. \ 

After a while the female flew oir to her nest, leav- 
ing the male still among the flowers. 



202 



CHAPTER XXI. 



THE CIRCLE OF FIRE. 



That expectation, however, was a vain one. Poor 
lads! they little thought what was before them. 
Their nerves were to be tried still further, and by as 
severe a test as they had yet endured. The wolves 
howled fearfully around the camp, and their eyes 
still shone through the gloom. But this would not 
have kept the boys from sleeping, had their attention 
not been called to another sound — the voice of a 



411 



f:r (lilTi-rr-nt rroatiiro They heard it amidst tlio 
bowlings of the wolves, and knew it at once, for it 
resembled not these. It was more like the squalling 
of an angry cat, but far louder, fiercer, and more 
terrible. // was llir. scream of the cougar ! 

I say that the young hunters recognized the voice 
of this animal at once; for they had heard it while 
hunting in the forests of Louisiana, although they 
had never been exposed to its attack. From ample 
testimony, however, they knew its power and fierce 
nature, and were therefore terrified by its scream — 
as men of strongest nerves had often been before 
them. 

When its cry first reached their ears, it appeared 
feeble and distant — not louder than the mewing of 
a kitten. The animal was evidently far off in the 

203 

forest. They knew, however, that it could soon trav- 
erse the ground thut lay between it and their camp. 
They listened. A second scream sounded nearer. 
They sprang to their feet, and listened again. A 
third call appeared more distant. This, however, 
arose from a misconception on their part — they for- 
got that their ears were now farther from the ground. 

They stood a moment, gazing on each other with 
looks of terror and apprehension. What was to be 
done ? 

" Shall we mount our horses, and fly ? " asked 
Basil. 

" We know not what way to go," suggested Lu- 
cien. " We may ride right into its teet h ! " 



/This was likely enough ; for it is a singular fact 
'that the scream of the cougar, like the roar of the 
lion, seems to come from any or every side. It is 
difficult t otell i n what direction the animal is whoj 
utters it./ Whether this illusion be produced by the 
terror of the listener is a question yet unsolved. 

" What can we do ? " said Basil. " Taking to a 
tree is of no use. These animals can climb like 
squirrels. What can we do ? " 

Lucicn stood silent, as if considering. 

" I have read," said he, at length, " that the cougar 
will not cross fire. It is the case with most animals, 
although there are exceptions. Let us try that. 
Hush! listen!" 

All three remained silent. Again the cougar ut- 
tered his wild note, still far off. 

252 ANTELOPES 

"The. animals we see yonder are not wolves," 
joyfully iidded Basil. "They arc better than that, I 
fancy — they arc deer ! " 

"No, brother," rejoined Lucicn, "they are ante- 
lopes." 

This announcement caused both Basil and Francois 
1o spring to their guns. Basil was particularly anx- 



ious to bring down an antelope, for he bad never 
killed one. In fact, he had never seen one, as this 
animal is not met with near the Mississippi. Strange 
to say, its favorite range is the arid deserts that lie 
near the foot of the Rocky Mountains, where there 
is hut little grass, and less water. In some of these it 
is the only ruminating animal, of any considerable 
size, to be met with. It is often found so far from 

253 

wnTor, that some nnturalisfn Ihivq assorted it can live 
without this necessary clement. They forgot that 
what to them appears far from water is to the ante- 
lope but a run of a few minutes, or rather, 1 should 
say, a (light. — for its bounding speed resembles more 
the flight of a bird than the gallop of a four-footed 
creature. 



lAntelopcs differ but little from deer. The latter 
want the gall bladder, which all antelopes have. 
i Another distinction is found in the horns. The 
leer's horns arc composed of a solid, bony substance, 
which differs from true horn. The horns of the/ 
antelope are more like those of a goat. J These are 
the principal distinctions. In most other respects 
deer and antelopes arc alike. Naturalists say there 
is but one species of antelope in North America — 
the prong horned, (antilopc Americana.) When the 
fauna of Mexico has been carefully examined, I think 
another will be found. 

It is only upon the great prairies of the far west 
that the prong-horned antelope is met with ; and 
then; it is a most shy and timid creature, allowing 
the hunter only to approach it by cunning and 
stratagem. A herd is sometimes hunted h\ the 
Indiana into a " pound," or " surrounded ;" but even 
then their fleetness often enables them to escape ; 
and so laborious an undertaking is it to capture 
them thus, that the plan is but seldom adopted, 
where any other game can be obtained. The easiest 
mode of taking the antelope is when it is found 
attempting to cross a river, as its slender limbs and 
small, delicate hoofs render it but a poor swimmer 

254 

The Indians sometimes destroy whole herds whilo 
thus endeavoring to swim across the great, streams 
of the prairies. 

Although so shy, the antelope is as inquisitive as 
mother Eve was; and will often approach its most 
dangerous enemy to satisfy its instinct of curiosity. 
Our party were destined to witness a singular illus, 
tratiQn of this peculiarity. 

Basil and Francois had seized their guns, but did 
not attempt to move from the spot. That would be 
of no use, they judged, as there was not even a bunch 
of grass to shelter' them in the direction whence the 
antelopes were approaching. 



412 



€\)i £uglisjj /nmilq Ixnhiusnn. 



THE DESERT HOME, 



ADVENTURES OF A LOST FAMILY 
IN THE WILDERNESS. 



CAPTAIN MAYNE REID, 

Ai'Tnop. of "Tiik Rifle Ranceks," 4c. 



WITH TWELVE ILLUSTRATIONS, BY WILLIAM IIAKVEY. 



BOSTON: 

TICKNOU, REED, AND FIELDS. 

M DCCC LIII. 



170 



THE BEAYEKS AND A\ OLVEEENE. 



" Some of the beavers were sitting upon the newly- 
raised work, gnawing the leaves and twigs that stuck 
out from the mud ; others were washing themselves, 
disporting playfully through the water ; while others 
t>quatted upon logs that lay along the edge of the 
dam, every now and again flapping their heavy tails 
upon the water, like so many laundresses beating out 
their wet linen. 

" It was a curious and comical sight ; and, after 
having enjoyed it for some time, I was about stepping 
forward to witness what effect my presence would 

171 
produce, when, all at once, I perceived that some 
other object had created a sudden commotion among 
the animals. One of them, who had been stationed 



he 

3 



upon a log at some distance up the lake, and appar- 
cntly acting as a sentry, now ran out upon the log, 
and struck the water three quick, heavy flaps with his 
tail. This was evidently a signal ; for the moment 
he had given it, the animal, as if pursued, pitched 
himself head foremost into the lake, and disappeared. 
The rest started as soon as they heard it ; and looking 
around for a moment, as if in affright, they all ran 
to the bank, and p lunged simultaneously under the 
watcrjeach of them striking a blow with his tail 
[h e went under. 

" 1 now looked for the cause of this sudden move- 
ment. All at once I perceived, coming around the 
lake where the sentry beaver had disappeared, a 
strange-looking animal. It moved slowly and silentlv, 
skulking among the trees, and keeping close in 1c 
the water's edge. I saw that it was making for the 
new-built dam, and I remained where I was to watch 
it. At length it reached the breastwork, and crawled 
cautiously along it, keeping behind the parapet, so 
as not to to be seen from the lake above. 

174 

The branches of this tree stretched hori- 
zontally out, and directly over the breastwork. In a 
short time, the wolverene had reached the fork of one 
of these ; and, crawling out upon it, he laid himself 
flat along the branch and looked downward. 
. "Me had scarcely settled himself on his perch, 
when half a dozen beavers — thinking, from what 
they had seen, that he must have gone clear off — 
climbed out upon the breastwork, flapping their great 
tails as they came. They were soon under the very 
branch, and I saw the wolverene with his legs erected 
and ears set for the spring. This was my time ; and, 
glancing up the barrel of my rifle, I aimed directly 
for his heart. At the crack, the astonished beavers 
leaped back into the water, while the wolverene 
dropped from his perch — a little sooner, perhaps, 
than he had intended — and rolled over the ground, 
evidently wounded. I ran up and struck at him with 
the but end of my gun, intending to finish him ; but, 
to my astonishment, the fierce brute seized the stock 
in his teeth, and almost tore it to pieces ! For some 
time I hammered him with huge stones — he, all the 
while, endeavoring to lay hold of me with his long, 

175 

curved claws ; and it was not until I got a down blow 

;,» ]m head with my n.\e that the fig ht was ended. J A^ 

f jV.iiful-lookiiig monster he was, as he lay stretched I 



413 



J before mc, and not unlike the carcajou which haclj 
^ killed our ox at the camp, only smaller.j T did not 
attempt to take his carcass with me, as it was a use- 
less burden. Moreover, from the fetid smell which 
he emitted,- 1 was glad to part company as soon as I 
had killed him ; and, leaving him where he lay, I took 
the shortest road back to the camp." 



212 



CATCHING A TAKTAK. 



He is not by any means a. fast runner, and his safety 
docs not lie in his swiftness of foot. His defensive 
armor is found in the fetid effluvia, which, by a 
muscular exertion, he is capable of ejecting upon his 
pursuer. This he carries in two small sacs that lie 
under his tail, with ducts leading outward about ;> 
large as the tube of a gooscquill. The effluvia itself 
is caused by a thin fluid, which cannot be seen ;:. 
daylight, but at night appears, when first ejected, like 
a double stream of phosphoric light. He can throw 
it to the distance of five yards, and, knowing this, !.. 
always waits till the pursuer has fairly got within 
range — as the one we have just seen did with Castor 
and Pollux. The discharge of this fluid rarely fails 
to drive off such enemies as wolves, dogs, and men. 
Sometimes it occasions sickness and vomiting ; and i: 
is said that there are Indians who have lost their eye- 
sight from inflammation caused by it. Dogs are 
frequently swollen and inflamed for weeks, after 
having received the discharge of a skunk. In addi- 
tion to the disagreeableness of this odor, there is no 
getting rid of it after the fluid has once been sprinkled 

213 
•or your garments. Clothes may be washed and 
1 uried for months, but it will still cling to them ; and 
where a skunk has been killed, the spot will retain 
::.e scent for many months after, even though deep 
mow may have lain upon it. 

"It is only when attacked or angered that the 
animal sends forth his offensive fluid ; and when 
killed suddenly, or before he has time to ' fire it off*,' 
n othing of t he kind is perceived upon his carcass. 

' The skunk is a burrowing animal, and in cold} 
countries he enters his hole, an d_slceps in a half] 
3id state throughout the winter. I In warm climates, 
however, he continues to prowl about all the year 
round, generally at night — as, like most predatory 
creatures, the night is his day. In his burrow, which 
runs several yards underground, he lives, in com- 



pruiy with ten or a dozen of his companions. The 
female has a nest in one part, made of grass and 
leaves, where she brings forth her young — having 
from five to nine kittens at a birth. 

" ' Strange as it may appear, the Indians, as well 
ns many white men, — hunters and others, — eat the 
flesh of this animal, and pronounce it both savory 
and agreeable — equal, as they allege, to the finest 
roast pig. So much for the skunk and his habits. 



318 



A GRAND BEE HUNT. 



["Cudjojdid not molest him until he had fairly 
gorged himself; then, drawing him gently aside with 
the rim of the glass, he separated him from his bau- 
quet. He had removed his gloves, and cautiou 



cautiously) 
> — which [ 



inserting his naked hand, he caught the bee 
was now somewhat heavy and stupid — between his 
thumb and forefinger. He then raised it from the 
log, and turning it breast upward, with his other 
hand he attached a small tuft of the rabbit wool to 
the legs of the insect. The glutinous paste with 
which its thighs were loaded enabled him to effect] 



this the more easily. The wool, which was exceed- 



ingly light, was now ' flaxed out,' in order to make it 
show as much as possible, while, at the same time, 
it was so arranged as not to come in contact with the 
wings of the bee and hinder its flight. All this did 
Cudjp with an expertness which surprised us, and 
would have surprised any one who was a stranger to 
the craft of the bee hunter. He performed every 
operation with great nicoty, taking care not to crip- 
ple the insect ; and, indeed, he did not injure it in 
the least — for Cudjo's fingers, although none of the 
smallest, were as delicate in the touch as those of a 
fine lady. 

319 

11 When every thing was arranged, he placed the 
bee upon the log again, laying it down very gently. 

"The little creature seemed quite astounded at 
the odd treatment which he was receiving, and for a 
few seconds remained motionless- upon the log ; but 
a warm sunbeam glancing down upon it, soon restored 
it to its senses ; and, perceiving that it was once more 
free, it stretched its translucent wings, and rose sud- 
denly into the air. It mounted straight .upward, to 
a height of thirty or forty feet, and then commenced 
circling around, as we could see by the white wool 
that streamed after it. 



414 



" It was now that Cudjo's eyes rolled in good ear- 
nest. The pupils seemed to be dilated to twice their 
usual size, and the great balls appeared to tumble 
about in their sockets, as if there was nothing to 
bold them. His head, too, seemed to revolve, as if his 
short, thick neck had been suddenly converted into a 
well-greased pivot, and endowed with rotary motion. 



f" After making several circles through the air, the 
insect darted off for the woods. We followed it with 
our eyes as long as wc could ; but the white tuft was 
soon lost in the distance, and we saw no more of it. 
We noticed that it had gone in a straight line, which 
the bee always follows when returning loaded to his 
hive — hence an expression ofton heard in western 
America, the ' bee line,' and which has its synonyme 
in England in the phrase, ' as the crow flics.'* (» Cudjo 






knew it would keep on in this line until it had reached 



THE FOREST EXILES; 



PERILS OF A PERUVIAN FAMILY AMID 
THE WILDS OF THE AMAZON. 



S£0 the tree where its nest was ; consequently, he v,\ 
now in possession of one link in the chain of his d--- 
covcry — the direction of the bee tree from the point 
where we stood. 

" But would this be enough to enable him to find 
it? Evidently not. The bee might stop on the very 
edge of the woods, or it might go twenty yards be- 
yond, or fifty, or perhaps a quarter of a mile, with- 
out coming to its tree. It was plain, then, to all of 
us, that the line in which the tree lay was not enough, 
as without some other guide one might have scarclit 1 
along this line for a week without finding the oest. 

" All this knew Cudjo before ; and, of com. , 
he did not stop a moment to reflect upon it then. 
He had carefully noted the direction taken by the 
insect, which he had as carefully ' marked ' by tic- 
trunk of a tree which grew on the edge of ti. 
glade, and in the line of the bee's flight. Another 
• mark ' was still necessary to record the latter and 
make things sure. To do this, Cudjo stooped down., 
and with his knife cut an oblong notch upon the 
bark of the log, which pointed lengthwise in the direc- 
tion the bee had taken. This he executed with 
great precision. He next proceeded to the tree 
which he had used as a marker, and ' blazed ' it 
with his axe. 



124 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



TRACKING THE TAPIR. 



CAPTAIN MAYNE REID, 

Actuoe of "Tue Bor Hukters," "Tiii Yooxa Vouotni," 
" Tbi DtsioT Uoat," etc. 



WITH TWELVE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



BOSTON: 
TICKNOR ANIX FIELDS. 

M DCCC LV. 



It has been already mentioned that the stream in 
front of the house was wider than at other parts, 
forming a sort of lake. There was a slow current 
down the middle, but at the sides the water was near- 
ly stagnant ; and there grew in some places bunches 
of flags, interspersed with beautiful white lilies. 
Among these could be distinguished that gigantic 
nympha so celebrated under the name of Victoria 
regia — - for South America is the native country of 
this rare plant. 

Every night, as our party were resting from their 
labors, they heard strange noises proceeding from 
the water, There was plunging and plashing, and 
now and then a snorting sound like that sometimes 
uttered by frightened swine. Perhaps' it would have 
puzzled any of them to tell whence these sounds pro- 
ceeded or what animal gave utterance to them ; for 
there could be no doubt they were caused by an animal. 
Some of them guessed "alligators;" but that was 



415 



not a correct guess ; for, although there are plenty 
of alligators in all the rivers of tropical America, there 
seemed to be none in that particular place. In truth, 
they might havo remained long in the dark about 
what creature they thus heard sweltering about night- 

185 
ly ; for they could neither see nor hear any thing of 
it in the day. But Guapo, who know every sound of 
the Montana, cnlightoned them at once. Guapo had 
been a keen tapir hunter in his time, and understood 
all the habits of that strange animal. It was a tapir, 
then, which they had heard taking his regular nightly 
bath and regaling himself on the roots of the flags 
and nymphcB. 



I Have you ever seen a tapir? Not a living one, f 
fancy ; perhaps the skin of one in' a museum. He 
is an interesting creature, for this reason — that he is 
the largest land animal indigenous to South America. 
The lama and guanaco stand higher, because their 
legs are longer; but they are far inferior to the tapir 
in bulk and weight ; while the bears of South Amer- 
ica, of which there are two or three species, are 
small-sized bears, and therefore less than the tapir. 
In fact, no very large land animals were found indige- 
nous in the southern division of the American con- 
tinent. There were none of the hovinc tribe, as the 
buffalo and muskox of North America ; and no large 
deer, as the elk and moose of the northern latitudes. 
The deer of South America, of which there are sev- 
eral undescribed species, are all small animals. The 
tapir, then, in point of size, takes precedence in the 



South America fauna. 

164 THE CIXQ1IONA TREES. 

a reddish color, and with a glistening surface, which 
rendered them easily distinguished from the foliage 
of the other trees. Now, it is a fortunate circum- 
stance that the Peruvian bark trees differ from all 
others in the color of their leaves. Were this not 
the case, " bark hunting " would be a very trouble- 
some operation. The labor of finding the trees would 
not be repaid with double the price obtained for the 
bark. You may be thinking, my young friend, that 
a " cascarillero," or " bark hunter," has nothing to do 
but find a wood of these trees, and then the trouble 
of searching is over, and nothing remains but to go 
to work and fell them. So it would be did the cin- 
chona trees grow together in large numbers g but 
they do not. (Only a few — sometimes only a single] 



tree — will be found in one place ; and I may here 
remark that the same is true of most of the trees of the J 



great Monta na of South America, f This is a curious 
tact, because It is a different arrangement from that 
made by Nature in the forests of North America. 
There a whole country will be covered with tim- 
ber of a single, or at most two or three, species ; 



whereas in South America t he forests are com posed 
of an endless variety. ) Hence it has been found dif- 

jficult to establish saw mills in these forests, as no one 
timber can bo conveniently fur nished in sufficient 

^quantity to mako it worth while. \ Some of the palms 

' — as the great morichi — form an exception to this 
rule. These are found in vast palmares, or palm 
woods, extending^ over large tracts of country, and^ 

jnonopolizing the soil to themselves. \ 

Don Pablo, having spent the whole of a day in ex- 

165 

amining the cinchonas, returned home quite satisfied 
with them, both as regarded their quantity and value. 
He saw, from a high tree which he had climbed, 
" manchas" or spots of the glistening reddish leaves, 
nearly an acre in breadth. This was a fortune in 
itself. Could he only collect one hundred thousand 
pounds of this bark, and convey it down stream to 
the mouth of the Amazon, it would there yield him 
the handsome sum of forty thousand or fifty thousand 
dollars. How long before he could accomplish this 
task he had not yet calculated ; but he resolved to 
set about it at once. 

A large house had been already constructed for 
storing the bark ; and in the diy, hot climate of the 
high Montana, where they now were, Don Pablo 
knew it could be dried in the woods where it was 
stripped from the trees. 



166 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



A PAIR OF SLOW GOERS. 



At length, all things being ready, Don Pablo and 
party set out for a day's work among the cinchonas. 
As it was the first day of bark gathering, all went 
along to enjoy the novelty of the thing. A " man- 
cha" of the cinchona trees was not far off; so their 
journey would be a short one. ^ an 

After going a few hundred yards, they entered a 
grove of trees that had white trunks and leaves of. a 
light silvery color. The straight, slender stems of 
these trees and the disposition of their branches — 
leaning over at the tops — gave them somewhat the 
appearance of palms. They were not palms, how- 
ever, but "ambai'ba" trees, (Cecropia peltata.) So 
said Don Pablo, as they passed under their shade. 

" I shouldn't wonder," added he, " if we should 
see that strange animal, the ai'. The leaves of these 
trees are its favorite food, and it lives altogether 
among their branches." 

" You mean the ' nimble Peter,' do you not, papa i " 
This inquiry was put by Leon, who had read about 
the animal under this name, and had read many false 
stories of it, even in the works of the great Bufl'on. 



"Yes," replied Don Pablo ; " ii goes by that name 
sometimes, on account of its sluggish habits and slow 
motions. For (he same reason the English call it 
1 sloth; 1 and it is known among naturalists as brady- 
pus. There arc two or three species, but all with 
very similar habits; though, as usual, the French 
classifiers have separated them into distinct genera." 

" Why, Buflbn says," rejoined Leon, " that it is 
the most miserable creature in the world ; that it can 
scarcely get from tree to tree ; that some remain in 
the same tree all their lives, or that, when one has 
eaten all the leaves off a tree, it drops to the ground, 
to save itself the trouble of getting down by the 
trunk ; and that when on the ground it cannot move 
H yard in an hour. Is all this t'ruo ? " 

" Totally untrue, j It is true ihe ai does not move) 

168 

rapidly over the ground ; but the ground is not its 
proper place, no more than it is that of the orang 
outang, or other tree monkeys. Its conformation 
shows that Nature intended it for an inhabitant of the 
trees, where it can move about with sufficient ease to 
procure its food. On the branches it is quite at 
home ; or rather, I should say, under the branches ; 
for, unlike the squirrels and monkeys, it travels along 
the under sides of the horizontal limbs, with its back 
downward. This it can do with ease, by means of 
its great curving claws, w hich are lar^e enough to 
s pan the thickest boughs. \ In this position, with a. 
long neck of nine vertebra, — the only animal which 
has that number, — it can reach the leaves on all 
sides of it ; and, whe n not feeding, this is its natural, ' 
position of repose, f Its remaining during its whole 
life in one tree, or suffering itself to fall from the 
branches, are romances of the early Spanish voy- 
agers, to which M. Ruffon gave too much credit. 
The ai does not descend to the ground at all when it 
can help it, but passes from one tree to another by 
means of tne outspreading branches. Sometimes, 
when these do not meet, it has cunning enough to 
wait for a windy day ; and then, taking advantage of 
some branch blown nearer by the wind, it grasps it 
and passes to the next tree. As it requires no drink, 
and can live without any other food than the leaves 
of the cecropia, of course it remains on a single tree 
so long as it has plenty of leaves. See ! " exclaimed 
Don Pablo, pointing up ; " here are several trees 
stripped of their leaves ! I'll warrant that was done 
by the ai." 1$g 

"j4-ee/" echoed a voice in the most lugubrious 
tones. 

" I thought so," cried Don Pablo, laughing at the 
surprise which the voice had created among the rest 
of the party. "Thai's thc-very fellow himself; this 
way — here he is ! " 



416 



All of them ran under the tree to which Don Pablo 
pointed, and looked up. There, sure enough, was an 
animal about the size of a cat, of a dark hay color, 
with a patch of dirty orange and black upon the back. 
This could be easily seen ; for the creature was hang- 
ing along a horizontal branch, with its back down- 
ward ; and its huge curving claws, all in a bunch, 
were hooked over the branch. Its hair was thick and 
rough, and no tail was visible ; but its small, round 
head and flat face were almost as like the human face 
as is that of any monkey. Indeed the others would 
have taken it for a monkey — Guapo excepted — had 
they not been already talking about it. 

" O, yonder's another ! " cried Leon, pointing 
higher up in the tree ; and, sure enough, there was ; 
for the ai' is usually found in company with its mate. 
The other was a copy of the one already observed, 
with some slight difference in size ; no doubt it was 
the female one. Both had observed the approach of 
the party, and now uttered their melancholy " Ayee 
— a-ee ! " that sounded any thing but agreeable. In 
fact, so very disagreeable is the voice of this crea- 
ture that it has been considered its best weapon of 
defence. Besides the utterance of their cry, neither of 
them made any effort to escape or defend themselves. 



218 



THE OCELOT. 



_J The jaguar, or, as he is sometimes called, ",ounce,*M 
(Felis onpa,) and by most Spanish Americans " tiger," 
is the largest and most ferocious of all the American 
Felidce. He stands third in rank as to these qualities 
— the lion and tiger of the eastern continent taking 
precedence of him. Specimens of the jaguar have 
been seen equal in size to the Asiatic tiger ; but the 
average size of the American animal is much less. 
He is strong enough, however, to drag a dead horse 
or ox to his den — often to a distance of a quarter 
of a mile ; and this feat has been repeatedly observed 



The jaguar is found throughout all the tropical 
countries of Spanish America, and is oftener called 
tiger (tigre) than jaguar. This is a misapplied name ; 
for although he bears a considerable likeness to the 
tiger, both in shape and habits, yet the markings of 
his skin are quite different. The tiger is striated, or 
striped, while the black on the jaguar is in beautiful 
eyelike rosettes. The leopard is more like the jaguar 
than any other creature ; and the panther and chee- 
tah of the eastern continent also resemble him. The 
markings of the jaguar , when clo sely examined, dif- 
fer from all of these. [ The spots on the animals oi'1 

!the old world are simple spots, or black rings ; while 
those of the American species are rings with a single 
Bpot in the middle, forming ocellce, or eyes. Each, 
in fact, resembles a rosette. J 

Jaguars are not always of the same color. Some 
have skins of an orange yellow, and these are thb 
most beautiful. Others are lighter colored ; and indi- 



417 



219 

victuals have been killed that were nearly white. But 
there is a " black jaguar," which is thought to be of 
a different species. It is larger and fiercer than the 
other, and is found in the very hottest parts of the 
Great Montana. Its skin is not quite jet black, but 
of a deep maroon brown ; and, upon close inspection, 
the spots upon it can be seen of a pure black. This 
species is more dreaded by the inhabitants of those 
countries than the other ; and it is said always to 
attack man wherever it may encounter him. 



ACKES OF EGGS. 



313 



There was no danger from the turtles, as Guapo 
assured every body ; but the fright had chased away 
sleep, and they all lay awake for some time, listening 
to Guapo's account of these singular creatures, which 
wc . shall translate into our own phraseolo gyi 
(These large turtles, which in other parts of South 
[America are called " arraus," or simply " tortugas," 
lassemble every year in large armies from all parts 
of the river. Each one of these armies chooses for 
itself a place to breed — some sandy island or great 
sand bank. This they approach very cautiously, ly- 
ing near it for some days, and reconnoitring it with 
only their heads above the water. They then crawl 
ashore at night in vast multitudes, just as the party 
saw them, and each turtle, with the strong, crooked 
claws of her hind feet, digs a hole for herself in the 



314 



sana. These holes are three feet in diameter and 
two deep. In this she deposits her eggs, — from 
seventy to one hundred and twenty of them, — each 
egg being white, hard shelled, and between the size 
of a pigeon's and pullet's. She then covers the whole 
with sand, levelling it over the top so that it may 
look like the rest of the surface, and so that the 
precious treasure may not be found by vultures, 
jaguars, and other predatory creatures. When this 
is done the labor of the turtle is at an end. The 
great army again betakes itself to the water, and 
scatters in every direction. The sun, acting upon 
the hot sand, docs the rest ; and in less than six 
weeks the young turtles, about an inch in diameter, 
crawl out of the sand and at once make for the 
water. They are afterwards seen in pools and lakes, 
where the water is shallow,. far from the place where 
they have been hatched ; and it is well known that 
the first years of their life are not spent in the bed 
of the great river. How they find these pools, or 
whether the mothers distinguish their own young and 
conduct them thither, as the crocodiles and alligators 
do, is a mystery. With these last the thing is more 
easy, as the crocodile mothers deposit their eggs in 



separate places, and each returns for her young when 
they are hatched, calls them by her voice, and guides 
them to the pool where they are to remain until part- 
ly grown. But among the thousands of little turtles 
hatched at one place and time, and that seek the 
water all together, how would it be possible for the 
turtle mother to distinguish her own young ? Yet an 
^old female turtle is frequently seen swimming about^ 



315 



with as many as a hundred little ones after her. 
Now, are these her own ? or are they a collection 
picked up out of the general progeny ? That is an 
undetermined question. It would seem impossible 
that each turtle mother should know her own young; 
yet amidst this apparent confusion there may be 
some maternal instinct that guides her to distin- 
guish her own offspring from all the rest. Who 
can say ? 

It is not often, however, that the turtle is permitted 
to have offspring at all. These creatures are annual- 
ly robbed of their eggs in millions . They have, 
many enemies, but man is the chief.y When a turtle 



hatching-place is discovered, the Indians assemble, 

and, as soon as all the eggs h ave been dep osited, 

they uncover and collect them. [They eat them ; bufl 

'that is not the principal use to which they are put.x 

It is for the making of, oil, or " tortoise butter," they 

I are collected. The eggs are thrown into a large 

f trough, or canoe, where they are broken up with a 

.wooden spade a nd stirred about for a while. / They 

then remain exposed to the sun until the oily part 

collects on the surface, which is then skimmed off 

and well boiled. The " tortoise butter " is now made, 

and, after being poured into earthen jars, or bottles, 

(bolijas,) it is ready for market. The oil is clear, 

of a pale-yellow color, and some regard it as equal 

to the best olive oil, both for lamps and for cooking. 

Sometimes, however, it has a putrid smell, becnuse 

many of the eggs are already half hatched before 

the gathering takes place. 

What would be the result were these eggs not 

316 



gathered by the Indians ?J Terhaps in the different 
/rivers of South America more than a hundred mil- 
lions of them are deposited every year. In the Ori- 
noco alone, in three principal hatching-places, it has 
been calculated that at least thirty-three millions are 
^annually destroyed for the making of tortoise butter., 
Fancy, then, one hundred millions of animals, each 
of which grows to the weight of fifty or sixty pounds, 
being produced every year, and then the increase in 
production which these would make if left to them- 
selves ! Why, the rivers would be crowded ; and it 
would be true whatj old Father Gumilla once asserted,] 
^that " it would bo as difficult to count the grains of] 



418 



the] 

:ins 



sand on the shores of the Orinoco as to count 
immense number of tortoises that inhabit its margins 
and waters. Were it not for the vast consumption 
of tortoises and their eggs, the river, despite its great 
magnitude, would be unnavigablc ; for vessels would 
be impeded by the enormous multitude of the tor- 



toises."/ 



But Nature has provided against this " over-popu- 
lation " of the turtles by giving them a great many 
enemies. The jaguars, the ocelots, the crocodiles, 
the cranes, and the vultures all prey upon them ; and 
perhaps if man were to leave them alone the result 
would be, not such a great increase in the number of 
the turtles, but that the creatures who prey upon 
th em would come in for a larger share. 

jThc "carapa," or arrau turtle, is, when fullgrown,^ 
forty or fifty pounds in weight. It is of a dark-green] 
color above, and orange beneath, with yellow feet j 
[There are many other species of fresh-water turtles) 



317 



in the rivers of South America ; but these breed scp- \ 
arately, each female choosing her o wn place, and/ 
making her deposit alone, f Indeed, some of the 



smaller species, as the " tcrekay," are more es- 
teemed both for their flesh and eggs ; but, as a large 
quantity of these eggs is never found together, they 
are not collected as an article of trade, but only to 
be roasted and eaten. The white does not coagulate 
in roasting orboiling, and only the yolk is eaten ; but 
that is esteemed quite as palatable as the eggs of the 
common fowl. The flesh of all kinds is eaten by 
the Indians, who fry it in pots, and then pour it, with 
its own oil, into other vessels, and permit it to cool. 
When thus prepared, it will keep for a long time, 
and can be taken out when required for use. 

Most of the above particulars were communicated 
by Guapo; and when he had finished talking all the 
others went to sleep, leaving Guapo to his midnight 
vigil. 



318 



CHAPTER XLIV. 



A FIGHT BETWEEN TWO VERY SCALY CREATURES. 

When they awoke in the morning they found Guapo 
busy over the fire. He had already been at the 
turtles' nests, and had collected a large basketful of 
the eggs, some of which he was cooking for break 
fast. In addition to the eggs, moreover, half a dozen 
large turtles lay upon their backs close by. The 
flesh of these Guapo intended to scoop out and fry 
down, so as to be carried away as a sort of stock of 
preserved meat; and a very excellent idea it was. 
He had caught them during his watch as they came 
out of the water. 



All the turtles had gone off, although this is not 
always ihc case ; for frequently numbers that have 
not finished covering their eggs during the night may 
be seen hard at work in the morning, and so intent 
on it that they do not heed the presence of their 
worst enemies. These the Indians denominate "mad 
torto|ses." j"" 



This morning, however, no " mad tortoises " were 



t o be seen; butw vnen our travellers cast their eyes 
along the beach they saw quite a number that ap- 
peared to bo turned upon t heir backs just like those 
that Guapo had capsized, j They were at some dis- 



319 

tance from the camp ; but curiosity prompted our 
travellers to walk along the beach and examine them. 
Sure enough there were nearly a dozen large tor- 
toises regularly laid on their backs and unable to 
stir ; but, besides these, [ there were several tortoise/ 
shells out of which the flesh had been freshly scooped ; 
and these were as neatly cleaned out as if the work 
had been done by an anatomist. All this would have, 
been a mystery but for the experience of Guapo; but 
Guapo knew it was the jaguar that had turned the 
tortoises on their backs, and that had cleaned out and 
eaten the flesh from the empty shells. 

Now, it is no easy thing for a man, provided with 
the necessary implements, to separate the flesh of a 
tortoise from its shell ; and yet the jaguar, with his 
paw, can in a few minutes perform this operation 
most adroitly, as our travellers had full proof. All 
that they saw had been done that same night ; and it 
gave them no very pleasant feeling to know that the 
jaguar had been at work so near them. This animal, 
as Guapo said, in attacking the turtles, first turns them 
over, so as to prevent their escape ; for the "carapas" 
are of those tortoises that, once upon their bac ks on 
level ground, cannot right themselves again, j He 



then proceeds to tear out the flesh, and eats it at his 
leisure. Oftentimes he capsizes a far greater num- 
ber than he can eat, and even returns to the spot to 
have a second meal of them ; but frequently the 
Indians wandering along the river find the tortoises 
he has turned over, and of course make an easy 
capture of them. 

350 Would it not glance 

from the shell even should he succeed in hitting it 
u nder water ? Surely it would. 



^.s they stood whispering their conjectures to one 
Mother, they observed Guapo, to their great astonish- 
ment, pointing his arrow upward, and making as if 
he was going to discharge it in the air! This he, inj 
fact, did do a moment after; and they would have 
been puzzled by his apparently strange conduct had 
they not observed, in the next instant, that the arrow,] 



419 



after flying high up, came down again head foremost,/ 
Land stuck upright in the back of the turtle 1 J 

The turtle dived at once, and all of them expected 
to sec the upright arrow carried under water. What 
was their surprise as well as chagrin to see that it 
had fallen out and was floating on the surface I Of 
course the wound had only been a slight one, and the 
turtle would escape and be none the worse for it. 

But Guapo shared neither their surprise nor cha- 
grin. Guapo felt sure that the turtle was his, and 
said nothing, but, jumping into the canoe, began to 
paddle himself out to where the creature had been 
last seen. What could he be after ? thought they. 

As they watched him they saw that he made /or 
the floating arrow. " O ! " said they, " he is gone* to 
recover it." 

That seemed probable enough ; but, to their aston- 
ishment, as he approache d the weapon it took a start 
and ran awayjrom him ! ] Something below uTaggec" 



it along the water. That was clear ; and they began 
to comprehend the mystory. The head of the arrow 



351 



was still sticking in the shell of the turtle. It was} 
only the shaft that floated, and that was attached to] 
the head by a string. The latter had been but loosely j 
put on, so that the pressure of the water, as the Turtle/ 
dived, should separate it from the shaft, leaving thai 
shaft with its cord to act as a buoy and discover thej 
situation of the turtle, j 

Guapo, in his swift canoe, soon laid hold of the 
shaft, and, after a little careful manoeuvring, suc- 
ceeded in_Jandjn£jus_turth3lugl^ upon the 
bank. (A splendid prize it proved. It was a " jurara ' 
f tortoise — the " tataruga," or great turtle of the Por-j 
[tuguese ; and its shell wa s full th ree feet in diameter. 
JGuapo's mode of capturing the "jurara" is the 
same as that generally practised by the Indians of 
the Amazon, although strong nets and the hook are 
also used. The arrow is always discharged upwards, 
and the range calculated with such skill that it falls 
vertically on the shell of the turtle, and penetrates 
deep enough to stick and detach itself from the 
shaft. This mode of shooting is necessary, else the 
jurara could not be killed by an arrow, because it 
never shows more than the tip of its snoi.' above 
i water, and any arrow hitting it in a direct course 
(would glance harmlessly from its shell, f A gooi 



bowman among the Indians will rarely miss shooiingl 
in this way — long practice and native skill enabling j 
him to g uess withi n an inch of where his weaponj 
will falhj" 



356 



THE CLOSING CHAPTER. 



Almost every day they passed the mouth of some 
tributary river — many of these appearing as large 



as the Amazon itself, ft Our travellers were struck^ 1 
'with a peculiarity in relation to these rivers — that 
is, their variety of color. Some were whitish, with 
a tinge of olive, like the Amazon itself; others 
were blue and transparent; while a third kind had 
waters as black as ink. Of the latter class is the 
great river of the Rio Negro, which, by means of a 



857 



/tributary, (the Cassiquiarc,) joins the Amazon with 

[the Orinoco. 

^ Indeed, the rivers of the Amazon valley have been 
classed into white, blue, and Hack. Red rivers, such 
as are common in the northern division of the Amer- 
ican continent, do not exist in the valley of the 

.Amazon. 

p There appears to be no other explanation for this 
difference in the color of rivers, except by supposing 
that they take their hue from the nature of the soil 
through which these channels run. 

But the white rivers, as the Amazon itself, do not 
appear to be of this hue merely because they arc 
" muddy." On the contrary, they derive their color, 
or most of it, from some impalpabl e _substance held^ 
in a state of irreducible solution. ; This is proved 



from the fact, that even when these waters enter a 

reservoir, and the earthy matter is allowed to settle, 

they still retain the same tinge of yellowish olive. 

(There are some white rivers, as the Rio BrancoJ 

\whose waters are almost as white as milk itself. ] 

The blue rivers of the Amazon valley are those 
with clear transparent waters, and the courses of these 
lie through rocky countries, where there is little or no 

al luvium to render them turbid. 

^./The black streams are tho most remarkable of all.] 
These, when deep, look like rivers of ink ; and when J 
the bottom can be. seen, which is usuall y a sandy one, 
the sand has the appearance of gold.fr Even when 



' lifted in a vessel, the water retains its inky tinge, and 
J resembles that which may be found in the pools of 
Ipeat bogs. It is a general supposition in South Amer-y 

358 



ica that the black-water rivers get their color from the 
extract of sarsaparilla roots growing on their banks. 
It is possible the sarsaparilla roots may have some- 
thing to do with it, in common with both the roots and 
leaves of many other vegetables. No other explana- 
\ tion has yet been found to account for the dark color 
J of these rivers, except the decay of vegetable sub- 
/ stances carried in their current ; and it is a fact, that 
I all the black-water streams run through the most 
I thickly-wooded regions. 

y A curious fact may be mentioned of the black riv- 
iere ; that is, that mosquitoes — the plague of tronical 
I America — are not found on their banks. ^ 



420 



THE 



HUNTERS' FEAST; 



CONVERSATIONS 



AROUND THE CAMP-FIRE. 



BY OAPT. MAYNE REED, 



iOT«o» or "m lifti nsonu," "twi hut ■narm," m 



SH(t& Sljjt (BtiginsI »nCjns, Sngtcitfr is *• *«• 



NEW YORK: 
DE WITT A DAVENPORT, PUBLISHERS, 

180 * 1«» NA8BAO 8TB11T. flgggl 



42 



THE PASSENGER PIGEONS 



The beech (Fagus sylvatica) is one of the most beautiful of 
American forest trees. Unlike most of the others, its bark is 
smooth, without fissures, and often of a silvery hue. Large 
beech trees standing by the path, or near a cross road, are often 
seen covered with names, initials, and dates. Even the Indian 
often takes advantage of the bark of a. beech tree to signaliso 
his presence to his friends, or commemorate some savage exploit. 
Indeed, the beautiful column-like trunk seems to invite the knife, 
and many a souvenir is carved upon it by the loitcriug wayfarer. 



It does not, however, invite the axe of the settler. On the con- 1 
trary, the bcechen woods often remain untouched, while others 
fall around them — partly because these trees are not unusually 
the indices of the richest soil, but more from the fact that clear- 
ing a piece of beech forest is no easy matter. The green logs 
do not burn so readily as those of the oak, the elm, the maple, 
or poplar, and hence the necessity of "rolling" them off the 
ground to J)e cleared — a seri ous thin g w here labour is scarce 
and dear. 



fe wero riding silently along, when all at once our ears were 
assailed by a strange noise. It resembled the clapping of a 



thousand pairs of hands, followed by a whistling sound, as if a 
strong wind had set suddenly in among the trees. Wo all knew 
well enough what it meant, and the simultaneous cry of 
"pigeons," was followed by half a dozen simultaneous cracks 
from the guns of the party, and several bluish birds fell to the 
ground. We bad stumbled upoa a feeding-place of the passen- 
ger-pigeon (Columba migratoria), 

43 

The "passenger" is less in size than the house pigeon. In 
the air it looks not unlike the kite, wanting the forked or " swal- 
low " tail. That of the pigeon is cuneiform. Its colour is best 
described by calling it a nearly uniform slate. In the male the 
colours are deeper, and the neck-feathers present the same 
changeable hues of green, gold, a nd purple-crimson, generally 
observod In birds of this species, fit is onlr in the woods, and] 

twhen freshly caught or killed, that these brilliant tints can be I 
seen to perfection. They fade in captivity, and Immediately efterj 

44 



the bird has been shot. They seem to form part of its life and 
liberty, and disappear when it is robbed of either. I have often 
thrust the wild pigeon, freshly killed, into my game-bag, glit- 
tering like on opal. I have drawn it forth a few hours after of 
a dull leaden hue, and altogether unlike the same bird. 

As with all birds of this tribe, the female is inferior to the 
male, both in size and plumage. The eye is less vivid. Iu the 
male it is of the most brilliant fiery orange, inclosed in a well- 
defined circle of red. The eye is in truth its finest feature, and; 
I never fails to strike the beholder with admiration. J 

The most singular fact in the natural history of the " passen- 
ger," is their countless nunbers. Audubon saw a flock that 
contained "one billion one hundred and sixteen millions of 
birds I" Wilson counted, or rather computed another flock of 
" two thousand two hundred and thirty millions I" These num- 
bers 6eem incredible. I have no doubt of their truth. I have 
no doubt that they are under rather than over the numbers 
actually seen by both these naturalists, for both made most 
liberal allowances in their calculations. ^g 

With so many enemies, one would think that the "passengers" 
would soon be exterminated. Not so. They are too prolific for 
that. Indeed, were it not for these enemies, they themselves 
would perish for want of food. Fancy w hat it takes to feed 
them 1 | The flock seen by Wilson would require eighteen mi 



3 

n-/ 



lion bushels of grain every day I — and it, most likely, was on 
one of many such th at at the time were traversing the vast con 
tinent of America. { Upon what do they feed ? it will be asked. 
Upon the fruits of the great forest — upon the acorns, the nuts 
of the beech, upon buck-wheat, and Indian corn ; upon many 
species of berries, such as the huckleberry {whortleberry), the 
hackberry (Celtis crassifolia), and the fruit of the holly. Iu the 
northern regions, where these aro scarce, the berries of the juni- 
per tree (Junipcrus communis) form the principle food. On tho 
other hand, among the southern plantations, they devour greedily 
the rice, as well as the nuts of the chestnut-tree and several spe- 
cies of oaks. But their staple food is the beechnut, or " mast " 
as it is called. Of this the pigeons are fond, and fortunately it 
exists in great plenty. In the forests of Western America there 
are vast tracts covered almost entirely with tho beech-tree. 



58 



J The cougar is well 



| known to frequent the great roosts of the passenger-pigeon, and 
^Is fond of the flesh of these bird?. \ 



3 



61 



421 



CHAPTER VII, 



THE COUGAR. 



64 



r-taihfcft 
" wild 



{The cougar ( Felis concolor) is the only indigenous loug 
cat in America north of the parallel of 30 degrees. The 
cats" so called, are lynxes with short tails ; and of these there 
are three distinct species. But there is only one true represen- 
tative of the genus Felis, and that is the animal in question. 
*p This has received many trivial appellations. Among Anglo- 
American hunters, it is called the panther — in their patois, 
" painter." In most parts of South America, as well as in 
Mexico, it receives the grandiloquent title of " lion," (lean), 
and in the Peruvian countries is called the "puma," or "poma." 
Tho absence of stripes, such as thoso of the tiger — or spots, as 
upon tho leopard— or rosettes, as upon the jaguar, have sug- 
gested tho namo of the naturalists, concolor. Discolor was for- 
merly in use ; but the other has been generally adopted. 
p There are few wild animals so regular in their colour as tho 
cougar : very little variety has been observed among different 
specimens. Some naturalists speak of spotted cougars — that is, 
having spots that may be seen in a certain light. Upon young 
cubs, such markings do appear ; but they are no longer visible 
on the fnll-growu animal. The cougar of mature age is of a 
tawny red colour, almost uniform over the whole body, though 
somewhat paler about the face and the parti underneath. Tbii 






62 



| colour is not exactly the tawny of the lion ; it is more of a red-) 

I dish hue — nearer to what is termed calf-coloar. { 

The cougar is far from being a well-shaped creature : it 
appears disproportioued. Its back is long and hollow ; and its 
tail docs not taper so gracefully as in some other animals of tho 
cat-kind. Its legs are short and stout ; and although far from 
clumsy in appearance, it does not possess the graceful tournure 
of body so characteristic of some of its congeners. Though con- 
sidered the representative of the lion in the New World, its 
resemblance to the royal beast is but slight ; its colour seems to 
be the only title it has to such an honour, f For the rest, it is] 

Imuch more akin to the tigers, jaguars, and true panthers. Cou-j 
bars are rarely more than six feet in length, including the t ail, 

/whi ch is usually about a third of that measurement. 1 

The range of the animal is very extensive. It is known from 
Paraguay to the Great Lakes of North America. In no part 
of either continent is it to be seen every day, because it is for 
the most part not only nocturnal in its activity, but one of those 
fierce creatures that, fortunately, do not exist in large num- 
bers. Like others of the genus, it is solitary in its habits, and 
at the approach of civilization betakes itself to the remoter 
parts of the forest. Hence the cougar, although found in all 
of the United States, is a rare animal everywhere, and seen 
only at long intervals in the mountain valleys, or in other dim- 
cult places of the forest. The appearance of a cougar is suffi- 
cient to throw any neighbourhood into an excitement similar to 
that which would bo produced by the chase of a mad-dog. 

It is a splendid tree-climber. It can monnt a treo with tho 
agility of & cat ; and although so large an animal, it climbs by 
means of its claws — not by hugging, after tho manner of the 
bean and opossums. While climbing a tree its claws can be 
heard crackling along the bark as it mounts upward. It some- 



o cougar is called a cowardly auimal : somo naturalist* 
• even assort that it will not venture to attack man. This is, to 
say the least, a singular declaration, after tho numerous well- 
attested instancos in which men have been attacked, and oven 
killed by cougars. Thero are many such yi tho history of early 
settlement in America. To say that cougars ore cowardly now 
when found in the United States— to soy thoy are shy of man, 
and will not attack him, may be true euough. Strange if the 
experience of 200 years hunting, and by such huutors too, did 
not briug thorn to that. We may safely believe, that if the 
lions of Africa were plact d in the same circumstances, a very 
similar shyness and dread of the upright biped would soon 
exhibit itself. What all theso creatures — bears, cougars, lynxes, 
wolves, and even alligators — are now, is no criterion of their 
past. Authentic history proves that their courage, at loost so 
far as regards man, has changed altogether since they first heard 
tho sharp detonation of the deadly rifle. Even contempora- 
neous history domonstratos this. In many parts of South America, 
both jaguar and cougar attack man, and numerous are the 
deadly encounters thoro. In Poru, on the eastern declivity of 
the Andes, large settlements and oven villages have been aban- 
doned sol ely on acc ount of the p erilous proximity of those fierce 
anim als. ["" ' '■ ~TZ """" " — — — — J 

" 65 

Tho scream of tho cougar is a common phrase. It is' not 
very certain that tho creature is addicted to the habit of scream- 
ing, although noises of this kind board in the nocturnal forests 
have been attributed to him. Hunters, however, have certainly 
never hoard him, and they believe that the scream talked about 
proceeds from one of tho num erous species of owls that inhabit 
the deep forests of A merica, f At short intervals, the cougar 
does make himself heard in a note which resembled somewhat * 
deep-drawn sigh, or as if one were to utter with an extremely j 
guttural expression the syllables " Oo-oo," or "Cougar." Ii tfc j 
from that that he derives his triviolnome if) 



76 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE MUSQUASH. 



The " muskrat" of the States is the musquash of the fur-trad- 
ers (Fiber zibethicus) . He is called muskrat, from his resem- 
blance to the common rat, combined with the musky odour 
which he emits fro» glands situated near the anus. MuBquash 
is said to be an Indian appellative — a strange coincidence, as 
the word "musk" is of Arabic origin, and "musquash" would 
seem a compound of the French musque, as the early Canadian 
fur-traders were French, or of French descent, and fixed the 
nomenclature of most of the fur-bearing animals of that region. 
Naturalists have nsed the name of " Musk Beaver," on account 
of the many points of resemblance which this animal bean to 
the true beaver (Carter fiber). Iudeed, they seem to be of the 
same genus, and so Linnaeus classed them 77 

In form the muskrat differs but little from the beaver. It is 
a thick, rounded, aud flat-looking animal, with blunt nose, short 
ears almost buried in the fur, stiff whiskers like a ca t, short legs 
and neck, small dark eyes, and sharply-clawed feet, f The hinder 
ones are longest, aud are half-webbed. Thoso of the beaver are 
full-webbed. 

There is a curious fact in connection with the tails of these 



fon 



422 



fanimals. Both arc almost naked of hair, and covered with 
" scales," and both are flat. The tail of tho beaver, and the uses 
it makes of this appendage, are things known to every one. 
Every one has>rcad of its trowel-shape and use, its great breadth, 
thickness, and weight, and its resemblance to a cricket-bat. The 
tail of the muskrat is also naked, covered with scales, and com- 
pressed or flattened ; but instead of being horizontally so, as 
with tho beaver, it is the revcrso ; and the thin edges are in a 
vertical plane. The tail of the former, moreover, is not of the 
trowel-shape, but tapers like that of the common rat. Indeed, 

I its resemblance to the house-rat is so great as to render it a 

[somewhat disagreeable object to look upon. 
} Tnil and all, the muskrat is about twenty inches in length ; 
'and its body is about half as big as that of a beaver. It pos- 
sesses a 'strange power of contracting its body, so as to make it 
appear about half its natural size, and to enable it to pas's through 
a chink that animals of much smaller dimensions could not enter. 



Its colour is reddish-brown above, and light-ash underneath. 
78 

There are eccentricities, however, in this respect. Specimens 
have been found quite black, as also mixed and pure white. 



The fur is a soft, thick down, resembling that of the beaver, but 
not quite so fine. There are long rigid hairs, red-coloured, that 
over-top the fur ; and these are also sparely scattered over the 
tail. 

< The habits of the muskrat are singular — perhaps not less so 
than those of his " cousin " the beaver, when you strip the his- 
tory of the latter of its many exaggerations. Indeed the 
former animal, in the domesticated state, exhibits much greater 
intelligence than the latter. ] 



Like the beaver, it is a water animal, and is only found where 
water exists ; never among the dry hills. Its " range " extends 
over the whole continent of North America, " wherever grass 
grows or water runs." It is most probable it is an inhabitant of 
the Southern Continent, but the natural history of that country 

is stil l but hal f told. ■ 

(Unlike the beaver, the race of the muskrat is not likely soot?* 
Uo .become extinct. The beaver is now found in America, only 
in the remotest parts of the uninhabited wilderness. Although 
formerly an inhabitant of the Atlantic States, his presence 
there is now unknown ; or, if occasionally met with, it is no 
longer in tho beaver dam, with its cluster of social domes, but 
only as a solitary creature, a " terrier beaver," ill-featured, 
shaggy in coat, and stunted in growth. 

The muskrat, on the contrary, still frequents the settlements. 
Thero is hardly a creek, pond, or watercoorse, without one or 
more families having an abode upon its banks. Part of tho 
year the muskrat is a social animal ; at other seasons it is soli- 
tary. The male differs bnt little from the female, though he is 
somewhat larger, and better furred. J 

s^In e arly spring commences the season of his loves. I His 
musky odour is then strongest, and quite perceptible in the 
neighbourhood of his haunt. He takes a, wife, to whom he li 

79 
for ever after faithful ; and it is believed the connection con- 
tinues during life. After the "honeymoon" a burrow is made 
in the bank of a stream or pond ; usually in some solitary and 
secure spot by the roots of a tree, and always in such a situation 
that the rising of the water cannot reach the neBt which is con- 
structed within. fThe entrance to this burrow is frequently! 



under water, so that it is difficult to discover it. The nest 
within is a bed of moss or soft grasses. la this the female brings 
forth five or six " cubs," which she nourishes with great care, 
training them to her own habits. The male takes no part in 
their education ; but during this period absents himself, and 
wanders about alone. In autumn the cabs are nearly full grown, 
and able to " take care of themselves." The " old father " now 
joins the family party, and all together proceed to the erection 
of winter quarters. They forsake the " home of their nati- 
vity," and build a very different sort of a habitation. The favo- 
rite site for their new house, is a swamp not likely to freeze to 
the bottom, and if with a stream running through it, all the better. 
By the side of this stream, or often on a little islet in the midst, 
they construct a dome-shaped pile, hollow within, and very 
much like tho houso of tho beaver. Tho materials used aro grass 
and mud, tho latter being obtained at tho bottom of the swamp 
or stream. Tho entrance to this houso is subterranean, and con- 
sists of one or moro galleries debouching under the water. la 
situations whero there is danger of inundation, tho floor of the 
interior is raised higher, and frequently terraces aro made to 
admit of a dry seat, in case tho ground-floor should get flooded. 



Of course there is frco egrcRs and ingress at all times, to permit 
the animal to go after its food, which consists of plants that 

grow in t ho water close at hand. , 

(The house being completed, and the cold weather having set 

•in, the whole family, parents and all, enter it, and remain there 

during the winter, going out only at intervals for necessary pur- 

p oses. In spring they desert this habitation and never return to it 

80 

Of course they are warm enough during winter while thus housed, 
even in the very coldest weather. The heat of their own bodies 
would make them so, lying as they do, huddled together, and 
sometimes on the top of one another, but the mud walls of their 
habitations are a foot or more in thickness, and neither frost nor 
rain can penetrate within. 

Now, a curious fact has been observed in connection with the 
houses of these creatures. It shows how nature has adapted 
them to the circumstances in which they may be placed. By 
philosophers it is termed " instinct ;" but in our opinion it is the 
same sort of instinct which enables Mr. Hobbs to pick a 

" Chubb " lock. It is this :— 

^In southern climates — in Louisiana, for instance — the swamps 
and rivers do not freeze over in winter. There the muskrat 
does not construct such houses as that described, but is con- 
tented all the year with his burrow in the ba nks. He can go \ 
forth freely and seek his food at all seasons, { "*" 

In the north it is different. There for months the rivers are 
frozen over with thick ice. The muskrat could only come out under 
the ice, or above it. If the latter, the entrance of his burrow 
would betray him, and men with their traps and dogs, or other 
enemies would easily get at him. Even if he bad also a water 
entrance, by which he might escape upon the invasion of his 
burrow, he would drown for want of air: Although an amphi- 
bious animal, like the beaver and otter, he cannot live altogether 
under water, and must rise at intervals to take breath. The 
running stream in winter does not perhaps furnish him with his 
favorite food — the roots and stems of water-plants. These the 
swamp affords to his satisfaction ; besides, it gives him security 
from the attacks of men and preying animals, as tho wolverene 
and fisher. Moreover, his house in the swamp cannot be easily 



423 



approached by the hunter— man— except when tho ice becomes 
rery thick and strong. Then, indeed is the* season of peril for 
the muskrat, but own then he has loopholes of escape. 

81 
How cu nningly this creature adapts itself to its geograph ical 
situation I y ln tho extreme north—in the hvprrliorpun r^Trma 
f of the Hudson's Bny Company— lukes, rivers, and even springs 
freeze up in winter. The shallow marshes become solid ice, con 
gealed to their very bottoms. How is the muskrat to get unde 
water there ? Thus, then, he manages the matter : — 

Upon deep lakes, as soon as the ice becomes strong enough to 
bear his weight, he makes a hole in it, and over this he constructs 
his dome-shaped habitation, bringing the materials up through 
the hole, from the bottom of the lake. The house thus formed 
sits prominently upou the ice. Its entrance is iu the floor— the 
hole which has already been made— and thus is kept open during 
the whole season of frost, by the caro and watchfulness of the 
inmates, and by their passing const antly out and in to seek their 
^ food — the water-plants of the lake. / ' " ' 

This peculiar construction of the muskrat's dwelling, with its 
water-passage, would afford all the means of escapo from its 
ordinary enemies — the beasts of prey— and, perhaps, against 
these alone nature has instructed it to provide. But with all its 
cunning it is, of course, outwitted by the superior ingeuuity of 
its enemy — man. 

The food of the muskrat is varied. | Tt, lovpg tho mnt. nf co ^ 



r ral species of nympha, but its favourite is calamus root (calamus 
or acorus aromaticus). It is known to eat shellfish, and heaps of 
the shells of fresh-water muscles (unios) are often found near its 
retreat. Some assert that it eats fish, but tho same assertion 
is made with regard to the beaver. This point is by no means 
clearly made out ; and the closest naturalists deny it, founding 
their opposing theory, as nsnal, upon the teeth. ( For my part." 



I have but little faith in the " teeth," since I have known horses, 
hogs, and cattle greedily devour both fish, flesh, and fowl. 

92 MOSQUITOES AND THEIR ANTIDOTE. 

Tho old trapper, as beforo stated, was a victim of 
tho fiercest attacks, as was manifested by tho slapping which ho 
repeatedly administered to his' cheeks, and an almost constaut 
muttering of bitter imprecations. Ho knew a remedy, he Baid, 
in a " sartint weed," if ho could only " lay his claws upon it." 
Wo noticed that from timo to time as ho rodo along his eyes 
swept the ground in every direction. At length a joyous excla- 
mation told that ho had discovered tho " weed." 

"Thur's the darned thing at last," muttered he, as ho flung 
himself to the ground, and commenced gathering tho stalks of a 
small herb that grew plentifully about. It was an annual, with 
leaves very much of the sizo aud shapo of young garden box- 
wood, but of a much brighter green. Of course we all knew 
well enough what it was, for thero is not a villago "comm on" 
in tho Western Unitod States that is not covered with it, j It\ 

^was the well-known "peuny-royal " (Hedeoma pulegioides), not J 

[tho English herb of that naino, which is a species of mentha. ( 

Redwood also leaped from his horse, and sot to plucking the 
" weed." Ho too,' from experionco, knew its virtues. 

Wo all drew bridle, watching tho guides. Both oporatod in 
a similar manner, j llaving collected a handful of tho tenderest) 

f tops, they rnbbod them violently between their paluis- 

l *ndg 



^exposed skin of their necks and faces.^ Iko took two small 
bunches of tho stalks, crushed them undor his heel, and then 
stuck them beneath his cap, so that the ends hung down over 
his cheeks. This being done, he and his comrade mounted their 



horses and rode on 



93 



I 



Whether it is tho highly aromatic odour of the penny-royal 
that keeps off theso insects, or whether the juice when touched 
by them burns tho delicate nerves of their feet, I am unable to 
say. Certain it is they will not alight upon the skin which has 
been plentifully anointed with it. I have tried tho same experi- 
ment often sinco that time with a similar result, and in fact have 
never sinco travelled through a moRquito country without a pro- 
vision of tho " essence of penny-royal." This is better than tho 
herb itself, and can bo obtained from any apothecary. A single 
drop or two spilled in tho palm of tho hand is sufficient to rub 
over all tho parts exposed, and will often ensure sleep, where 
otherwise such a thing would bo impossible. I have often lain 
with my faco so smeared, and listened to tho sharp hum of the 
mosquito as it approachod, fancying that tho next moment I 
should feel its tiny touch, as it settled down upon my check, or 
brow. As soon, however, as it camo within tho influence of the 
penny-royal I could hear it suddenly tack round and wing its 
way off again, until its disagreeable "music" was no longer 
.heard. 

The only drawback in the uso of the penny-royal, lies in the 
burning sensation which the fluid produces upon the skin ; and 
this in a climate where the thermometer is pointing to 90° is no 
slight disqualification of the remedy. The uso of it is sometimes 
.little better than " Hobbson's choice." 



95 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE 'COON, AND HI3 HABITS. 



good for such service — and then passed tho latter over 



iratcu in 
cnderc8t| 
— rough! 
jver the | 



c: 



Foremost amongst the wild creatures of America in point ofl 
being generally known is the raccoon (Procyon lotor). None has ] 
a wider geographical distribution, as its " range " embrac es thej 
entire Continent from the Polar Sea to Terra del Fuego. ( Some 
naturalists have denied that it is found in South America. 
This denial is founded on the fact, that neither TJlloa nor Molina 
havo spoken of it. But how many other animals have these 
crude naturalists omitted to describe ? « q 

The raccoon is almost omnivorous. It eats poultry or wild 
fowl. It devours frogs, lizards, larvae, and insects without dis- 
tinction. It is fond of sweets, and is very destructive to tho 
sugar-cane and Indian corn of the planter. When the ear of 
the maize is young, or, as it is termed, " in the milk," it is very 
■weet. Then the raccoon loves to prey upon it. Whole troops 
at night visit the corn-fields and commit extensive havoc. 
These mischievous habits mako the creature many enemies, and 
in fact it has but few friends. It kills hares, rabbits, and 
squirrels when it can catch them, and will rob a bird's nest in 
the most ruthless manner. 1 It is particularly fond of shell-fish \ 
and tho unios, with which many of tho fresh-water lakes and 
rirers of America abound, form part of its food. Those it opens 
aa adroitly with Its claws as an oysterman could with his knifo. 
It is partial to the " soft-shel l " crabs and small t ortoises com-, 

mon in the American waters.! TT^a ,_, . , 

' 1U4 'Cooney nebber 

trees upon buttonwood — nebber — you oughter know bctter'n dat, 

ole fool I ' 



424 



" Abe's speech drew my attention to the tree, f I saw that it| 
fwas the American sycamore (Platanus Occidentalis), familiarly 
I known by the trivial name, ' buttonwood,' from the use to which ] 
jits wood in sometimes pnt.{ But why should the 'coon not 
* tree ' upon it. as well as any other f 

13 5 

J -- L *' TREED BY PECCARIES. 

Tho two species of peccaries, although so much aliko, never 
associate together, and do not seem to have any knowledge of a 
relationship existing between them. Indeed, what is very singu- 
lar, they arc never found in the same tract of woods. A district 
frequented by the one is always without the other. 



irci 
l an( 



The Collared Peccary is the species found in North America ; 
and of it we more particularly speak. It is met with when you 
approach the more southern latitudes westward of tho Mississippi 
River. In that great wing of the continent, to the eastward of 
this river, and now occupied by the United States, no such 
animal exists, nor is there any proof that it was ever known to 
exist there in its wild state. In the territory of Texas, it is a 
common animal, and its range extends westward to the Pa cific, 
and south throughout the remainder of the Continent.! 



As you proceed westwards, the line of its range rise* eon* 

116 

siderably ; and in New Mexico it is met with as high as the 
83rd parallel. This is just following the isothermal line, and 
proves that the peccary cannot endure the rigours of a scvero 
winter climate. It is a production of the tropics and the 
countries adjacent. 

Some naturalists assert that it is a forest-dwelling animal, and 
is never seen in opeu countries. Others, as Buffon, state that 
it makes its habitat in the mountains, never the low countries 
and plains ; while still others havo declared that it is never 
found in the mountains 1 



126 



CHAPTER XVI. 



A DUCK-SHOOTINQ ADVENTURE. 



During our next day's journey we again fell in with flocks of 
the wild pigeon, and our stock was renewed. We wero very 
glad of this, as wo were getting tired of the dry salt bacon, and 
another "pot-pie" from Lanty's cuisine was quite welcome. 
The subject of the pigeons was exhausted, and we talked no 
more about them. Ducks were upon tho table in a double 
tense, for during tho march we had fallen in with a brood of tho 
beautiful little summer ducks (Anas sponsa), and had succeeded 
Id shooting several of them. These little creatures, however, 
did not occupy our attention, but the far more celebrated 
species known as tho " canvas-back " (AnaivaUisnlria). 

Of the two dozen species of American wild-ducks, none has a 
wider celebrity than that known as the canvas-back ; even the 
eider-duck is less thought of, as the Americans caro little for 
beds of down. 127 

Like most of the water-birds of America, \tho canvas-back 1«J 
migratory. It proceeds in spring to the cold countries of the 
Hudson's Bay territory, and returns southward in October, 
appearing in immense flocks along the Atlantic shores. It does 
not spread over the fresh-water lakes of tho United States, but 
confines itself to thr ee or four well-known haunts, the principal 
of which is tho great \ Chesapeako Bay. * This preference for the! 
[Chesapeake Bay is easily acountcd for, as hero its favorite food/ 



is found in tho greatest abundance. Round the mouths of the 
rivers that run into this bay, there are extensivo shoals of 
brackish wator ; those favour the growth of a certain plant of 
the genus vallisneria — a grass-like plant, standing several feet 
out of tho wator, with deep green loaves, and items, and having a 
white and tendor root. On this root, which is of such a character 
as to have given the plant tho trivial name of " wild celery," the 
canvas-back feeds exclusively ; for wherover it is not to be found,, 
neither docs the bird make its appearance, j Diving for it, ana 
bringing it up in its bill, the canvas-back readily breaks off the 



. 



off the 

long lanceolate leaves, which float off, either to be eaten by ano- 
ther species — tho pochard — or to form immenso banks of wrack, 
that are thrown up against the adjacent shores. 

It is to tho roots of tho wild celery that the flesh of the can* 
vos-bock owes its esteemed flavour, causing it to be in each 
demand that very often a pair of these ducks will bring three 
dollars in tho markets of New York and Philadelphia. 



175 



CHAPTER XXI. 



THE BLACK BEAR OF AMERICA. 



The black or " American bear " ( Urtus Americanos) it one 
of the best known of his tribe. It is he that is oftenest seen in 
menageries and zoological gardens, for the reason, perhaps, that 
he is found in great plenty in a country of large commercial 
intercourse with other nations. Hence he is more frequently cap- 
tured and exported to all parts. 

Any one at a glance may distinguish him from the " brown 
bear " of Europe, as well as the other bears of the Eastern con- 
tinent — not so much by his colour (for he is brown too), as by 
his form and the regularity and smoothness of his coat. He 
may be as easily distinguished, too, from his congeners of North 
America— of which there are three — the grizzly ( U, ferox) the 
brown (aretut ?), and the " polar " (U. naritmtu). The hair 
' upon other large bears (the, polar excepted) is what may be 

176 

termed " tufty," and their forms are different, being generally 
more uncouth and " chunkier." ^Tho black beat) is, in fact, 
nearer to the polar in shape, as well as in the arrangement of 
his fur, — than to any other of the tribe. He is much smaller, 
however, rarely exceeding two-thirds the weight of large speci- 
mens of the latter. 

His colour is usually a deep black all over tie body, with a 
patch of rich yellowish red upon tho muzzle, where the hair is 
short and smooth. This ornamental patch is sometimes absent, 
and varieties of the black bear are seen of different colours. 
Brown ones are common in some parts, and others of a cinna- 
mon colour, and still others with white markings, but these last 
are rare. They are all of one species, however, the assertion of 
tome naturalists to the contrary notwithstanding. The proof is, 
that the black varieties have been seen followed by coloured 
cube, and vice vtrslt. 

The black bear is omnivorous — feeds upon flesh as well as fruit, 
nuts, and edible roots. Habitually his diet is not carnivo- 
rous, but he will eat at times either carrion or living flesh. We 
•ay living flesh, for on capturing prey he does not wait to kill it, 
•j most carnivorous animals, but tears and destroys it while still 
•creaming. He may be said to swallow some of his food alive I 

Of honey he is especially fond, and robs the bee-hive whenever 
it it accessible to him. It is not safe from him even in the top of 
a tree, provided the entrance to it is large enough to admit his 



425 



body ; and when it is not, he often contrives to make it so by 

means of his sharp claws. He has but little fear of the stings 

of the angry bees. His shaggy coat and thick hide afford him 

ample protection against such puny weapons. It is supposed 

that he spends a good deal of his time ranging the forest in 

■o arch of " bee tree s." 

[Of coarse he is a tree-climber — climbs by the " hug," not bj\ 

(means of his claws, as do animals of the cat kind ; and in get- 1 

[ting to the ground again descends the trunk, stem foremost, a»J 

177 



a hod-carrier would come down a ladder. I n this he again) 
differs from the felida.X 



The range of the black bear is extensive — in fact it may be 

said to be colimital with the forest, both in North and South 

America — though in the latter division of the continent, another 

species of large black bear exists, tho Ursus ornatus. In the 

northern continent the American bear is found in all tho wooded 

parts from the Atlantic to the Pacific, but not in tho open and 

prairie districts. There the grizzly holds dominion, though both 

of them range together in tho wooded valleys of tho Rocky 

Mountains. _ ^ „ 
190 

THE AMERICAN DEER. 

1 The hair of the American deerj is thickly set and smooth on 
the surface. In winter it grows longer and is of a greyish hue ; 
the deer is then, according to hunter phraseology, " in the grey." 
In the summer a new coat is obtained, which is reddish, or calf- 
coloured. The deer is then " in the red." Towards the end of 
August, or in autumn, the whole coat has a blue tinge. This is 
called " in the blue." At all times the animal is of a whitish 
appearance on the throat and b elly and inside s of the legs. 
The skin is toughest when " in the red," thickest " in the blue,"l 
and thinnest "in the grey." In the blue it makes the best) 

| bnckskin ,_and is, therefore most valu abl e when obtained in) 

^autumn.) 

The fawns of this species are beautiful little creatures ; they 
are fawn-coloured and showered all over with white spots, which 
disappear towards the end of their first summer, when they gra- 
dually get into the winter grey. 193 

^jThey are fond of salt, and repair in great numbers to the 
salines and salt springs, that abound in all parts of America. 
At theso they lick up quantities of earth along with the salt 
efflorescence, until vast hollows are formed in tho earth, termed, 
from this circumstauco, salt " licks." The consequence of this 
" dirt-eating " is, that the excrement of tho animal comes forth 
in hard pcllots ; and by seeing this, tho huntors can always tell 
when thoy aro in the neighbourhood of a " lick. "J 



The does produce in spring — in May or June, according to 
the latitude. They bring forth one, two, and very rarely throe 
fawns at a birth. Their attachment to their young is proverbial. 

The mothers troat them with tho greatest tenderness, and hide 
thorn while they go to feed. Tho bleating of tho fawn at once 
recalls tho mother to its side. Tho hunter often imitates this 
with success, using either bis own voice, or a "call," made out 
of a cane joint. An anecdote, told by Parry, illustrates thin 
maternal fondness : — " The mother, finding her young one could 
not swim as fast herself, was observed to stop repeatedly, so as 
to allow the fawn to come up with her ; and, having landed first, 
stood watching it with trembling anxiety as the boat chased it 
to the shore. She was repeatedly fired at, but remained immov- 



able, until her offspring landed in safety, when they both can- 
tered out of sight." The deer to which Parry refers is the small 
" caribou ;" but a similar affection exists between the mother 
and fawns of the common deer. 

218 THE GRIZZLY. 

/The geographical range of the grizzly bear is extensive. It is^ 
well known that the great chain of the Rocky Mountains com- 
mences on the shores of the Arctic Ocean, and runs southwardly 
through the North American continent. In these mountains, 
the grizzly bear is found, from their northern extremity, at least 
as far as that point where the Rio Grande makes its great bend 
towards the Gulf of Mexico. 

In the United States and Canada, this animal has never been 
seen In a wild state. This. is not strange. Tho grizzly bear has 
no affinity with the forest. Previous to the settling of these ter- 

Iritories, they were all forest-covered. The grizzly is rarely found 
under heavy timber, like his congener the black bear ; and unlike 
t he latter, he is not a tree-climber. J ^Pho black bear " hugs "" 
himself up a tree, and usually destroys his victim by compression. 
The grizzly docs not possess this power, so as to enable him to 
ascend a tree-trunk ; a nd for such a purpose, his hugo dull claws 
are worse than useless. [ His favourite haunts are the thickets of 
fCorylut tubus, and AmelancAien, under the shade of which he 
I make s _his lair, and upon the berries of which be partially snb- 
( sists. J He lives much by the banks of streams, hunting among 
tho willows, or wanders along the steep and ragged bluffs, where 
scrubby pine and dwarf cedar (Juniperus prostrata), with its 
rooting branches, forms an almost impenetrable underwood. In 
short, the grizzly bear of America is to be met with in situations 
very similar to those which are the favourite haunts of the 
African lion, which, after all, is not so much the king of the for- 
est, as of the mountain and the open plain. 

250 

HUNTING THE MOOSE. 

| The horus of the moose are a striking characteristicfl they are 
palinated or flattened oat like shovels, while along the edge rise 

251 
The horns are found only on the males, and attain their full 
size only when theso have reached their seventh year. In the 
yearlings appear two knobs, about an inch in length ; in two- 
year-olds, these knobs have become spikes a foot high ; in the 
third year they begin to palmate, and antlers rise along their 
edges ; and so on, uutil the seventh year, w hen they become 
fully developed. \ They are annually caducous, however, as with 

fthe common deer, so t hat these immense appendages are the 

(growth of a few weeks l[ "~ org 

" The trunk and branches of the striped maple are covered 
with a smooth green bark, longitudinally marked with light and 
dark stripes, by which the tree is easily distinguished from others, 
and from which it takes its name. It has other trivial names in 
different parts of the country. In New York state, it is called 
'dogwood;' but improperly so, as the real dog-wood (Cornus 
fiorida) is a very different tree. It is known also as ' false dog- 
wood,' and 'snake-barked maple.' The name moose-wood is 
commo n among the hunters and frontiers-men for reasons already 
iven. 1 Where the striped maple is indigenons, it is one of tho 
f&ni productions that announces tho approach of spring. Its 
I bads and leaves, when beginning to unfold, are of a roscato bno, 
and soon change to a Yellowish green . . . . / 



486 



THE YOUNG VOYAGEURS, 



BOY HUNTERS IN THE NORTH. 



CAPTAIN MAYNE REID, 

Aotbo* or "The Bot Hohiem." «Th« Diiibi Homi," ito. 



WITH TWELVE ILLUSTRATIONS BY W. HARVEY. 



BOSTON: 
TICKNOR, REED, AND FIELDS. 

K DCCC LIT. 



CUArTIB FAOK 

L THE FUR COUNTRIES 9 

II. THE YOUNG VOYAGEURS 17 

III. THE TRUMPETER SWAN AND BALD EAGLE, . 30 

IV. THE SWANS OF AMERICA, 44 

V. A SWAN-HUNT BY TORCHLIGHT, . . . .53 

VL " CAST AWAY," 04 

VII. A BRIDGE OF BUCKSKIN .70 

VIII. DECOYING THE "GOATS," ..-'.... 83 

IX. A "PARTRIDGE DANCE," 91 

X. BASIL AND THE BISON-BULL, 99 

XL THREE CURIOUS TREES, .106 

XIL HOW TO BUILD A BARK CANOE, . . . . 119 

XHL THE CHAIN OF LAKES, 198 

XIV. WAPITI, WOLVES, AND WOLVERENE, . . 133 

.XV. A PAIR OF DEEP DIVERS, 147 

XVL A GRAND SUNDAY DINNER 186 



XVII. THE MARMOTS OF AMERICA, . . . .168 

XVUL THE BLAIREAU, TAWNIES, AND LEOPARDS, 178 

XIX. AN ODD SORT OF DECOY-DUCK, ... 187 

XX. THE DUCKS OF AMERICA 900 

XXL THE SHRIKE AND THE HUMMING-BIRDS, . 909 

XXIL THE FISH-HAWK, BIS 

XXIIL THE OSPRAY AND HIS TYRANT, ... 939 

XXIV. THE VOYAGE INTERRUPTED, ... 831 

XXV. FISHING UNDER THE ICE, .... 837 

XXVI. AN ODD ALARM, . . . . . : . 943 

XXVIL ENCOUNTER WITH A MOOSE, . . . ' . 955 

XXVIII. LIFE IN A LOG-HUT, . '. ... 963 

XXIX TRAVELLING ON SNOW-SHOES, . ■ . .973 

XXX. THE BARREN GROUNDS, .... 980 

XXXL THE ROCK-TRIPE, 990 

XXXII. THE POLAR HARE AND GREAT SNOWY OWL, 898 

XXXIII. THE JUMPING MOUSE AND THE ERMINE, 309 

XXXIV. THE ARCTIC FOX AND WHITE WOLF, . J15 
XXXV. THE JERFALCON AND THE WHITE GROUSE, 325 

XXXVI. THE HARE, LYNX, AND GOLDEN EAGLE, 331 

XXXV1L THE "ALARM BIRD" AND THE CARIBOU, 338 

XXXVIII. A BATTLE WITH WOLVES, . ;...., ' ; -347 

XXXIX. END OF THE "VOYAGE," .. " . . w . 357 

9 CHAPTER I. 

THE FUR COUNTRIES. 

Boy reader, you have heard of the Hudson's Bay 
Company? Ten to one, you have worn a piece of 
fur, which it has provided for you ; if not, your pretty 
little sister has — in her muff,. or her boa, or as a 
trimming for her winter dress. Would you like to 
know something of the country whence come these 
furs ? — of the animals whose backs have been 
stripped to obtain them ? As I feel certain that you 
and I are old friends, I make bold to answer for you, 
Yes. Come, then ! let us journey together to the 
" Fur Countries ; " let us cross them from south to 
north. 

18 

Such is a large portion of the Hudson's Bay terri- 
tory. Most of the extensive peninsula of Labrador 
partakes of a similar character ; and there are other 
like tracts west of the Rocky Mountain range in the 
" Russian possessions." 

Yet these "Barren Grounds" have their denizens. 
Nature ha3 formed animals that delight to dwell there, 
and that are never found in more fertile regions. Two 
ruminating creatures find sustenance upon the mosses 
And lichens that cover their cold rocks : they are the 
caribou (reindeer) and the musk-ox. These, in their 
turn, become the food and subsistence of preying 



ereatures. The wolf, in all its varieties of gray, black, 
white, pied, and dusky, follows upon their trail. The 
" brown bear " — a large species, nearly resembling 
the " grizzly " — - is found only in the Barren Grounds ; 
and the great " Polar bear " come9 within their bor- 
ders, but the latter is a dweller upon their shore3 
alone, and finds his food a mong th e fin ny tribes of the 
seas that surround them. 1 In marshy ponds, existing 
here and there, the musk-rat (Fiber zibcthicus) builds 
his house, like that of his larger cousin, the beaver. 
Upon the waters edge he finds subsistence ; but his 
natural enemy, the wol verene (Gulp luscus), skulks in 
the same neighborhood./ The " Polar hare " lives upou 
the leaves and twigs of the dwarf birch-tree ; and this, 
transformed into its own white flesh, becomes the food 
of the Arctic fox. The herbage, sparse though it be, 

18 
does not grow in vain. The seeds fall to the earth, 
but they are not suffered to decay. , They are gathered 
by the little lemmings and meadow-mice (arvicola), 
who, in their turn, become the prey of two species of 
mustelidce, the ermine and vison weasels. Have the 
fish of the lakes no enemy? Yes — a terrible one 
in the Canada otter. The mink-weasel too, pursues 
them ; and in summer, the ospray, the great pelican, 
the cormorant, and the white-headed eagle. 

These are the fauna of the Barrel? Grounds. Man 
rarely ventures within their boundaries. The wretch- 
id creatures who find a living there are the Esqui- 
maux on their coasts, and a few Chippewa Indians in 
the interior, who hunt the caribou, and are known as 
«• caribou-caters." Other Indians enter them only in 
f ururaer, in search of game, or journeying from point 
to point ; and so perilous are these journeyings, that 
numbers frequently perish by the way. There are 
no white men in the Barren Grounds. The " Com- 
pany" has no commerce there. No fort is estab- 
lished in them ; so scarce are the fur-bearing animals 
of these parts, their skins would not repay the ex- 
p ense o f a " trading post." 

Jl-'ar different are the " wooded tracts " of the fur | 
'countries. These lie mostly in the southern andcen-j 
l ml regions of the Hudson's Bay territory, f " There 
arc found the valuable beaver, and the wolverene that 
| Toys upon it There dwells the American hare, 
with its enemy, the Canada lynx. There are the 
squirrels, and the beautiful martens (sables) that hunt 
litem from tree to tree. There are fo und the foxes 
of every variety, the red, the cross, and [the rare and/ 

14 



487 



highly-prized , silver fox (Vulpes argeni atus), whose) 
jhining skin sells for its weight in gold 1 f There, too, 
"the black bear ( Ursus Americanus) yields its fine 
coat to adorn the winter carriage, the holsters of the 
dragoon, and the shako of the grenadier. There the 
fur-bearing animals exist in greatest plenty, and many 



others whose skins are valuable in commerce, as the 
moose, the wapiti, and the wood-bison. 
16 
Having crossed the mountains, the fur countries 
extend westward to the Pacific. There you encoun- 
ter barren plains, treeless and waterless ; rapid rivers, 
that foam through deep, rock-bound channels j and a 
country altogether rougher in aspect, and more moun- 
tainous, than that lying to the east of the great chain. 
A warmer atmosphere prevails as you approach th©/ 
Pacilic, and in some places forests of tall trees cover 
the earth. In these are found most of the fur-bearing 
animals ; and, on account of the greater warmth of 
the climate, the true felidce — the long-tailed cats — 
here wander much farther north than upon the east- 
ern side of the continent. l Even so far north as the! 
| forests of Oregon, these appear in the forms of the/ 
^cougar ( Felis concolor) and the ounce (FeU» onza.)C^ 
lint it is not our intention at present to cross the 
Rocky Mountains. Our journey will lie altogether 
on the eastern side of that great chain. 
84 
In less than an hour the latter returned, carrying 
an animal upon his shoulders, which b oth the boys 
recognized as an old acquaintance, — fthe prong- 



horned antelope .(Antilope furcifer), so ca lled from 
the single fork or prong upon its horns. ) Norman 



I 



called it " a goat," and stated that this was its name 
among the fur-traders, while the Canadian voyageurs 
give it the title of " cabree." Lucien, however, knew 
the animal well. He knew it was not of the goat 
kind, but a true antelope, and the only animal of that 
genus found in North America. Its habitat is the 
prairie country, and at the present time it is not found 
farther east than the prairies extend, nor farther north 
either, as it is not a creature that can bear extreme 
cold, j In early times, however — ■ that is, nearly two 
(centuries -ago — it must have ranged nearly to the 
Atlantic shores, as Father Hennepin, in his Travels, 
speaks of " goats " being killed in the neighborhood 
of Niagar a, meaning no other than the prong-horned 
\antelopes.J The true wild goat of America is a very 
differentanimal, and is only found in the remote re- 
gions of the Bocky Mountains, 
85 
"flTbat Norman had shot, then, was an antelope ; 
»nd the reason why it is called " cabree " by the voy- 
ageurs, and " goat " by the fur-traders, is partly from 
its color resembling that of the common goat, but 
more from the fact, that along the upper part of its 
neck there is a standing mane, which does in -truth 
give it Bomewhat the appearance of the European 
goat Another point of resemblance lies in the fact, 
that the u prong-horns " emit the same disagreeable 
odor, which is a well-known characteristic of the goat 
gpecies. This proceeds from two small glandular 



openings that lie at the angles of the jaws, and ap- 
pear spots of a blackish brown color. 
114 
The pine3 cannot be termed trees of the tropica, 

115 

jet do they grow in southern and warm countries. In 
tbe Carolinas, tar and turpentine, products of the pine, 
are two staple articles of exportation ; and even under 
the equator itself, the high mountains are covered 
with pine-forests. But the pine is more especially the 
tree of a northern sylva. As you approach the Arctic 
circle, it becomes the characteristic tree. There it ap- 
pears in extensive forests, lending their p icturesque 
shelter to the snowy desolation of the earth. \ One spe- 
Jcies of pine is the very last tree that disappears as the 
I traveller, in approaching the Dole, takes his leave of 
/ the limits of vegetation, xms species is tne " wmte 
spruce " (Pinus alba), the very one which, along with 
the birch-tre e, had been pointed out by Norman to his 
companions. ^ 



438 



It was a tree not over thirty or forty feet high, 
with a trunk of less than & foot in thickness, and of a 
brownish color. Its leaves or " needles " were about 
an inch In length, very slender and acute, and of a 
bluish green tint. The cones upon it, which at that 
season were young, were of a pale green. When ripe, 
however, they become rusty-brown, and are nearly 
two inches in length. 

What use Norman would make of this tree in 
building his canoe, neither Basil nor Francois knew. 

H* There," continued he, 
pointing to a p iece of moist ground in the valley, — 
"there are some splendid birches, and there beside 
them is plenty of the epinette " (so the voyageurs term 
the white spruce). "It will save us many journeys 
if we go back and bring our meat to this place at 
once."J 



To this they all of course agreed, and started back 
to their first camp. They soon returned with the meat 
and other things, and having chosen a clean spot under 
a large-spreading cedar-tree, they kindled a new fire 
and made their camp by it — 

128 

In a few hours our voyageurs had passed through 
the low marshy country that lies around tbe mouth of 
the Red River, and the white expanse of the great 
Lake Winnipeg opened before them, stretching north- 
ward far beyond the range of their vision. Norman 
knew the lake, having crossed it before, but its aspect 
somewhat disappointed the Southern travellers. In- 
•tead of a vast, dark lake which they had expected to 
see, they looked upon a whitish muddy sheet, that 
presented but few attractive points to the eye, either 
in the hue of its water, or the scenery of its shore?. 



129 There 
i3 a belief among the hunters and voyageurs that this 
lake has its tides like the ocean. Such, however, is 
not the case. There is at times a rise and overflow 
of its waters, but it is not periodical, and is supposed 
to be occasioned by strong winds forcing the waters 
t owards a pa rticular shore. 



JLake Winnipeg is remarkable, as being in the very 
(cen 



centre of the North American Continent, and may be 
called the centre of the canoe navigation. From this 
point it is possible to travel by water to Hudson's Bay 
on the north-east, to the Atlantic Ocean on the east, to 
the Gulf of Mexico on the south, to the Pacific on 
the west, and to the Polar Sea on the n orth and north 
west. 



\ 



Considering that some of these distances are 

upwards of three thousand miles, it will be perceived 

that Lake Winnipeg holds a singular position upon 

the continent. 

134 SIX 

" There are few animals t hat h ave so mam 

as this, t it is called in different districts, or by" differ-} 



ent authors, elk, round-horned elk, American elk, $tag, 
red deer, gray moose, le biche, wapiti, and wewaskish. 
Naturalists have given not a few of their designations, 
as Cervus Canadensis, C . major , C. alcet, C. ttrongy- 
Jocerus, ice \ 

" Tou may ask, Why so many names ? I shall tell 
you. It is called ' elk ' because it was supposed by 
the ea rly colonists to be the same as the elk of Eu- 
rope. f Its name of * gray moose ' J3 a hunter appella- 
f tion, to distinguish it from the real moose, which the 
| s ame hunters know as the ' black moose.'/ ' Round- 
liorned elk ' is also a hunter name. ' Wewaskish,' or 

135 

« waskesse,' is an Indian name for the animal. ' Stag ' 
'comes from the European deer, so called, because this 
species somewhat resembles the stag; and 'red deer' 
is a name used by the Hudson Bay traders. ' Le 
biche' is another synonyme of French authors. 

all these names, I think that of ' wapiti,' which 
""our cousin has given, the best. The names of ' elk, " 
'stag,' and 'red deer,' lead to confusion, as th ere are 
other s pecies to which they properly belong,f all of 
" entirely different from the wapiti: I be- 
hove that this last name is now used by the best- 
informed naturalists. 

" In my opinion," continued Lucien, " the wapiti i» 
the noblest of all the deer kind. It possesses the fine 
form of the European stag, while it is nearly a third 
larger and stronger. It has all the grace of limb and 
motion that belongs to the common deer, while its 
towering horns give it a most majestic and imposing 
appearance. Its color during the summer is of a 
reddish brown, hence the name red deer ; ( but, indeed, 
the reddish tint upon the wapiti is deeper and richer 
than that of its European cousin. The wapiti, like 



other deer, brings forth its fawns in the spring. They 
are usually a male and female, for two is the number 
it produces. The males only have horns ; and they 
must be several years old before the antlers become 
full and branching. They fall every year, but not until 
February or March, and then the new ones grow out 
in a month or six weeks. During the summer the 
horns remain soft and tender to the touch. They are 
covered at this time with a soft membrane that looks 
like grayish velvet, and they are then said to be ' in 

138 

the velvet.' There are nerves and blood-vessels run- 
ning through this membrane, and a blow upon the ' 
horns, at this season gives great pain to the animal. 
When the autumn arrives, the velvet peals off, and 
they become as hard as bone. They would need to 
be, for this is the J rutting ' season, and the bucks fight 
furious battles with each other, clashing their horns 
together, as_ if they would break them to pieces. 



429 



Very often a pair of bucks, while thus contending/, 
'lock' their antlers, and being unable to draw them I 
apart, remain head to head until both die with hunger,/ 
or fall a prey to the prowling wolves. This is true\ 
not only of the elk, but also of the reindeer, the 
moose, and many other species of deer. Hundreds] 
of pairs of horns have been found thus ' locked,' and I 

I the solitary hunter has o ften surprised the deer in thisj 

^unpleasant predicament. ( 

" The wapiti utters a whistling sound, that can be 
heard far off, and often guides the hunter to the right 
spot In the rutting season the bucks make other 
noises, which somewhat resemble the braying of an 
ass, and are equally disagreeable to listen to. 

138 

"There are wolves at them," said Basil, after 
regarding them for a second or two. 

"That's odd," rejoined Norman. "Wolves don't 
often attack full-grown wapiti, except when wounded 
or crippled somehow. They must be precious hungry. 
What sort of wolves are they ? " 

To you, boy reader, this question may seem strange. 
You, perhaps, think that a wolf is a wolf, and there is 
but one kind. Suc h, however, is not the exact truth. 
r Tn America there are two distinct species of -wolves,] 
and of these two species there are many varieties,/ 
which differ so much in color and other respects, thatl 
Borne authors have classed them as so many distinct! 
species, instead of considering them mere varieties./ 



Whether they may be species or not is still a question 
among naturalists; but certain it is that two well- 
defined species do exist, which differ in size, form, 
™l or , and habits. ( These are the large or common 
(wolf ( Canis luvus Y and the barking or prairie wolf 
|(Cb»fo latrans).f The first species is the American 
representative of the common wolf of Europe ; ana 



139 

although an animal of similar nature and habits, it 
differs very much from the latter in form and appear- 
ance. It is, therefore, not the same, as hitherto sup- 
posed. This American wolf is found in greater or 
less numbers throughout the whole continent 



the northern regions it is very common, and is seen 
in at least five different varieties, known by the char- 
acteristi c names of black, pied, white , d usky, and grau 
wolves. 1 Of these the gray is the most numerous 



kind; but as I shall have occusion to speak of the 
large wolves hereafter, I shall say no more of them at 
present, but direct y our attention to the second and 

very di fferent species,(the prairie wolves\_ 

These are a full third smaller than the common 



J: 

gin 



kind. They are swifter, and go in larger packs. 



They bring forth their young in burrows on the open 
plain, and not among the woods, like the other species. 
They are the most cunning of American animals, not 
excepting their kindred the foxes. They cannot be 
trapped by any contrivance, but by singular ma- 
noeuvres often themselves decoy the over-curious an- 
telope to approach too near them. When a gun is 
fired upon the prairies they may be seen starting up 
on all sides, and running for the spot in hopes of 
coming in for a share of the game. Should an ani- 
mal — deer, antelope, or buffalo — - be wounded, and 
escape the hunter, it is not likely to escape them also. 
They will set after it, and run it down, if the wound 
has been a mortal one. On the- other hand, if the 
wound has "been orily slight, and is not likely in the 
end to cripple the animal, the wolves will not stir 
from the spot. This extraordinary sagacity often tells 

140 
the hunter whether it is worth Lis while to follow the 
game he has shot at ; but in any case he is likely to 
arrive late, if the wolves set out before him, as a 
dozen of them will devour the largest deer in a few 
minutes' time. The prairie wolves as well as the 
others follow the herds of buffaloes, and attack the 
gravid cows and calves when separated from the rest. 
Frequently they sustain a contest with the bulls, 
when the latter are old or wounded, but on such occa- 
sions many of them get killed before the old bull be- 
comes their prey. 

^They resemble the common gray wolf in color, but 
there are varieties in this respect, though not so great 
as among the larger species. Their voice is entirely 
different, and consists of three distinct barks, ending 
in a prolonged howl. Hence the specific and usual 
name "barking- wolf" (C. latrans). They are found 
only in the western or prairie half of the continent, 
and thence west to the Pacific. Their northern 
range jb limited to the fifty-fifth parallel of latitude- 



but they are met with southward throughout Mexico, 
where they are co mmon enough, and known by the 
name of "coyote."/ ^ 



430 



■WOLVERENE. 



15S 



His gait is low 
and skulking, and his look bold and vicious. He 
walks somewhat like a bear, and his tracks are often 
mistaken for those of that animal. Ind ians and hunt- 
crs, however, know the difference well. I His hind fee 



are plantigrade, that is, they rest upon the ground 
from heel to toe ; and his back curves like the se"- 
ment of a circle. He is fierce and extremely vora-i 
eious — quite as much so as the " gl utton," of which' 
he is the American representative. \ No animal is 



more destructive to the small game, and he will also 
attack and devour the larger kinds when he can get 
hold of them ; but as he is somewhat slow, he can 
only seize most of them by stratagem. It is a com- 
mon belief that he lies in wait upon trees and rocks 
to seize the deer passing beneath. It has been also 
asserted that he places moss, such as these animals 
feed upon, under his perch, in order to entice thein 
within reach ; and it has been still further asserted, 
that the arctic foxes assist him in his plans, by hunt- 
ing the deer towards the spot where he lies in wait, 
thus acting as his jackals. These assertions have 
been made more particularly about his European 
cousin, the "glutton," about whom other stories are 
told equally strange — one of them, that he eats until 
scarce able to walk, and then draws his body through 
a narrow space between two trees, in order to relieve 
himself and get ready for a fresh meal. Buffon and 
others have given credence to these tales, upon the 
authority of one " Olaus Magnus," whose name, from 
the circumstance, might be translated " great fibber. 

153 
There is no doubt, however, that the glutton is one 
of the most sagacious of animals, and so, too, is the 
wolverene. The latter gives proof of this by many 
of his habits ; one in particular fully illustrates his 
cunning. It is this. The marten trappers of the 
Hudson Bay territory set their traps in the snow, 
often extending oyer a line of fifty miles. These 
traps are constructed out of pieces of wood found near 
the spot, and are baited with the heads of partridges, 
or pieces of venison, of which the marten (Mustela 
martes) is very fond. As soon as the marten seizes 
the bait, a trigger is touched, and a heavy piece of 
•wood, falling upon the animal, crashes or holds it fast. 



Now the wolverene enters the trap from behind, tears 
the back out of it before touching the bait, and thu3 
avoids the falling log ! Moreover, he will follow the 
tracks of the trapper from one to another, until he has 
destroyed the whole line. Should a marten happen 
to have been before him, and got caught in the trap, 
he rarely ever eats it, as he is not fond of its flesh. 
But he is not satisfied to leave it as he finds it. He 
usually digs it from under the log, tears it to pieces, 
and then buries it under the snow. The foxes, who 
are well aware of this habit, and who themselves 



I greedily eat the marten, are f requently seen following/ 
I him upon such excursions^ ! They arc not strong; 
enough to take the log from off the trapped animal, but 
from their keen scent can soon find it where the other 
has buried it in the snow. In this way, instead of 
their being providers for the wolverene, the reverse 
is the true story. Notwithstanding, the wolverene 
will eat them, too, whenever he can get his claws 

164 
upon them ; but as they are much swifter than he, 
this seldom happens. The foxes, however, are them- 
selves taken in traps, or more commonly shot by guns 
set for the purpose, with the bait attached by a strin^ 
to the trigger. Often the wolverene, finding the 
foxes dead or wounded, makes a meal of them before 
the hunter comes along to examine his traps and 
guns. The wolverene kills many of the" foxes while 
young, and sometimes, on finding their burrow, widens 
it with his strong claws, and eats the whole family in 
their nests. Even young wolves sometimes become 
his prey. He lives, in fact, on very bad terms with 
both foxes and wolves, and often robs the latter of a 
fat deer which they m ay have just killed, and are 
preparing to dine upon. | The beaver, however, is his 



favorite food, and but that these creatures can escape 
him by taking to the water — in which element he is 
not at all at home — he would soon exterminate their 
whole race. His great strength and acute scent 
enable him to overcome almost every wild creature 
of the forest or prairie. He is even said to b e a ful l 
match for either the panther or the black bear^] 



The wolverene lives in clefts of rock, or in hollow 
trees, where such are to be found ; but he is equally 
an inhabitant of the forest and the prairie. He is 
found in fertile districts, as well as in the most remote 
deserts. His range is extensive, but he is properly a 
denizen of the cold and snowy regions. In the south- 
ern parts of the United States he is no longer known, 
though it is certain that he once lived ther e when 
those countries were inhabited by the beaver. [ North 
(of latit ude 40° he ranges perhaps to the poleitselt, ft?J 
155 



traces of him have been found as far as man has yet 
penetrated. He is a solitary creature, and, like most 
predatory animals, a nocturnal prowler. The female 
brings forth two, sometimes thre e and four, at a birth.. 
The cubs are of a cream color,tand only when full- 



grown acquire that dark-brown hue, which in the ex- 
treme of winter often passes into black. The fur is 
not unlike that of the bear, but is shorter-haired, and 
of less value than a bear-skin. Notwithstanding, it 
is an artiele of trade with the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, who procure many thousands of the skins an- 

n ually. [ 

fThe Canadian voyageurs call the wolverene " car A 



431 



cnjou;" while among the Orkney and Scotch ser- 
vants of the Hudson's Bay Company he is oftener 
known as the " quickhatch." It is supposed that both 
these names are corruptions of the Cree word okee- 
coo-haw-gew (the name of the wolverene among the 
Indians of that tribe).) Many words from the same 



language have been adopted by both voyageurs and 
traders. ^ 

The boys, separating into pairs, walked off in dif- 
ferent directions. Lucien and his companion soon 
lighted upon the object of their search in the same 
wet bottom where they had procured the \Heracl e um.\ 
It was a branching shrub, not over two feet in height, 
with small leaves of a deep f^re en c olor above, hut 
whitish and woolly underneath, jit is a plant well 



known throughout most of the Hudson's Bay territory 
by the name of " Labrador tea-plant ; " and is so 
called because the Canadian voyageurs, and other 
travellers through these northern districts, often drink 
it as tea. It is one of the Ericacece, or heath tribe 
of the genus Ledum! - — though it is not a true heath, 
as, strange to say, no true heath is found upon the 
continent of America. 



There are two kinds of it known, — the " narrow-^ 
and " broad-leafed ; " and the former makes / 



leafed 



nil 

\the best tea. C But the pretty white flowers of the 
plant are better for the purpose than the leaves of 
either variety ; and these it was that were now gath- 
167 

ered by Lucien and Norman. They require to be 
dried before the decoction is made ; but this can be 
done in a short time over a fire ; and so in a short 
time it was done, Norman having parched them upon 
heated stones. Meanwhile Basil and Francois had 
obtained the sugar-water, and Lucien having washed 
his soup-kettle clean, and once more made his boiling 
stones red-hot, prepared the beverage ; and then it 
was served out in the tin cup, and all partook of it. 
Norman had drank the Labrador tea before, and was 
rather fond of it, but his Southern cousins did not 
much relish it. Its peculiar flavor, which somewhat 
resembles rhubarb, was not at all to the liking of 
Francois. All, however, admitted that it produced a 
cheering effect upon their spirits ; and, after drink- 
ing it, they felt in that peculiarly happy state of 
mind which one experiences after a cup of the real 
" Bohea." 

MARMOTS OF AMERICA.' 171 



"Are there not (many kinds of marmots; in, Amer- 
ica? I have heard so," said Francois.- 

This question was of course addressed to Lucien. 

" Yes," answered he. " The fauna of North 
America is peculiarly rich in species of these singular 
animals. There are thirteen kinds of them, well 



known to naturalists ; and there are even some va- 
rieties in these thirteen kinds that might almost be 
considered distinct species. I have no doubt, more- 
over, there are yet other species which have not been 
descrihed. ) Perhaps! a"";p'i"v there <"•" "" f less 



than twenty different kinds of marmots in North 
America. As only one or two species are found in 
the settled territories of the United States, it was 
supposed, until lately, that there were no others. 
Latterly the naturalists of North America have been 
very active in their researches, and no genus of ani- 
mals has rewarded them so well as the marmots — 



unless, perhaps, it may be the squirrels. \ Almost every 
year a new species ot one or the other of these has 
been found — mostly inhabiting the vast wilderness 
territories that lie between the Mississippi and the 
Pacific Ocean. 

175 

("Well, then," said Lucien, cooling down, and re-\ 
suming the subject of the marmots, " these little animals 
seem to form a link between the squirrels and rabbits. 
On the side of the squirrels they very naturally join 
on, if I may use the expression, to the ground- 
squirrel, and some of them differ but little in thoir 
habits from many of the latter. Other species, again, 
are more allied to the rabbits, and less like the squir- 
rels; and there are two or three kinds that I 
should say — using a Yankee expression — have a 
^sprinkling ' of the rat in them. I 8ome, as the 
ground-hog, or wood-chuck ot the United States, 
are as large as rabbits, while others, as the leopard- 
marmot, are not bigger than Norway rats. Some 
species have cheek-pouches, in which they can carry 
a large quantity of seeds, nuts, and roots, when they 
wish to hoard them up for future use. These are the 
spermophiles, and some species of these have more 
capacious pouches than others. Their food differs 
somewhat, perhaps according to the circumstances in 
which they may be placed. In all cases it is vege- 
table. Some, as the prairie-dogs, live upon grasses, 
while others subsist chiefly upon seeds, berries, and 
leaves. It was long supposed that the marmots, like 
the squirrels, laid up stores against the winter. 

185 

I Lucien now pointed out to his companions a char-] 
acteristic of the hawk and buzzard tribe, by which \ 
these birds can always be distinguished from the true J 
I falcon. That peculiarity lay in the manner of seizing I 
I their prey] The former skim forward upon it side- 
I ways — that is, in a horizontal or diagonal direction,' 
land pick it up in passing ; while the true falcons — 
(as the merlin, the *peregcine, the gerfalcon, and the 



186 



r great . eagle falcons — shoot down upon their prey 
perpendicularly like an arrow, or a piece of falling 
lead. \ 



192 

f~" The canvas-back is known in natural history as 
lAnas valisneria, and this specific name is given to it 
J because it feeds upon the roots of an aquatic plant, a 
species of ' tape-grass,' or ' eel-grass,' but botanically 
called ' V alisneria,' after the Italian bot anist, Antonio 
.Valisncri.j This grass grows in slow-flowing: streams? 
and also on shoals by the sea-side — where the water, 
from the influx of rivers, is only brackish. The water 
where it grows is usually three to five feet in depth, 
and the plant itself rises above the surface to the 
height of two feet or more, with grass-like leaves of 
a deep green color. { Its roots are white and succulent, 
and bear some resemblance to celery — hence the 
plant is known among the duck-hunters as 'wild 
celery.' It *is upon these roots the canvas-back al- 
most exclusively feeds, and they give to the flesh of 
these birds its peculiar and pleasant flavor. J Wherever 
the valisneria grows in quantity, as in the Chesapeake 
Bay and some rivers, like the Hudson, there the 
canv as-backs resort, and are rarely seen elsewhere. 



438 



196 



They do not eat the leaves, but only the white soft 
roots, which they dive for and pluck up with great i 
dexterity. The leaves when stripped of the root are' 
suffered to float off upon the surface of the water; 
and where the ducks have been feeding, large quan- 
tities of them, under the name of 'grass wrack,' are 
thrown by the wind a nd tide upon the adja cent^ 

B hores -S " 195 

I In about a quarter of an hour's time, the canoeA 
"■diding silently along the edge of the sedge — which 
was the wild celery ( Valisneria spiralis) — came near I 
the place where the ducks were ; and the boys, peep-| 
ing thro ugh the leafy screen, could now see the bir dsV 
plainly./ They saw that they were not all canvas- 
lacks, but that three distinct kinds of ducks were 
feeding together. One sort was the canvas-backs 
themselves, and a second kind very much resembled 
them, except that they were a size smaller. These 
were the " red-heads " or " pochards." The third 
species was different from either. They had also 
heads of a reddish color, but of a brighter red, and 
marked by a white band that ran from the root of the 
bill over the crown. Thi s mark enabled L ucien at 
once to tell the species. J They were widgeons (A.\ 
'Americana) ; but the most singular thing that was I 
now observed by our voyageurs was the terms upon 
which these three kinds of birds lived with each other. 
It appeared that the widgeon obtained its food by a 
regular system of robbery and plunder perpetrated 
upon the community of the canvas-backs. The latter, 
as Lucien had said, feeds upon the roots of the valis- 
neria ; but for these it is obliged to dive to the depth 
Jof four or five feet, and also to spend some time at the 
'bottom while plucking them up. Now the widgeon is 
to fond of the " celery " as the canvas-back, but the 
former is not a diver — in fact, never goes under water 
^cept when washing itself or in play, and it has 



therefore no means of procuring the desired roots 
Mark, then, the plan that it takes to effect this end. 
Seated as near as is safe to the canvas-back, it waits 
until the latter makes his somersault and goes down. 
It (the widgeon) then darts forward so as to be suffi 
ciently close, and, pausing again, scans the surface with 
eager eye. It can tell where the other is at work, as 
the blades of the plant at which it is tugging are seen 
to move above the water. These at length disappear, 
pulled down as the plant is dragged from its root, and 
almost at the same instant the canvas-back" comes up 
holding the root between his mandibles. But the 
widgeon is ready for him. He has calculated the 
exact spot where the other will rise ; and, before the 
latter can open his eyes or get them clear of the water, 
the widgeon darts forward, snatches the luscious moral 
from his bill, and makes off with it. Conflicts sonn.- 



times ensue ; but the widgeon, knowing himself to be 
the lesser and weaker bird, never stands to give battle, 
but secures his prize through his superior agility. On 
the other hand, the canvas-back rarely attempts to 
follow him, as he knows that the other is swifter upon 
the water than he. He only looks after his lost root 
with an air of chagrin, and then, reflecting that there 
is "plenty more where it came from," kicks up it.s 
heels, and once more plunges to the bottom. 



210 



THE HUMMING-BIRDS. 



While seated near these, Francois' quick eye de- 
tected the presence o f some very small birds moving 
among the blossoms. \ They were at once pronounced] 
to be humming-birds, and of that species known as 
the "ruby-throats" (Trochilus colubris), so called, 
because a flake of a beautiful vinous color under the 
throat of the males exhibits, in the sun, all the glan- 
cing glories of the ruby. The back, or upper parts, 
are of a gilded green color ; and the little creature is 
the smallest bird that migrates into the fur countries, 
with one exception, and that is a bird of the same 
genus — the "cinnamon humming-bird" (Trochilus 
rufus). The latter, however, has been seen in the 
northern regions, only on the western side of the 
Rocky Mountains; but then it has been observed^ 



211 




north as the bleak and inhospitable 



spitable\ 
tropical 



shor es of Nootka So und. } Mexico, and the trop 
"countries of America, are the favorite home of the 
humming-birds ; and it was, for a long time, supposed 
that the " ruby-throats " were the only ones that 
migrated farther north than the territory of Mexico 
itself. It is now known, that besides the " cinnamon 
humming-bird," two or three other species annually 
make an excursion into higher latitudes. 
215 
A few days after, another incident occurred to our 
voyageurs, w hich illustrated the habits o f a very in- 
teresting bird^the " ospray L " or fish-hawk/ 



The ospray (Falco hcdiestus) is a bird of the falcon 
tribe, and one of the largest of the genus — measuring 
two feet from bill to tail, with an immense spread of 
wing in proportion, being nearly six feet from tip to tip. 
It is of a dark brown color above, that color peculiar to 
most of the hawk tribe, while its lower parts are ashy 
white. Its legs and bill are blue, and its eyes of a yellow 
orange. It is found in nearly all parts of America, 
where there are waters containing fish, for on these it 
exclusively feeds. It is more common on the sea-coast 
than in the interior, although it also frequents the large 
lakes, and lives in the central parts of the continent 
during summer, when these are no longer frozen over. 
It is not often seen upon muddy rivers^ as there it\ 
would stand no chance of espying its victims in the) 
It is a migratory bird, seeking the youth in 



water. 

winter, and especially the shores of the great Mexican 

Gulf, where large numbers are often seen fishing 

together. 

THE OPSRAY AND HIS TYRANT. 2BZ 

After remaining for some time on the nest along 
with the others, the old male again resolved to " go 
a-fishing," and with this intent he shot out from the 
tree, and commenced wheeling above the water- 
The boys, having nothing better to engage them, sat 
watching his motions, while they freely conversed 
about his habits and other points in his natural his- 
tory. Lucien informed them that the ospray is a bird 
common to both continents, and that it is often seeu 
upon the shores of the Mediterranean, pursuing the 
finny tribes there, just as it does in America. 1 In j 



433 



some parts of Italy it is called the " leaden eagle," 
because its sudden heavy plunge upon the wat er is, , 
fancied to resemble the fulling; of a piece of lead 

244 SCENTED GRASS 



rto their astonishment, they found that this grass 

[had a beautiful smell, quite as Dowerful and as nleasant 

' as that of mint or thyme ! » nen a small quantity 

of it was flung into the fire, it filled the cabin with a 

fragrance as agreeable as the costliest perfumes. -It 

was the " scented grass," which grows in great pro 

fusion in many parts of the Hudson's Bay territory, 

and out of which the Indians often make their beds, 

burning it also upon the fire to enjoy its aromaticj 

perfume. ] 
l£ — ' 246 

He was about stooping 

down to examine them more closely, when a voice 
sounded in his ears exactly like the cry of a child. 
This brought him suddenly to an erect attitude again, 
and he looked all round to discover who or what had 
uttered that strange cry. He could see no one — child 
or man — and strange, too, for he had a clear view 
through the tree-trunks for several hundred yards 
around. He was filled with curiosity, not unmixed 
with alarm ; and, stepping forward a few paces, he was 



l 



about to bend down and examine the tracks a second 
time, when the singular cry again startled him. This 
time it was louder than before, as if he was closer In 
whatever had uttered it ; but Basil now perceived 
that it proceeded from above him. The creature from 
which it came was certainly not upon the ground, but 
high up among the tops of the trees. He looked up, 
and there, in the fork of one of the pines, he perceived 
a singular and hideous-looking animal, such as he had 
never before seen. It was of a brown color, about 
the size of a terrier-dog, with thick, shaggy hair, and 

247 

clumped up in the fork of the tree, so that its head and 
feet were scarcely distinguishable. Its odd appear- 
ance, as well as the peculiar cry which it had uttered, 
would have alarmed many a one of less courage than 
our young hunter, and Basil was at first, as he after- 
wards confessed, "slightly flurried ;" but a moment's 
reflection told him what the animal was — {"one of the 
Anost innocent and inoffensive of God's creatures — 
[ the Canada porcupine. It' was this, then, that had 
I barked the scrub pines — for they are its favorite 
\ food ; and it was its track — which in reality very 
'much rese mbles that of a child — that Bas il had seen 
(in the sand.j 

The first thought of the young hunter was to throw 

up his rifle, and send a bullet through the ungainly 

animal ; which, instead of making an y effort to escape,. 

remained almost motionless,] uttering, at interva ls, its) 

I child-like screams. \ Basil, however, reflected that the 

report of his rifle would frighten any large game that 

might chance to be near; and as the porcupine was 

hardly worth a shot, he conclude d, upon reflection, it 

would be better to leave it alone, f ile knew — for he 

[had heard Lucien say so — that he would find the por- 

l cupine at any time, were it a week, or even a month 

\ after, for these creatures r emain sometimes a whole.. 

[winter in the same grove.) He resolved, therefore, 

should no other game turn up, to return for it ; and, 

shouldering his rifle again, he continued his course 

through the woods. 

249 

Basil's heart beat high, for he had often heard of the 
great moose, but now saw it for the first time. In his 
own country it is not found, as it is peculiarly a crea- 
ture of the cold regions, and ranges no farther to the 
south than the northern edge of the United States 
territory. To the north it is met with as far as timber 
growg — even to the shores of the Polar Sea ! Nat- 
uralists are not certain, whether or not it be the same 
animal with the elk ( Cervus alces) of Europe. Cer- 
tainly the two are but little, if any thing, different ; 
but the name " elk " has been given in America to 
quite, another and sma ller species of deer — the wapiti 



( Cervus Qanade>isis)A The moose takes its name froml 
/its Indian appellation, " moosoa," or " wood-eater ; " \ 



(and this name is-'very appropriate, as the animal lives J 
mostly upo n the leaves and twigs pf trees.J In fact, 
its structure — like that of the camelopard — is such 
that it finds great difficulty in reaching grass, or any 
other herbage, except where the latter chances to be 
very tall, or grows upon the declivity of a very steep 
hill. When it wishes to feed upon grass, the moose 
usually seeks it in such situations ; and it may often 
be seen browsing up the side of a hill, with its legs 
spread widely on both sides of its neck. 

251 

He knew it would be difficult to approach them. 
He had heard that they were shyest at that very 
season — th e beginning of winter — and indeed such 
is the case. I No deer J3 so difficult to get a shot at as- 1 
(a mo ose in early winter. { In summer it is not so — as 
then the mosquitoes torment these animals to such a 
degree that they pay less heed to other enemies, and 
the hunter can more easily approach them. In winter 
they are always on the alert. Their sense of smell — 
as well as of sight and hearing — i3 acute to an ex- 
treme degree, and they are cunning besides. They 
.can scent an enemy a long distance off — if the wind 
be in their favor — and the snapping of a twig, or the 
slightest rustle of the leaves, is sufficient to start them 

266 

The next consideration was, to lay in a stock of 
meat. The moose had furnished them with enough 
for present use, but that would not last long, as there' 
was no bread nor any thing else to eat with it. Per- 
sons in their situation require a great deal of meat to 
sustain them, much more than those who live in gnat 

267 

cities, who eat a variety of substances, and drink many 
kinds of drinks. The healthy voyageur is rarely 
without a keen appetite ; and meat by itself is a food 
that speedily digests, and makes way for a fresh meal ; 
so that the ration usually allowed to the employes of the 
fur companies would appear large enough to supply 
the table of several families. \ For instance, in some 
i parts of the Hudson's Bay territory, the voyageur is 
J allowed eight pounds of buffalo-meat per diem ! And 
Jyet it is all eat en by him, and sometimes deemed 
barely sufficient. } A single deer, therefore, or even a 
buffalo, lasts a party of voyageurs for a very short 
time, since they have no other substance, such as 
bread or vegetables, to help it out. 



434 



(b 



294 



THE ROCK-TRIPE. 



"Yes," replied Norman, "look there!" and he 
pointed to one of the rocks directly ahead of them, at 
the saifce time moving forward to it. The others has- 
tened up after. | On reaching the rock, they saw what] 
f Norma n had meant by the words tripe d e roche (rock- 
[ tripe).) It was a black, hard, crumply substancP, that 



nearly covered the surface of the rock, and was evi- 
dently of a vegetable nature. Lucien knew what it 
was as well as Norman, and joy had expressed itself 
upon his pale checks at the sight. As for Basil and 
Francois they only stood waiting an explanation, and 
wondering what value a quantity of " rock moss," as 
they deemed it, could be to persons in their condition. 
'Lucien soon informed them that it was not a "moss," 
but a " lichen," and of that celebrated species which 
will sustain human life. It was the Gyrophora. Nor- 
man confirmed Lucien's statement, and furthermore 

295 

affirmed that not only the Indians and Esquimaux, but 
also parties of voyageurs, had often subsisted upon it 
for days, when they would otherwise have star ved. 
There are many spec ies, — not less than five or six. j All 
of them possess nutritive properties, but only one is a 
palatable food — the Gyrophora vellea of botanists. 
Unfortunately, this was not the sort which our voya- 
geurs had happened upon, as it grows only upon rocks 
shaded b y woods, and is rarely met with in the open 
barre ns. J The one, however, which Norman had dis- 
covered was the " next best," and they were all glad 
at finding even that. 

296 

In a short time the former parties returned with 
two large bundles of willows, and the fire was kindled. 
The tripe de roche, with some snow — for there was 
no water near — was put into the pot, and the latter 

h ung over the blaze . 

^ After boiling for nearly an hour, the lichen became} 

| reduced to a s oft gummy pulp, { and .Norman thickened 

the mess to his taste by putting in more snow, or more 

of the " tripe," as it seemed to require it. The pot 

was then taken from the fire, and all four greedily ate 



of its contents, j it was far from being palatable, and 1 
fhad a clammy "feel" in the mouth, something likej 
y^go ; jEut none of the party was in any way either 
dainty or fastidious just at that time, and they soon 
consumed all that had been cooked. It did not satisfy 
the appetite, though it filled the stomach, and made 

a - situation less painful to bear. 1__ __ 
orman informed them that it was much bette r when J 
ed with a little meat, so as to make broth. ) This 
Norman's companions could easily credit, but where 
was the meat to come from ? The Indians prefer the 
tripe de roche when prepared along with the roe of 
fish, or when boiled in fish liquor. 



315 CHAPTER XXXIV. 

THE ARCTIC FOX AND WHITE WOLF. 

Lucien turned round to get hold of his rifle, in- 
tending to punish the ermine, although the little crea- 
ture, in doing what it did, had only obeyed a law of 



nature. But the boy had also another design in killing 
it: he wished to compare it with some ermines he had 
seen while travelling upon Lake "Winnipeg, which, as 
he thought, were much larger — one that he had 
caught having measured m ore than a foot in l ength, 
without including the tail. ( He wished, also, to make 
some comparison between it and the common weasel ; 
for in its winter dress, in the snowy regions, the latter 
very much resembles the ermine ; and, in deed, the 



435 



trappers make no distinction between them.j 



"With these ideas Lucien had grasped his gun, and 
was raising himself to creep a little nearer, when his 
eye was arrested by the motions of another creature 
coming along the top of the wreath. This last was a 
snow-white animal, with long, shaggy fur, sharp- 
pointed snout, erect ears, and bushy tail. Its aspect 
was fox-like, and its movements and attitudes had all 
that semblance of cunning and caution so characteristic 
of these animals. Well might it, for it was a fox — 
the beautiful white fox of the Arctic regions. 

It is commonly supposed that there are but two or 

316 
three kinds of foxes in America ; and that these are 
only varieties of the European species. 

This is an erroneous idea, as there are nearly a 
dozen varieties existing in North America, although 
they may be referred to a les3 number of species. 
There is the Arctic fox, which is confined to the cold 
northern regions, and which in winter is white. 

The " sooty fox " is a variety of the " Arctic," dis- 
tinguished from it only by its color, which is of a 
uniform blackish brown. 

The "American fox" ( Vulpes fulvus), or, as it is 
commonly called, the " red fox," has been long sup- 
posed to be the same as the European red fox. This 
is erroneous. They differ in mauy points ; and, what 
is somewhat curious, these points of difference are 
similar to those that exist between the European and 
American wolves, as already given. 

The " cross fox " is supposed by the Indians and 
some naturalists to be only a variety of the last. It 
derives its name from its having two dark stripes 
crossing each other upon the shoulders. Its fur from 
this circumstance, and perhaps because the animal is 
scarce, is more prized than that of the red variety. 
"When a single skin of the latter is worth only fifteen 
shillings, one of the cross fox will bring as much as 

fiv e guineas. , 

^Another variety of the red fox, and a much more"^ 
rare one, is the "black," or " silver" fox. The skins 
of these command six times the price of any other 
furs fou nd in Am erica, with the exception of the sea- 
otter. / "The animal itself is so rare that only a lew 
fall into the hands of the Hudson's Bay Company in 



317 

a season ; and Mr. Nicholay, the celebrated London 
furrier, asserts that a single skin will fetch from ten 
to forty guineas, according to quality. A remarkable 
cloak, or pelisse, belonging to the Emperor of Russia, 
and made out of the skins of silver-foxes, was exhi- 
bited in the Great London exposition of 1851. It 
was made entirely from the neck part of the skins — 
the only part of the silver-fox which is pure black. 
This cloak was valued at 3400/. ; though Mr. Nicho- 
lay considers this an exaggerated estimate, and states 
its true value to be not over 1000/. .George the 
Fourth had a lining of black fox-skins worth 1000/. 

The " gray fox " is a more southern species than 
any already described. Its proper home is the tem- 
perate zone covered by the United States ; although 
it ext ends i ts range into the southern parts of Canada. 



In the United States it is the most common kind, 
although in that district there is also a " red fox," 
different from the Vulpes fulvus already noticed ; and 
which, no doubt, is the red fox of Europe, in troduced 
by the early colonists of AmericaJ 



Still another species, the smallest and perhaps the 
most interesting of any, is the " kit fox." This little 
creature is an inhabitant of the prairies, where it 
makes its burrows far from any wood. It is extremely 
shy, and the swiftest animal in the prairie country — 
outrunning even the antelope 1 

"When Lucien saw the fox he thought no more of 
the ermine, but drew back and crouched down, in 
hopes he might get a shot at the larger animal. He 
knew well that the flesh of the Arctic fox is highly 
esteemed as food 



436 





THE 




YOUNG 


YAGERS, 




on 




A NARRATIVE OF HUNTING ADVENTURE 


S IN 


SOUTHERN AFRICA. 






BY 




CAPTAIN 


MAYNE REJ D, 




Avidoi! of " The Boy IIcMtr 


5," "DESERT IIOME," "BUSH BOYS, 


1 So. 


i WITH Il/LUSTR 


VTI0X3 BY HARVEY. 




15 


S T N : 




T ICKNO 11 


AND FIELDS. 




] . M 


DCCC LVII. 





28C 



TIIK rKiUK-BUCLFs. 



Now, my young reader, you will wonder why (lie cry 
of a bird, not bigger than a blackbird, could cico. 
tenor in the minds of such courageous boys as oi:r 
yagers ; and you will naturally desire to know what son 
of bird this was. 

I have said the boys all knew it, the attendants and 
the dogs. Nay, more, the horses and oxen recognized 
that cry; and its effect on them was not less wonderful; 
for the moment it was heard, the horses tossed up their 
heads, snorted as if in terror, and commenced stamped- 
ing over the ground. The oxen exhibited similar symp- 



toms of affright. Yes, horses, oxen, dogs, Kaffir, Hush- 
man, and yagers, were all affected by the screech of 

that bird, as it pealed along the rocks, and eel I 

through the glen. All recognized in it the warning r; . 
of the Piquc-Bauf! 

An account of this singular bird will explain t! •' 
cause of the consternation which its note had thus sik 
denly produced. 

The "Pique-Boeuf" is about the size of a stalling, 
of a grayish color over the body, with short wing.-, ai. 1 
tail somewhat of a darker hue. Its feet are formed ('.■;■ 
grasping, and its claws are hooked and compressed. 
. The most remarkable part of the bird is its bill. Tle- 
is of a quadrangular shape, the lower mandible inirc'i 
stronger than the upper one, and both swelling toward' 
the tip, so as to resemble a forceps or pincers. The 
purpose of this formation will be seen, when we come to 
speak of the habits of the bird. 

These are, indeed, peculiar ; and, by the laws of or- 
nithology, stamp the Pique-Bceufs as a distinct genu- <■?' 
birds. 

287 

A celebrated French ornithologist, and a true field 
n:diiralist as well — Lc Yaillant — thus describes the 
habits of these birds:- — ■ 

'•The bill of the Pique-Bceuf is fashioned .as a pair 
of solid pincers, to facilitate the raising out of the hides 
of quadrupeds the larvae of the gadflies, which are 
there deposited and nourished. The species, therefore, 
anxiously seek out the herds of oxen, of buffaloes, of 
antelopes — of all the quadrupeds, in short, upon which 
these gadflies deposit their eggs. It is while steadied, 
by a strong gripe of the claws in the tough and hairy 
hide of these animals, that, with strong blows of the bill 
and powerful squeezes of the skin, at the place where the 
bird perceive- an elevation, which indicates the presence 
of a maggot, he extracts it with effect. The animals, 
accustomed to the treatment, bear with the birds com- 
placently, and apparently perceive the service which 
they render them, in freeing them from these true para- 
sites, which live at the expense of their proper sub- 
stance." 

Now, there are many species of birds, as well as the 
Pique-Bceufs, that lead a very similar life, living prin- 
cipally upon the parasite insects that infest the bo dies 
of the larger quadrupeds, both wild and tame. |Irv 



America, the " cow-bunting" (Icterus pecon's) is so 
termed from its habit of feeding upon the parasite 
insects of cattle ; and among other animals it is a constant 
attendant upon the immense herds of buffaloes that 
roam over the great American prairies. 



of icterus also 
South America! 



frequent the vast cattle-hen 
i plains. 



437 



ARCTIC 



SEARCHING EXPEDITION: 



JOURNAL 07 A BOAT-VOYAGE THROUGH RUPERT'S 
LAND AND THE ARCTIC BEA, 

IN KABCB OP TRI DISCOVIB.Y SHIM UKDZB. COMMAND OF 

SIR JOHN FRANKLIN. 



WITH AN APPENDIX ON THE PHYSICAL OEOORA- 
PHY OF NORTH AMERICA. 



BY SIR JOHN RICHARDSON. C.B.. F.R.S. 

iNsrKCTom or NAVAL HOSHTALi AND tlxeti, 
■TC, ITC, «TC. 



NEW YORK: 
HARPER tt BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS. 

at cliff street. 
18 52. 



CHAPTER I. 

i 
Rout* assigned to the Expedition under Command of Sir John Frank- 
lin. — Names of the Officers. — Erebus and Terror. — Date of its 
Sailing. — Last Letters. — Sir John Franklin's Last Official Letter. — 
Last Sight of the Expedition. — Sir John Ross proposes a Search. — 
Discussion of various Opinions offered respecting the Fate of the 
Expedition. — Plans of Search adopted. — Main Objects of the Over- 
land Searching Expedition. — Instructions from the Admiralty . . 

CHAPTER II. 

Overland Searching Expedition. — Routes through the Interior. — Hud- 
son's Bay Ships. — Femican. — Boats. — Boat Party leaves England. 
—Arrives at Winter Quarters. — Volunteers. — Mr. John Rae ap- 
pointed to the Expedition. — The Author and Mr. Rae sail from 
England. — Land at New York. — Proceed to Montreal and La 
Chine. — Canoe-Men. — Saut Ste. Made. — Voyage to the Jfeclh. — 
Reach Cumberland House - -^ 

CHAPTER HI. 

Pine Island T.slrs. . Sirataa Strata. — Stmgeom line s . Pi egi tss of 
Spring— -Beirer Lake. — Isle a la Crosse Brigade Ridge River— 
Native fichooimsster and his Family. — Two kinds of Sturgeon. — 
Native Medicines. — Bald Eagles. — Pelicao*. — Black-bellied and 
Cayenne Te rm O tto—— Tr og Portage. — Missinipi or Churchill 
River. — Its Lake-like Character. — Poisonous Plants and Native 
Medicines. — Athabasca Brigade. — Sand-fly Lake — The Country 
changes its Aspect. — Bull-dog Fly— -Isle a la Crosse Lake. — Its 



13 



Altitude above the Sea Length of the Mi— iniii hie a Jm 

Crosse Fort — Roman Catholic Mission. — ■ Deep &i*tr<— Canada 
Lynx.— Buffalo Lake— -Methy River asd T sl>s sT—isiir aisnag 
the Horses.— Burbot or La Loche— A Vmk Wsshy Panto**— 
Iain Mr. Sail *nn Ua Party 84 

CHAPTER IV. 

Clear- water River. — Valley of the Washalnimmow. — ferriages. — .Lime- 
stone Cliffs. — Shale. — Elk or Athabasca River. — Wapiti. — De- 
vonian Strata. — Geological Structure of the Banks of the River. — 

Athabasca Lake, or Lake of the Hills. — Meet Mr. M'Pherson with 
the Mackenzie River Brigade. — Send home Letters. — L'Esperance's 
Brigade. — Fort Chepewyan. — Height of Lake Athabasca above the 
Sea. — Rocks. — Plumbago. — Forest Scenery. — Slave River. — Rein- 
deer Islands. — Portages. — Native Remedies. — Separate from Mr. 
Bell and his Party 77 

CHAPTER V. 



Pyrogenous Rocks. — Rate of the Current of Slave River. — Salt itiver 
and Springs. — Geese. — Great Slave Lake. — Domestic Cattle. — 
Deadman's Islands. — Horn Mountain. — Hay River. — Alluvial Lig- 
nite Beds. — Mackenzie's River. — Marcellus Shale. — Fort Simpson. 
—River of the Mountains. — Rocky Mountains. — Spurs. — Animals. 
—Affluents of the Mackenzie. — Cheta-ut-Tinne :.:..'.. 



04 



CHAPTER VI. 

Rock by the River's Side. — Shale Formation. — Fort Norman. — Ter- 
tiary Coal Formation. — Lignite Beds. — Fossil Leaves. — Edible 
Clay. — Spontaneous Combustion of the River Bank. — Hill at Bear 
Lake River. — Hill at the Rapid on that River. — Forest. — Plants. — 
Birds 

CHAPTER VII. 



113 



Peregrine Falcon. — The Rapid. — Ramparts. — Hare Indians. — Fori 
Good Hope. — Hares. — Kutchin. — Their Contests with the Eskimos. 
—A Fatal Danco. — A Hare Indian devoured by a Brown Bear. — 
Vegetation. — Narrows. — Richardson Chain of Hills. — Fort Separa- 
tion. — Cache of Pemican and Memorandum. — Alluvial Delta. — 
Yukon River. — Reindeer Hills. — M'Gillivray Island. — Harrison Is- 
land. — Termination of the Forest. — Sacred Island. — Richard's Is- 
land. — Point Encounter 127 

CHAPTER VHI. 

Enter the Estuary of the Mackenzie. — Interview with the Eskimos. — r 
Remarks on that People. — Winter-houses near Point Warren. — 
Copland Hutchison Bay. — Flat Coast with Hummocks. — Level 
boggy Land. — Mirage. — A Party of Eskimos visit us. — Point At- 
kinson. — Kashim. — Old Woman. — Old Man. — Young Men. — Cape 
Brown. — Eskimos. — Russell Inlet. — Cape Dalhousie. — Sabine 
Xema. — Liverpool Bay. — Nicholson Island. — Frozen Cliffs of Capo 
Maitland. — Rock Ptarmigan. — Eskimo Tents. — Harrowby Bay.— — 
Baillie's Islands. — River of the Toothless Fish or Beghula Tease. 
—Eskimo of Cape Bathurst. — Their Summer and its Occupations. 
T-Shale Formation of the Sea-Coast 145 

CHAPTER IX. 

Voyage continued along the Coast. — Franklin Bay.— Melville Hills. 
—Point Stivens. — Sellwood Bay. — Cape Parry.— Cocked-hat Point. 
'—Cache of Pemican. — Ice Packs. — Archway. — Burrow's Islands. 
— Darnley Bay. — Clapperton Island. — Cape Lyon. — Point Pearce. 
— Point Keats. — Point Deas Thompson. — Silurian Strata. — Roseoe 

River. — Point De Witt Clinton. — Burrowed Cliffs Melville Range. 

—Point Tirmey. — Buchanan River. — Drift Ice. — Croker's River. — 
Point Clifton. — Inman's River. — Point Wise. — Hoppner River. — 
Wollaston Land. — Cape Young. — Stapylton Bay.— Cape Hope. — 
Capo Bexley. — Ice Floes. — Point Cockbum. — A Storm. — Chantry 
Island. — Salmon. — Lambert Island. — Leave a Boat. — Cape Erus- 
enstem. — Detained by Ice. — Basil Hall's Bay. — Cape Hearne. — 
Peculiar Severity of the Season. — Conjectures respecting the Dis- 
covery Ships. — Resources of a Party inclosed by Ice among the 
Arctic Islands. — General Reflections .... »;:V 164 



CHAPTER X. 

Preparing for the March. — Sleep in Back's Inlot. — Eskimo Village.— 
Eskimos ferry the Party across Rae River. — Basaltic Cliffs. — 
Cross Richardson's River. — March along the Banks of the Copper- 



438 



mine. — Geese. — First Clump of Trees. — Musk-oxen Copper Ores 

and Native Copper. — Kendall River. — Make a Raft. — Fog.— Pass 
a Night on a naked Rock without Fuel. — Fine Clump of Spruce 
Firs. — Dismal Lakes. — Indians. — Dease River. — Fort Confidence. 
__3 e ~.) off Dixnatches and Letters 185 



CHAPTER XI. 

ON THE ESKIMOS OR INUIT. 

The four Aboriginal Nations seen by the Expedition. — Eskimos. 

Origin of the Name. — National Name Inu-it. — Great Extent of 
their Country. — Personal Appearance. — Occupations. — Provident 
of the Future. — Villages. — Seal Hunt. — Snow-houses. — Wander- 
ings not extensive. — Respect for Territorial Rights. — Dexterous 
Thieves. — Courage. — Traffic. — Compared to the Phoenicians. — 
Skrellings. — Western Tribes pierce the Lips and Nose. — Female 
Toilet. — Mimics. — Mode of defying their Enemies. — Dress. — Boats. 
— Kaiyaks. — Umiaks. — Dogs. — Religion. — Shamanism. — Suscep- 
tibility of Cultivation. — Origin. — Language. — Western Tribes of the 
Eskimo Stock. — Tchugatchih. — Kuskutchewak. — A Kashim or 
Council House. — Feasts.— Quarrels. — Wars. — Customs. — Mam- 
moth's Tusks. — National Names. — Namollos or Sedentary Tchuk- 
che. — Reindeer Tchukche. — Their Herds. — Commerce. — Shaman- 
ism. — Of the Mongolian Stock • J(J2 

CHAPTER XII. 

OS THE EVTCHIN OK LOL'CIIEUX. 

Designations. — Personal Appearance. — Tattoo. — Employ Pigments. 
— Dress. — Ornaments. — Beads. — Used as a Medium of Exchange. 
— Shells. — Winter Dress. — Arms. — Wives. — Treatment of Infants. 
— Compress their Feet. — Lively Dispositions. — Religious Belief. — 
Shamanism. — Anecdotes. — Treachery. — Contests with the Eski- 
mos. — Occupations*— Traffic. — Beads and Shells. — Tents. — Vapoi 
Baths. — Deer Pounds. — Oratory. — Talkativeness. — Dances. — 
Manbote or Blood-money. — Ceremonies on meeting other People. — 
Population of the Valley of the Yukon. — Same People with certain 
Coast Tribes. — Kolusches. — Kenaiyers. — Ugalents. — Atnaer. — 
Koltshanen. — Persons and Dress. — Deer Pounds. — Passion for Glass 
Beads. — Kolushes descended from a Raven. — Courtship. — Wives. 
— Revenge. — Murder. — Bum the Dead. — Mourning. — Do not name 
the Deceased. — Custom connected therewith. — Winter Habitations. 
— Journeys of the Kenaiyer Inland. — Porcupine Quills. — Slavery . 223 

CHAPTER XIII. 

OF THE 'tINNE OE CHEPEWYANS. 

Geographical Position. — National Name. — Tribes. — Hare Indians and 
Dog-ribs. — Personal Appearance. — Women. — Dress. — Disposition. 
— Wars. — Socialism. — Improvidence. — Suffering. — Affection for 
their Children. — Hospitality feeble.— Falsehood. — Honesty. — Re- 
ligious Belief. — Volatility. — Marriages. — Wrestling for a Wife. — 
Dogs. — Moose-hunting. — Public Opinion the only Rule of Conduct. 
— Chiefs. — Introduction of Christianity. — Horses. — Houses. — 
Dawnings of Civilization. — Members of the 'Tinne People west of 
the Rocky Mountains. — Southern Athabascans .... 244 

CHAPTER XIV. 

KTTHINYTJWUK, OE CEEES AND CHIPPEWATS. 

National Names. — Division. — Tribes. — Territory. — Wars with the 
Mengwe. — Conventional Character not true. — Persons. — Gait. — 
Crimes. — Wabunsi. — Wigwams. — Religious Belief. — Vapor Baths. 
— Everlasting Fire. — Its Rites. — Used in Sickness. — Its Priests. — 
Its Origin. — Chief Sun. — Policy. — Calumet. — Maize. — Food. — 
Reindeer. — Bison. — White-Fish. — Earth-Works. — Pottery. — Lan- 
guage. — Half-breeds.— Colony of Red River, or Osnaboya. — Spirit- 
uous Liquors. ... — .. 262 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Mr. Rae's Expedition in the Summer of 1849. — Instructions. — He 
eroases to the Coppermine. — Descends that River. — Sea covered 
with Ice. — Surveys Rae River. — Eskimos. — Cape Kendall. — Cape 
Hearne. — Basil Hall Bay. Cape Krusenstern. — Douglas Island. " 
— Detention. — Dangerous Situation. — August 23, return. — Author 
and Mr. Bell leave Fort Confidence. — Cross Great Bear Lake. — 
Descend Bear Lake River. — David Brodie lost in the Woods. — HU 
Adventures. — Fort Simpson. — Methy Portage. — Receive English 
Letters. — Norway House. — Part from the Seamen and Sappers and 
Miners. — Continue the Voyage to Canada. — Boston. — Land at 
Liverpool. — Summary of the present State of the Search for Sh 
John Franklin 306 

Postscript 330 

APPENDIX. 

No. I.— PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

General View. — Rocky Mountains. — Their Length. — Their Height. 
— Glaciers. — Parallelism to the Pacific Coast. — Continental Slopes. 
— Russian America. — Eastern Slope. — Prairies. — Mississippi Val- 
ley. — Its Slope. — Fundamental Rocks of the Basin. — Silurian 
Strata. — Carboniferous Series. — Tertiary Beds. — Lignite Forma- 
tions. — Series of Lake Basins. — Transverse Valleys. — Intermediate 
Belt of Primitive, Hypogenous, or Metamorphic Rocks. — Its Rivers 
mere Chains of Lakes. — Its Breadth. — Altitude. — Sources of three 
great River Systems. — Great Fish River. — The Yukon or Kwich- 
pack. — Basins of Excavation. — Glacial Action. — Active Vol- 
canoes . . . ; ». •, . 337 

Valley of the St. Lawrence.— ^Altitudes of the Lakes above the 
Sea. — Lake Superior. — Lake Michigan. — Lake Huron. — Lake Erie. 
— Lake Ontario. — Lake Champlain. — Northern Brim of the St. 
Lawrence Basin. — Its Geological Structure. — North Shore of Lake 
Superior. — Structure of the Country at the Sources of the Missis-- 
sippi '...:.. 34R 

Winipeg oe Saskatchewan Valley. — Weight ol .Lake Winipeg. — 
Sea River. — Katchewan River. — Thousand Lakes. — Portages. — 
River WiniDee. — Red River. — Saskatchewan River . 359 

MissiNiri Valley. — Its Lakes. — Froe Portaee 363 

Mackenzie River Valley. — Methy Portage. — Athabasca, Elk, or 
Red-deer River. — Lesser Slave Lake. — Peace River. — Slave River. 
— River of the Mountains. — Noh'hanne Bute.-: — Great Bear Lake. 363 

Yueon Valley. — Yukon or Kwichpack. — Volcanic Chain of Alaska. 
— Coal.— Fossil Bones 367 



No. II.— CLIMATOLOGY., 

Bnow Line. — Ground Ice. — Thermometrical Observations in the Val- 
ley of the St. Lawrence. — Comparative Temperature of the two 
tides of the Continent. — Phenomena of the Seasons at Penetan- 
guishene : at Fort William : at Fort Vancouver. — Thermometrical 
Observations in the Valley of the Saskatchewan. — On the East and 
West sides of the Continent in that Parallel. — Phenomena of the 
Seasons at Cumberland House ; at Carlton House ; at Martin's 
Falls on Albany River. — Thermometrical Observations on the Mis- 
■inipi, and in the same Parallels on the East and West Sides of the 
Continent. — Thermometrical Observations in the Valleys of the 
Mackenzie, Yukon, and Pelly. — Progress of the Seasons at Fort 
Franklin. — Thermometrical -Observations on the Arctic Seas. — 
General Remarks. — Nocturnal Radiation . 372 



CHAPTER XV. 



OCCURRENCES IN WINTER. 



Fort Confidence. — Situation. — Silurian Limestone". — Lake Basin. — 
Trees. — Dwelling-house. — Occupations. — Letters —Galena News- ■ 
paper. — Oregon "Spectator." — Extent of the Hudson's Bay 
Company's Territory. — Fisheries. — Venison. — Wolverenes. — Na- 
tive Socialism. — Provisions collected at Fort Confidence. — Fetes. 
— Winter Fishery. — Eskimo Sleds. — Reindeer. — Wolverene. — 
Wolves. — Honesty of the Dog-ribs. — Their Indolence. — Provisions 
not individual Property. — Indians move off. — An Accouchement. — 
Calebs in Search of a Wife. — Might makes Right. — None but the 
Brave deserve the Fair. — Progress of the Seasons. — Temperature. 
— Arrival of Summer Birds : at Fort Confidence ; at Fort Frank- 
lin ; on the Yukon 278 



No. Ill— THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS 
NORTH OF THE 49TH PARALLEL OF LATITUDE. 

Generic and Specific Forms of Plants decrease in Number as the Lat- 
itude increases. — Analogy between Altitude and Increase of Lat- 
itude. — Culture of the Vine. — Of the Cerealia. — Maiie. — Wheat. 
—Oats. — Barley. — Potatoes. — Botanical Districts. — Their Physi- 
ognomy. — Woodland District. — Barren Grounds. — Prairies. — 
Rocky Mountains. — Sitka. — Polar Plants. — Arctic Zone. — Trees 
and Shrubs.— Table of Distribution of Species in three several 
Zones. — Carices : : , 408 

No. IV— LIST OF INSECTS. 
Note on Hymenoptera in Arctic North America— -Lilt of Coleoptera. 



439 



— Orthoptera. — Neuroptera. — Hymenoptera. — Hemiptera. — Hom- 
optera — Lepidoptera — Diptera . ,. . . 471 

No. V.— VOCABULARIES. 

Eskimo Vocabulary. — Comparative Table of the Dialects spoken by 
the Beering's Sea and Labrador Eskimos. — Vocabulary of the 
Kutchin of the Yukon or Kutchi-Kutchi, with Chepewyan Syno- 
nyms. — Chepewyan Vocabulary. — Dog-Rib Vocabulary. — Fort 
Simpson Dog-Rib. — "Mauvais Monde" Vocabulary. — Chepewyan 
and Dog-Rib Words 479 

WOODCUTS AND DIAGRAMS. 

Rocky Mountains at the Bend of the Mackenzie 107 

Rock by the River's Side , 1 1 3 

Hill in Bear Lake River '. 122 

Ramparts, Mackenzie's River, Geological Section 130 

Diagram of Rocks in Lat. 68° 10' N 140 

Sandhills on the Mackenzie, Lat. 68° 50' N. . , 142 

Conical Hill near Point Encounter , 144 

Torso Rock 171 



The launching-place for the boats here is both/steep and rug- 
ged ; and a brigade seldom passes without some of the boats being 
broken. One of ours was injured ; but, being soon repaired, we 
left the portage by six in th e evening, and en camped for the 
night at the south end of the IPelican Portage.t which is seven 
h undred paces lon^. 

\The power of the sun, this day, in a cloudless sky, was so' 
great, that Mr. Rae and I were glad to take shelter in the water 
while the crews were engaged on the portages. The irritability 
of the human frame is either greater in these northern latitudes, 
or the sun, notwithstanding its obliquity, acts more powerfully 
upon it than near the equator ; for I have never felt its direct 
rays so oppressive within the tropics as I have e xperienced them 
^0 be on some occasions in the high latitudes. J The luxury ol] 



'bathing at such times is not without alloy ; for, if you choose the' 
mid-day, you are assailed in the water by the Tabani, who draw 
blood in an instant with their formidable lancets ; and if you 
select the morning or evening, then clouds of thirsty musquitoes, 
hovering around, fasten on the first part that emerges. Leeches 
also infes t the still waters, and a re prompt in the ir aggressions 
The Ueiim strictinn grows plentifully on these portages, and 
is Used by the natives for the purpose of increasing the growth 
of their hair. They dry the flowers in the sun, powder them, 
and mix, them with bear's grease. The Elcagnns argenta, 
which is also abundant on the banks, is named by the Chepe- 
wyans Tap-pah, or gray berry. It is the bear-berry of the Crees, 
and the stinking willow of the traders ; so called, because its bark 
has a disagreeable smell. 

125 
The harlequin duck {Clangula histrionica) also frequents Bear 
Lake River ; but is comparatively rare in other districts, and is 
not easy of approach. It congregates in small flocks, which, 
lighting at the head of a rapid, suffer themselves to glide down 
with the stream, fishing in the eddies as they go. A sportsman, 
by secreting himself among the bushes on the strand, convenient- 
ly near to an eddy, may, if he has patience to wait, be sure of 
obtaining a shot. In this way I procured specimens. The os- 
prey and white-headed eagle both build their nests on the banks 
of Bear Lake River, and the golden-winged woodpecker migrates 
thus far north, and perhaps further, though it did not come under 
ou r observation in a h igher latitude 

_JA small frog (Hujo amcncanus) is common in every pon 

[and Mr. Bell informed me that he had seen it on Peel R,iver 

I which is t he most northern locality I can name for any American 

^reptile* / A frog resembling it, but perhaps of a diHerent species, 

abounds on the Saskatchewan, and its cry of love in early spring 

so much resembles the quack *of a duok, that while yet a novice 

in the sounds of the country, it led me more than once to beat 






round a small lake in quest of ducks that I thought were marvel- 
ously well concealed among the grass. 

On Bear Lake River, tho frogs make the marshes vocal about 
the beginning of June. Throughout Rupert's Land, they come 
abroad immediately after the snow has melted. In the swampy 
district between Lake Superior and Rainy Lake, they are par- 
ticularly noisy. While we were descending the Savannah River 
on the 20th of May, we were exposed to the incessant noise of 
one oalled by the voyagers le crapaud,\ whose cry has an evident 

* See note, p. 126. 

t This is probably the Bufo omericanut, also. . Mr. Gray of the British 
Museum, Who examined my specimens, found old and young examples of 

126 

affinity with the brckekex of Asia Minor, and closely resembles 
the braying sound of a watchman's Tattle; but a hundred of the 
latter, sprung in a circle, would not have equaled the voices of 
the frogs that wc heard at one time. A smaller species, called 
la grcncniille, inhabit the same places, and has a shrill, less un- 
pleasing note than the other, vet which was, nevertheless, tire- 

so me from its monotony. 

_ , _( As a contribution to what is known of the geographical distri- 
bution of reptiles, on the east side of the Rocky Mountains, frogs 
may be set down as attaining the 68th parallel of latitude ; 
snakes, as reaching the 5Gth ; and tortoises, as disappearing be- 



yond the 51st, at the south end of Lake Winipeg. f T 
^Emys eeogravhica of Le Sueur, named asate by the 



here the 
Zmys geographica of Le Sueur, named asate by the Chippe- 
ways, occurs ; and also one with a flexible neck, called by the 
same people miskinnah, which is probably the snapping turtle.* 

B. americanus from Lake Winipeg, and young ones from Great Bear Lake. 
There were also many specimens of Rana sylvatica (la grenouille) from the 
former locality ; some of Hyla versicolor of Le Conte, or H. verrucosa of 
Daudin ; and a solitary individual of a Hylodes, which he thinks may be 
new. It resembles, he says, " H. maatlatus of Agassiz, but differs in color. 
The back is gray, with three cylindrical dark bands, interrupted and di- 
verging from each other on the hind part of the back. The side of the 
face has a black streak, which is continued over the base of the fore-arm, 
and along the side of the body, gradually descending toward the belly. 
The toes are free and cylindrical, that is, scarcely tapering, and truncate 
at the end." (/. E. Gray in let.) 

. ■ * By the same post which brought me a proof of this sheet, I had a 
fetter from Mr. Murray, dated on the River Yukon, in which he informs 
me that a " frog" and " a grass snake" had been killed near his encamp- 
ment, and that another snake had been killed on the north bend of the 
Porcupine River, far within the Arctic circle. 

128 

At the " Rapid" the Mackenzie crosses another spur, mak- 
ing three elbows in its passage through it. The channel of the 
river there is formed of limestone, and is shallow, producing, 
when the water is low, a considerable fall on the east side, and a 
shelving rapid on the west. At the elbow of the river, above 
the rapid, one of the hills, which rises steeply from the water's 
edge on the east bank, is composed of lirrjestone beds, wrapping 
over one another like the coats of an onion, and curving, at 
the place where this structure was most distinctly seen, at a 
spherical angle of 65°, or thereabouts. These inclined beds are 
capped and covered on the flanks by strata of sandstone, which 
breaks down readily and forms a steep talus of pale-red sand. 
A cliff" of the upper and more compact sandstone overhangs the 
crumbling layers beneath it. 

Another eminence of the same spur, which rises from the rapid 
a few miles lower down, shows the same conical elevation with 
curved concentric beds. In one spot there is a fault, with dis- 
location of the beds. On both flanks of these inclined beds there 
are layers of aluminous shale interstratified with limestone and 
sandstone. Where these shale beds rest on the inclined rocks, 
they are also inclined, but they rapidly assume the horizontal 
p osition as they recede from the hill. 
\Id the earlier part of the summer, a steamboat could ascend the) 



440 



SANDSTONE CLIFFS. 



129 

{'rapid without difficulty ; and this great river might be navigated^ 
I by vessels of considerable burden, from the Portage of the Drown- 
led in. Slave River, down to its junction with the sea, being a> 
/navigation of from twelve to thirteen hundred miles, j ""* 

In a dilatation of the river, about ten miles below the rapid, 
bituminous shale lies horizontally in the hollows of undulated 
beds of limestone. Having cooked supper at this spot, we em- 
barked to drift for the remainder of the night. 

, a „ FORT GOOD HOPE. 

At the time of Sir John Franklin's descent of 
the river in 1S25 and 1826, the post stood about one hundred 
miles further down ; but it was removed to its present position in 
1836, after the destruction of the former establishment by an 
overflow of the river. The flood, carrying with it large masses 
of ice, rose thirty feet ; and, mowing down the forest timber, 
swept onward to the fort, which it filled with water, thereby de- 
stroying a quantity of valuable furs. Mr. Bell, who was the res- 
ident officer at the time, escaped with the other inmates in a boat 
to the centre of the island ; and shortly afterward, the dam of ice 
giving way, the flood subsided as rapidly as it had risen, leaving 



t he buildings still standing, though much injured. \ A few turnips. 

/radishes, and some other culinary vegetables, grow at Fort Good 
Hope in a warm corner, under shelter of the stockades ; but none 

jof the Cerealia are cultivated there, nor do potatoes repay the labor. 

(of planting.) Mr. IVl'lJeath, who had charge ol the post, supplied 
us with some reindeer venison, which he had kept fresh in his ice- 
cellar, dug under the floor of his hall. This gentleman informed 
us that no rain had fallen this season in his vicinity, except two 
very slight showers on one day : there had been no thunder show- 
ers. From him we learnt also that a rumor of guns having been 
heard on the coast of the Arctic Sea, and supposed to have been 
fired from the Discovery ships, originated in a story brought by 
the Kutchin or Louchcux to Peel's River Fort, but that the offi- 
cer in charge placed no reliance upon it. He also gave us the un- 
pleasant intelligence of three Eskimos having been killed in Peel's 
River last summer. A large body of that nation, having ascend- 
ed the Peel River, it was surmised, with hostile intentions, were 
fired upon by the Kutchin, and three of them killed, upon which 

they retreated. 

142 

August 2d. — For five or six hours this morning we ran past 
the ends of successive ridges separated by narrow valleys. The 
diagiam gives the outlines of one of these spurs seen on the south- 
ern flank. It is about three hundred feet high, and its acclivities 
are furrowed deeply, producing conical eminences which are im 
pressed with minor furrows. The vegetation is scanty ; a few 
small white spruces struggle up the sides ; and the soil, where it 



mm' 




is exposed to view, is a fine white sand. Large boulders He ou 
the sides of the hills, and, judging from the structure of the only 
point an which time permitted me to land, the whole appears to 
be similar to the sand deposit with its capping of boulder gravel 
whioh covers the shale on Athabasca and Mackenzie Rivers. On 
the point in question, the white sandy soil was ascertained to 
come from the disintegration of a sandstone, which has just co- 
herence enough when in situ to form a perpendicular bank, but 
crumbles on being handled. It consists of quartz of various colors, 
with grains of Lydian-stone loosely aggregated, and having the 
interstices filled with a powdery matter, like the deposits of some 
calcareous springs. Similar sandstones occur at the " Narrows." 
Above it, there is a bed of gravel, also formed of variously colored 
grains of quartz, mixed with chert from limestone. Most of the 
tuartz is opaque, and veined or banded, but some of it is trans- 

143 
lucent. Some bits are bluish, others black, and many pebbles 
are colored of various shades of mountain green. The latter are 
collected by the Eskimos and worn by them as labrets. The 
gravel covers the whole slope of the point, which is so steep as 
to require to be ascended on all fours. In one part a torrent had 
made a section of a bed of fine brown sand, twenty feet deep. 
On this bank I gathered the Bupleurum ranunculoides, which 
grows in Bee ring' a Straits, but had not been found so far west- 
ward as the Mackenzie before; also the Seseli divaricatum, 
which had not been previously collected to the north of the Sas- 

kat chewan. . ' 

n latitude 68° 55' N. the trees disappeared so-suddenly, that 
I could not but attribute their cessation to the influence of the 
sea-air. Beyond this line a few stunted spruces only, were seen 
struggling for existence, and some scrubby canoe-bir ches, clinging 
to the basesof the hills. [ Further on. the Reindeer Hills lower- 
ed rapidly, and we soon afterward came to Sacred Island, which 
with the islets beyond it, is evidently a continuation of the sandy 
deposit noticed above. Had time permitted, I should have gone 
past Sacred Island, northward, to deposit some pemican on Whale 
Island, but at so advanced a period of the summer, I was un- 
willing to incur the loss of a day which that route was certain 
to occasion, and perhaps even of two days. 

We did not land on Sacred Island, but observed in passing 
that it still continued to be a burying-place of the Eskimos ; two 
graves covered by the sledges of the deceased, and not of many 



years* construction, being visible from the boats. (This is the 



•AND BILL*. LIT. IW W N 



most northerly locality in which the common red currant grows 
on this continent, as far as I have been able to ascertain. Five 
miles beyond the island, we landed on the main shore, to obtain 
a meridional observation, by which the latitude was ascertained 
to be 69° 4' 14" N., and the sun's bearing at noon, south 51°> 
east^ About three miles further on, we had a distant view of 
an eminence lying to the eastward, which resembled an artificial 
barrow, having a conical form, with very steep sides and a trun- 
cated summit. This summit, in some poiuts of view, presented 
three small points, in others, only two, divided from one another 
by an acute notch. In the afternoon I landed on Richard's 
Island, which rises about one hundred and fifty or two hundred 
feet above the water, has an undulated grassy surface, and is bor- 
144 

dered by clayey or sandy cliffs and shelving beaches. The main 
shore has a similar character. The channel varies in depth from 
two to six fathoms, but is full of sand-banks, on which the boats 
frequently grounded. 

At ten in the evening we encamped on Point Encounter, in 
latitude 69° 16' N., and set a watch at the boats, and also on 
the top of the bank, which is here nearly two hundred feet high. 
The tide ebbed at the encampment, from seven in the evening 
till half an hour after midnight. The ensign was planted on the 
summit of the cliff all the evening, and was no doubt seen by the 



441 




CO.IlCii. HILL tSYOKU POINT SBCOUHTIH 



Eskimos, who were in our neighborhood, and most probably re- 
connoitred our encampment, but we saw nothing of them. 

The readers of the narrative of Sir John Franklin's Second 
Overland Journey will recollect that off this point the Eskimos 
made a fruitless attempt to drag the boats of the eastern detach- 
ment on shore, for the purpose of plundering them. 

167 

As none of the ponds or ditches which intersect Point Atkinson 
in all direction s contain drinkable water, we were on first landing 
at some loss. JThe old woman, however, had told us that her 



people procured water from the seaward side of the sand-hills, 
and, by following a path which led in that direction, we discovered 
three wells, carefully built round with drift-timber, below high- 
water mark ; which, when we first saw thern, were completel y^ 
s anded up. / (Jn clearing them out water contaminated with fetid 
whale oil flowed in abundantly, but this being repeatedly drawn 
off, until the surrounding sand was washed from its im purities^ 
we at length obtained tolerable water for making tea, f These 

(wells are evidently supplied from rain falling on the sand-hills, 
and kept up to the level at which we found it by the pressure of 
the sea.f~~ . 



August Gth. — The old woman whom we first saw, another 
still older, and an aged blind man, came to the village this day ; 
and in the afternoon three fine young men brought some ducks, 
which we purchased from -them. They were eager to sell water- 
fowl for buttons, beads, or any trifle we chose to offer, and gur 
crews eventually obtained a considerable number in that way; 
but they were very unwilling to dispose of the fish which hung 
on poles in the village. After letting us have a few, they refused 
to part with any more, even for a good price, assigning as a rea- 
son, that they belonged to a man who was absent. They either 
prize that kind of food very highly, or are scrupulous about using 
the property of an absent countryman. 
168 
From these people we learnt that during their summer of two 
moons they sec no ice whatever, that they were now assembling 
to hunt whales, and would go out to sea to-morrow for that pur- 
pose. The black whale, their present object, they call ai-e-wei'k, 
and the white whale, which also frequents this coast, kcilaloo-ak. 
In some summers they kill two black whales, very rarely three, 
and sometimes they are altogether unsuccessful. In the course 
of conversation, we were told that the several families have hunt- 
ing grounds near their winter houses, on which the others do not 
trespass ; and the proprietors of several points of land in sight 



trespass ; and the proprietors ol several points oi iana in signt 
were named to me. J They knew but little ot the country beyond 



their own vicinity ; and one of them having told me that Cape 
Bathurst was an island, I affirmed that it was not, on which, 
with an air of surprise, he exclaimed, " Are not all lands islands?" 



municated with a part of their countrymen only a few miles from 
their present residence. We told them that we were looking for 
ships and men of our nation whom we expected to meet ; and 
they said they would be glad of the visits of white men, and 
would treat them hospitably. In exchange for some fish, seal 
and whale-skin leather, and a few other things, we supplied them 
well with knives, files, hatchets, and beads. Part of the number 
who wished to come to the boats the preceding evening had, on 
our declining the interview, gone to their winter houses on the 
western shores of Baillie's Islands ; and those who accompanied 
us from our anchorage in the morning landed on the extremity 
of Cape Bathurst, where their winter houses stood. 

It was part of my instructions to bury some pemican at this 
cape, and to erect a signal-post ; but the presence of the natives 
hindered me from doing so As soon, however, as we had gone 
far enough to be, as we supposed, beyond their view, we put on 
shore, and having dug a hole on the top of the cliff, deposited 
therein a case of pemican, with a memorandum explaining the 
objects of the expedition. 

■'■•'■ As the season advances, 

the grasses and bents which flourish in sheltered valleys furnish 
the chief food of the herbivorous animals ; and, when the snows 
fall, the reindeer retreat southward to the woody districts, into 
which they penetrate deeper in severe weather, and in the milder 
intervals return to the barren grounds to- scrape the hay from be- 
neath the snow. The suddenness of the winter in these high lat- 
itudes serves the important purpose of arresting the juices of the 
grasses and freezing them, so that until late in spring they retain 
their seeds and nutritive qualities without withering. It has the 
same effect on the berry-bearing plants. The crow-berry (Em- 
* petrum nigrum), bleaberry ( Vaccinium uliginosum), and cran- 
berry ( Vaccinium vilis idea), which grow in profusion among 
the lichens of the arctic wastes, not only furnish fruits for the 
bears and geese in autumn, but retain them in perfection until 
the ground begins, to dry up under the influence of the hot sum- 
mer suns, and the new flowers are expanding. In the month of 
September the snow-geese (Anser hyperboreus), and Hutchin's 
geese {Anser Hutchinsii), feed much on the crow-berries, which 
render them fat and well-flavored. The first-named geese breed 
in Wollaston Land, to which they cross in the beginning of June. 
We had noticed, while on the coast of Dolphin and Union Straits, 
the earliest bands traveling southward again in the middle of 
August, so that their stay in their native place falls short of three 
months. The Hutchin's geese and brent geese breed on the coasts 
of the Arctic Sea, and the laughing geese (Anas albifrons) resort 
to the country north of the Yukon, beyond the Arctic circle, f The 
^Canada geese, or "bustards" of the Canadians (/es outardes), 
breed throughout the woody districts, but do not reach the vicini- 
Ity of the Arctic Sea, except on the banks of gome of the large. 



192 



rivers. The most northern localities in which we observed them 
were the channels between the alluvial islands which form th'ej 



None of them could remember my tbrmer visit, though 1 had corn- 



delta of the IMackeiizie.j 

On the Gth we had clear weather with a hard frost, and gladly 
welcomed the face of the sun, which had been a stranger to u'-i 
for more than a fortnight. The swamps being frozen over so as 
to support a man's weight, the party generally walked more brisk- 
ly than usual ; but three of the seamen and two of the sappers 
and miners were so lame, that we were obliged to make long and 
frequent halts to allow them to close in, and were unable to ac- 
complish two geographical miles in the hour. To spare their 
strength, we encamped at the early hour of 2 p.m., having marched 
about ten miles and a half. Deer, geese, and ptarmigan, were 
seen in abundance during the day. In the evening the weather 
became cold, with rain, snow, and hail. 



270 



442 



323 



" Once in eight years, the whole Chippewa tribe assembled at 
their principal village, about the season of the swelling of the 
buds. Early in the morning the great pipe was lighted at the 
■acred fire, and delivered to the Mutchekewis. He took one 
smoke, and then handed it to the women, and these to the men, 
by all of whom it was in like manner smoked. It was then 
passed to the children. This ceremony consumed the day, and 
early next morning a feast was held, at which the men and wo- 
men and children sat in separate groups. This feast was par- 
taken silently, and without singing or dancing. Tn the evenipg 
they departed to their different villages." 

" The principal male attendant on the Kaugagiskoda was the 
Kauga giz/iek, or ' Everlasting Sun ;' and his assistant was 
named Kanaivaudenk-slikuda, or the ' Fire Keeper.' The prin- 
cipal female was called Gaubewekioa, or the ' Everlasting stand- 
ing woman ;' and her assistant Kabagaitbewekwa, ' The woman 
who stands all the time.' " 

" The Chippeways assert that they received this custom from 
the Shawnees, who are the most southern of the western Algon- 
kins, their country being in the present State of Kentucky. Traces 
of its prevalence at a former period among other North American 
nations exist. The Natchez and most of the Louisiana tribes 
are represented by Charlevoix as having had a perpetual fire in 
their temples. Both he and Du Pratz were eye-witnesses of the 
rite. The hereditary ruler, or 'Chief Sun,' whose title was 
equivalent to that of Inca or Emperor, exercised a more despotic 
power than appears to have been permitted in any other nation 

271 

north of Mexico. This power and this worship were kept up 
with an oriental display of honor and ceremony long after the 
French had settled in the valley of the Mississippi, and indeed 
up to the destruction of the nation by them in 1729. ' The Sun 
has eaten,' proclaimed an official functionary daily, before the 
Ruling Sun, after his morning's repast ; ' the rest of the princes 
of the earth may now eat.' " 

From this interesting extract we may gather, that the Algic 
race were much more advanced in the forms of government and 
association of tribes than the more northern nations, and especial- 
ly than t he "Tinne, who had no villages when first known to Eu- 
ropeans. [ "Cultivation of the earth was not carried on to the north 



of the Chippeway country, since maize d oes not prosper in. Amer- 
lica b eyond the 52d parallel, j ' 

M'Kenney relates that a Chippeway widow must carry a bun- 
dle of rags, or a doll, which is called her husband, constantly in 
her arms, until 'the relations of the deceased think that she has 
mourned long enough, when one of them releases her from it. 
This occurs generally at the expiration of a year, and the widow 
is then allowed to marry again ; but the probation may be ex- 
tended much longer, if her husband's relations choose. 

The use of the Uspogan, or Calumet, which forms so import- 
ant a part of every ceremony among the Eythinyuwuk, was not 
an original practice of the 'Tinne, but was introduced to that 
people by Europeans along with tobacco, whereas this weed must 
have been grown from the most ancient times by the Chippeways, 
if the traditions which Mr. Schoolcraft collected during his long 
residence ^with that people are to be trusted." Maize is more used 
on the Missouri than in the proper Chippeway country, its cul- 
tivation forming a part of the/regular economy of the Dakota, 
tribes ; the Chippeways, however, do not admit that they received 
it from that quarter ; but, in a legend related by Mr. Schoolcraft, 
ascribe its origin to one of their own chiefs, who received it as 
the prize of a victory be obtained over a spirit. Hence its name 
of Manddmin, or the Spirit's Grain. The Delawares had ex- 
tensive fields of maize at the time of the discovery of America, 
and to them the early Virginian colonists were indebted on their 
first landing for food, which being afterward withheld, produced 
extreme misery and famine. 



Sir James C. Ross, with the " Enterprise" and "Investigator," 
reached the three Islands of Baffin in lat. 74° N., on the 26th 
of July, 1848, but was not able to cross the " middle ice" till the 
20th of August, on which day he attained open water in lat. 
75i°N., and long. 68° W. He then steered for Pond's Bay, 
and examined the coast carefully from thence to Possession Bay, 
in which he landed on the 2Gth. There he found a memorandum 
left by Sir Edward Parry in 1819, but no trace of Sir Johrb 



yFranklin. f On the 1st of September, the ships arrived off - Cape 
York, where a conspicuous land-mark was erected. Sir James 
next examined Maxwell Bay, and some smaller indentations of 
the north coast of Barrow's Strait, but was prevented by a firm 
barrier of ice from approaching Cape Riley at the entrance of 
Wellington Channel. Neither could he get near Cape Renncll, 
because of compact, heavy ice extending from Wellington Chan- 
nel to Leopold Island. Not being able to penetrate to the west, 
the ships were run into Port Leopold on the 11th, and on the 
following morning the main pack of ice closed in with the land 
and shut them in for the season. On the 12th of October the 
ships were hove into their winter quarters. ( During the winter 



many white foxes were taken in traps ; and copper collars, on 
which were inscribed notices of the situation of the vessels, and 



324 



of the depots of provision, having been secured round their necksj 
_they were set at liberty again, j ' 

in May, 1819, Sir James Ross and Lieutenant M'Clintock 
thoroughly explored on foot the west coast of North Somerset 
down to lat. 72° 38', N., and long. 953° W., where a very nar- 
row isthmus separates Brentford Bay of the Western Sea, from 
Cresswell Bay of Prince Regent's Inlet. They returned to the 
ship on the 23d of June. 

In the mean time, Lieutenant Robinson examined the western 
side of Regent's Inlet down to Fury Beach, and several miles 
beyond it. Lieutenant Brown had crossed ti inlet to Port 
Bowen, and Lieutenant Barnard had traversed Barrow's Strait 
to the vicinity of Cape Hurd, but was unable to reach Cape 
Riley on account of the hummocky state of the ice. By these 
excursions, taken in conjunction with Mr. B.ae's expedition in the 
spring of 1847, the whole of Prince Regent's Inlet and the Gulf 
of Boothia was examined, with the exception of one hundred and 
sixty miles between Fury Beach and Lord Mayor's Bay ; and 
as there were no indications of the ships having touched on any 
part of the coast so narrowly traced, it is certain that they had 
not attempted to find a passage in that direction. Sir James 
caused a house to be built at Port Leopold, and covered with 
housing cloths, in which he left provisions and fuel for twelve 
months, together with the Investigator's launch and steam-engine. 
He then proceeded to cut a way out for the ships through the ice, 
which was not effected until the 28th of August, 1619. On leav- 
ing the harbor he crossed over toward Wellington Channel, where 
he found the land-ice still fast and preventing his approach. 
While contending with the loose packs, and struggling to advance 
to the westward, a strong gale of wind on the 1st of September 
suddenly closed the ice around the ships, wherein they remained 
helplessly beset until the 25th, by which time they had driftejl 
out of Lancaster Strait, and were off Pond's Bay. As the season 
was now far advanced, further search that year was thus frus- 
trated by an accident, often experienced in the navigation of the 
Arctic Seas ; and all harbors in that vicinity being closed for the 
winter, Sir James reluctantly gave the signal to bear up for 
Eng land. 

rhile 



sir James 



J. itoss was still engaged in ttie ice on the 
[.west side of Baffin's Bay, Mr. James Saunders, Master and Com 

316 



J 



fmander of the " .North Star," having been sent out with suppliesX 



443 



in the spring of 1819, was working up on the east side, with im-/ 
yminent danger to his ship, f Owing to the unusual quantity of ice 



in the bay that summer, and the frosts which glued the floes into 
one impenetrable mass, he was unable to cross over to Lancaster 
Sound, and his ship becoming involved in the ice about the same 
date that the "Enterprise" and "Investigator" were caught in 
the pack, drifted with it the whole of September, until on the 
last day of that month she was providentially driven into Wol- 
stenholme Sound, whe re there bei ng a pool of open water she was 
at length extricated. ( There trie ship wintered in lat, 76° 33' NQ 
long. 68° 5G]-' W., being the most northerly po sition in wh ich l 
I any vessel has been known to have been laid up.) February was 
the coldest month, and the thermometer on two occasions marked 
631°, and once Gli°, of Fahrenheit below zero. 

On the 1st of August, 1850, the "North Star" was hauled 
out of the cove in which she had remained ten months, and on 
the 8th she had crossed over to Possession Bay, which was ex- 
amined. Mr. Saunders next proceeded to Whaler Point, Port 
Bowen, Jackson's Inlet, and Port Neill ; but being prevented 
from landing his provisions at any of these places by the heavy 
land -floes of old ice, he bore up for Pond's Bay, and succeeded in 
depositing his cargo on Wollaston Island. 
329 

Such was the state of the search in August, 1850. As Sir 
John Ross intended to return in 1851, after landing his stores on 
Melville Island,* we may expect that he at least will bring 
further intelligence in October or November next. 

_J* Sir John Ross took with him four carrier pigeons belonging to a lady 
residing in Ayrshire, intending to liberate two of them when the state of 
the ice rendered it necessary for him to lay his vessel up for the winter, 
and the other two when he discovered Sir John Franklin. A pigeon made 
its appearance at the dovecot in Ayrshire, on the 13th of October, which 
the lady recognized hy marks and circumstances that left no doubt on he 
mind of its being one of the younger pair presented by her to Sir John. It 
carried no billet ; but there were indications, in the loss of feathers on the 
breast, of one having been torn from under its wing. Though it is known 
that the speed of pigeons is equal to one hundred miles an hour, the dis- 
tance from Melville Island to Ayrshire being in a direct line about 2400 
miles is so great, that evidence of the bird having been sent off about the 
10th of October must be had, before that we can well believe that no mis 
take was made in the identification of the individual that came to the dove 
cot. Sir John's letters from Lancaster Sound mention that when he wrote 
he had tho pigeons or) board. ^** 



336 



fj With reference to Sir John Ross r s pigeons, mentioned in a note on 
(page 329, it appears that he dispatched the youngest pair on the 6th or 7th 
lof October, 1850, in a basket suspended to a balloon, during a W.N.W. 
(gale. By the contrivance of a slow-match the birds were to be liberated 
[at the end of twenty-four hours./* 



401 



(Progress of the Seasons at Fort Franklin, on Great Bear Lake, in lat. 65°) 

"" 12' N., long. 123° 12' N. _y 

The mean temperature of the three winter months varies comparatively 
little in different years j but the relative temperatures of these months 
differ greatly among themselves, so that in one year December is the 
coldest month, in another February, and in a third January. In some 
years the temperature of places exposed to the sun rises for a day or two 
in winter above tho freezing point, and the snow moistens on the surface ; 
b ut in other winters no thaw whatever occurs. - 

_/In March Hie snow is deepest, and averages about three feet, being, I 
hou-cver, often d rifted to a much greater thickness under cliffs and on thej 
borders of lakes. ( In the end of March or beginning of April trees begin to 
thaw, the mean temperature in the shade being about zero Fah. ; ,but the 
effect of the sun's rays on the blackened bulb of a thermometer being 
su fficient to raise the mercury to 4-90° Fah. 

-/About the 10th of April the snow begins to thaw decidedly in tho sun-j 
(shine, and myriads of Podura are seen at such times moving actively inl 
\its cavities. Ptarmigan begin to assume their summer plumage toward! 
Ithe end of the month. I 

[ From the 1st to tho 6th of May, according to the season, water-fowLj 
[ arrive. J the Vblymbus glacialis and ar quits r arrive occasionally earlier, 
and frequent a piece of water at the efflux of Bear Lake River from the 
lake, which remains open all the year. 



Swans (Cygims buccinator and amcricanus) are among the early arrivals, 
the larger species coming first. The Jlnas acuta, A. crecca, Clangula 
histrionica, ami Oi'tcmia pcrspicillata make their appeara nce within the 
first eigh t days. Gulls come about the 9th or 10th. ISinging birds.l 
Iforiolcs, and s wiits arrive about the middle of the month ;^ the latter vary- 
ing tin ir time 01 appearance to a week later, if the spring is tardy. Pools 
of water and swamps must have been thawed long enough to release a 
sufficiency of winged insects for the support of the swallow tribe, before 
they show themselves in a district. About the 10th or 12th of the month 
small streams break up, tho mean temperature of the ten preceding days 
having- risen to 37° Fah. Bear Lake River, which is fed from the depths 
of the lake with warmer water, breaks its bonds at its efflux earlier. 
Lower down, this river remains fast till the first or second week of June. 
Mackenzie River usually opens at Fort Simpson about the 7th of May, 
and in the more northern quarters in the course of a week later ; the boats 
which follow the flood in its descent taking about that time to go to Fort 
Good Hope. In 1849 the river broke up on the unprecedently late date of 



there is bright light at midnight on Great Bear Lake, 



3 



'the 23d of May ,\ 

At this latter date 
and the Fri wrilla leucophrus is employed with other songsters in singin 
at tha t hour. J 

Snow-geese arrive about this time, or a week earlier, and are followed in 
a fortnight by the laughing-geese. Both kinds wing their way northward 
in bands, of from fifteen to forty individuals, which are passing every fow 
minutes, day and night, for about t' ■ o weeks. Many go on without halt- 
ing; others alight in the marshes i» feed on the nascent stems of the early 
Cyperaeea, which are developed with marvelous rapidity after the com- 

408 

mencement of the thaw, and, though still wrapped in the dead leaves of 
last season, have acquired juiciness and a sweet taste by the time that the 
snow has mostly gone. Toward the end of May, or in the first week in 
June, according to the earliness of the spring, Chrysosplenium altcrnifolium, 
Arbutus alpinus, Eriophorum vaginatum begin to flower, and the Bctula 
glandulosa and some willows show their tender foliage and catkins. 
Early in June the Potent ilia fruticosa, the Rhododendron lapponicum, and 
several anemones flower. Frogs at this time croak loudly ; and by the 
middle of the month, summer may be considered as fairly established. 
About the 24th or 2Cth of July, ripe blcabcrries (Vaccinium uliginosum) 
may be gathered. Strawberries ar'e generally a week earlier, and tho 
A rbutus aljiina and Rubiis chainrrnwrus. or cloudberry are somewhat later. 
_Jlln the beginning of August stars may be seen at midnight; and in thel 
I last week of this month the van flocks of snow-geese are seen going south- J 
[ward, h aving spent between eighty and ninety days at their brcedingj 
[stations, f The langhing-gccse follow in a day or two ; but they pass on in 
autumn without any of the delays that characterize their spring flights, 
which are necessarily checked as often as a few cold days arrest the melt- 
ing of the snow on the sea-coast. Drift ice obstructs the navigation of 
the lake in some seasons till the first or second week of August. 

In the last week of August, or in the beginning of September, snow 
falls, and by the 1 0th of the month the deciduous leaves begin to drop. 
By the 18th, most of the birds which breed in the district have migrated 
southward, a few water-fowl and the wint er resi dents alone remaining. 
I Between the first appearance of vegetation, iill the tailing of the leaves ot\ 
[deciduous tr ees, about a hundred days elapse ;Jbut ilfHough thl§ Tilly" T7o 
taken as the leTigui oi me season ior me growth of plants, some of the 
grasses continue to ripen their seeds till the beginning of October, notwith- 
standing much severe frost before that date. In ordinary seasons the frost 
sets in severely before the end of September, and the seeds of cariccs and 
grasses, instead of dropping off, are frozen hard in their glumes, and re- 
main hanging on the culm till next spring, when they drop off into a soil 
prepared by the thaw for their reception. It is on these grass seeds of tho 
preceding year that the graminivorous birds feed on their first arrival from 
the south. In October, when the soil begins to freeze again, the summer 
thaw has penetrated about twenty-one inches in the neighborhood of Fort 
Franklin. The small lakes are covered with ice by the 10th or 12th of 
the month ; and, when that occurs, the last of the water-fowl depart. By 
the 20th of the month the smaller trees are frozen through, the larger ones 
remaining soft and moist in the centre. By the end of the month, or early 
in November, the young ice, filling the bays, puts an end to the navigation 
of the lake, after it has continued open about sixty days. Tho centre of 
the lake does not freeze over till late in December 

404 

The preceding pages contain the temperatures of the districts 
through which tho Expedition traveled, wherever I have been able 
to ascertain them, nnd also data for extending the lines of mean nn- 
Dual heat (isothermal), mean summer heat (isothtsral), nnd mean 
winter hent (isocheimcnal) across the continent. By comparing tho 
sea-coast temperatures in Tabic II. and those of the shores of the 
great lakes in Tablo I. with those of places in France and Italy 
lying botweoo the same parallels of 42°-45° north latitude, we 
perceive that the mean annual heat of Europe is from 8° to 15° Fah. 
greater than tbut of America at the same distance from the equa- 



444 



tor, wliilo tlio su minor heats dillor only from 2° to 6°.* The iu- 
feriornican heat of America is therefore due principally to excessive 
winter colds, and this is decidedly the case in tho interior. As the 
summer heats, however, rogulato tho culture of tho ccrcalia and 
tho growth of deciduous plants generally, tho severe wint ers of 
America do not cause a scanty vegetation. J From the 50th pnrulloll 
ITortliward tho trees are frozen to their centres in winter; and,\ 
consequently, tho development of buds and other vital processes) 
which go on in tho temperate climato of Engla nd, even in the cold-J 
est months, are completely arrest ed. 1 ) Tins hybernation of plants 
increases" in longtn witn tne severity and duration of winter which, 
generally speaking;, BUgmeut in the interior of Am erica with tho 
latitude ( T h o summer heats do not, however, docrease in the 
ennio ratio as wo go to tho north ; on tho contrary, the isothrcral 
lines nearly follow tho canoe route, and run to tho northward and 
westward. The elevation of tho prairie slopes has less influence in > 
depressing the summer heat, than tho nature of the soil and othe 
causes have in raising it.] 



407 

I had intended to have instituted a series of observations, with 
Sir John Herschell's actinometer, on the nocturnal radiation, and 
also oo the momentary intensity of the direct rays of the sun ; but 
the instrument was unfortunately broken on the voyage. The 
Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal for 1841 contains the results 
of observations made at Fort Franklin, with the black bulb thermom- 
eter, on the heating power of the sun's rays, and I renewed these 
observations at Fort Confidence ; but, as they were not carried on 
later than April, they furnish no information respecting the power 
of the aun in the months in which the processes of vegetation are 
active. As the black bulb thermometer indicates the accumulative 
effect of the sun's rays, it seems to be a useful instrument for as- 
certaining the heating power of the sun on the stems and larger 
branches of tre es, at least, if not also on their leaves and on her- 
baceous plants. I The hybernation or' trees ceases long betore thai 
(temperature of the atmosphere is sufficient to restore activity tol 
the vegetative processes, and before the earth, still envelope d in its/ 
snowy covering, has felt the influence of returning spring. J This 
is evidently mainly or wholly due to the sun's light direct or reflect-* 
ed ; and perhaps its rays as reflected from the pure and glassy sur- 
face of the snow, after the days have increased considerably' in 
length, may have the same powerful effect on the forest that, ac- 
cording to Professor Forbes, they have on the black-bulb thermom- 
eter. For some time after the trees have begun to thaw' by day, 
they freeze again in the night; and in more southern localities, 
where the sugar-maple grows, the sugar makers are well acquaint- 
ed with the fact that a bard frost arrests the flow of the sap in the 
Bight. Should a hot day, however, follow such an occurrence, the 
flow is more abundant than ever, the short rest seemingly increas- 
ing the irritability of the organs by which the sap is eliminated and 
circulated.* 

* As I Was revising this sheet, Sir William Hooker favored me with an 
extract from the journal of Mr. Berthold Seeman, botanist of the Herald, 
part of which follows : " During our stay at Port Clarence, in September, 
1850, 1 made several experiments to ascertain the depth to which the thaw 
penetrated the soil : the result varied ; in some places it did not descend 
above two feet into the earth, while in sandy places the ground was free 
from frost to the depth of four or five feet. The season was much colder 
than in 1849, the sea more loaded with ice, and the terrestrial vegetation 
leu vigorous." 

409 
It is necessary to remark, however, that the decrease of vegeta- 
ble forms with an increase of latitude has more analogy to that 
which is obs erved on a lofty isolated mountain than on an elevated 
plateau J and ! plants actually grow on the summits of the Whitel 
[Mountains of New Hampshire which are not mot with again until] 
[we reach the shores of the Arctic Sea.l 

The peculiarities of the climate of Cnnada and Rupert's Land 
may bo in part shown by reference to a few of the plants usually 
cultivated for food! Tho vine would thrive with the summer heat 
of Fort Simpson were the season long enough ; but the September 
and October heats, which are required to ripen its fruit, do not oc- 
cur in any district of Rupert's Land; and the grape is destroyed 
by the severe, night frosts which are frequent in autumn even in so 
low a parallel as the north shore of Lake Superior. The conditions 
essential to tho due growth of the vine, mentioned by Meyen,* do 



not extend in the basin of the St. Lawrence beyond the 43d par- 
allel, while on the Rhine wine is a profitable production up to the 

ft 1 st., - 

(M aize is a plant which thrives best in the dampest and hottesr 
tropical climates, where it brings forth eight hundred-fold. Its cul- 
ture oxtends into temperate regions, but with a groatly diminished 
yield ; and it is cultivated noar its northern limit only ns a green 
vegetable, the grain seldom ripening, and being oaten in its milky 
state. This is its condition in most parts of Great Britain, when 
reared in tho open field. On tho western shore of Kurope it is 
not cultivated beyond 46°, though in the valley of the Rhine it ex- 
tends to 49° north lut. In South America, on the Chili coast, it is 



410 



planted as low as 40° south lat. ; and on the Peruvian plateau, af\ 
the height of 12,000 feet, abovo which it requires artificial shelter 
and warmth. A profitable return can be obtained from it in Ru-j 
pen's Land between the 49th and 51st parallels, where, however,] 
tho vine does not accompany it, as on the banks of the Rhine.,/ (jar- 



den cultivation and shelter from spring irosts would extend its cul 
tivation in Rupert's Land even higher than in England. On the 
fertile acclivity of Young Street which leads from Toronto to Lake 
Simcoe, and crosses the 44th parallel of latitude, we may behold 
heavy crops of maize, and cucumbers and gourds, ripening, in the 
same field, with but little expenditure of care or labor, though the 
mean annual heat, being 41° Fall., is inferior to that of the Orkney 
and Shetland Islands, where barley, one of the. most northern of 
the cereals, grows imperfectly. The summer heat of Young 
Street, however, exceeds that of any part of the British Isles. 

Wheat is tho cereal which requires most heat of those usually 
cultivated in England. Its culture is said to ascend to 62° or 64° 
north lat. on the west side of the Scandinavian peninsula, but not 
to be of importance beyond the 60th. On the route of the Expedition 
it is raised with profit at Fort Linrd in lat. 60° 5' north, long. 122° 
31' west, and having an altitude of between 400 and 500 feet above 
the sea. This locality, however, being in the vicinity of the Rocky 
Mountains, is subject to summer frosts; and the grain does not 
ripen perfectly every year, though in favorable seasons it gives a 
good return. 412 

Potatoes, which have been cultivated from time immemorial on 
the banks of Lake Titicaca, yield abundantly at Fort Liard, and 
grow, though inferior in quality, at Fort Simpson and Fort Nor- 
man. They have not succeeded at Fort Good Hope, near the 67th 
parallel. At the lattor place turnips in favorable seasons attained 
a weight of from two to three pounds, and were generally sown in 
the last week of May. At Peel's River the trials made to grow 
culinary vegetables had no success. Nothing grew except a few 
cresses. Turnips and cabbages came up about an ineh above the 
ground, but withered in the sun, and were blighted by early Au- 

gustfrosts. ^^^ 

—Jin the preceding narrative, as well as in the geographical sketch,' 
we have had frequent occasion to allude to seve 
of North America, each of which has a pccuT 
character in its vegetation. 

1st. The eastern woodland country constitutes the first division, 
in which the forest extends from the Atlantic westward till it meets 
the great prairies. 

2d. The second division lies to tho north, of the forost lands, 
and is appropriately named the "Barren Grounds." This tract 
has its greatest north and south extonsion on the eastern coast- 
On tho shores of Hudson's Bay and the Welcome it reaches from 
the 60th or 61st parallel to the extremity of the continent, but nar-J 
rows to the westward ;f since the boundary line ol the wood takes 
n diagonal or northeast direction from the 91st meridian, and, before 
reaching the 120th, has risen to tho 67th parallel. Further to the 
west the Barren Grounds form a border to the Arctic Sea of greater 
or less breath according to the northerly prolongation of the conti- 
nental promontories, sinco the southern limit is nearly coincident 
throughout with the arctic circle, on which it approaches Beering's 
Straits — clumps of spruce fir,* the usual outliers of the forest, 
having been observed on Buckland or Noatak River which falls into 
Eschscholtz Bay. The fertile alluvial deposits of l lie well-shelter- 
ed valley of the Mackenzie interrupt the continental continuity of 
the Barren Grounds by carrying the woods nearly to the sea-shore; 
but there seems to be no other material indentation of the barren 



;eogrnphical skctchA 
'eral great divisions [ 
liar physiognomical ' 



445 



district; nnd even on tho Mackenzie the valley is bridged, as ic 
w ere, by the naked summits of the a lpine ridges. 
J3d. Tho prairie slope forms a third physiognomical district oi\ 
m, which has the greatest tninsvorso expansion on tho Mis-] 
d, n arrowing as it goes north, runs uut on tho G Oth parallol.J 

413 

having, aftor passing tho Saskatchewan, been much indented by the 
woods which feather tho numerous rivers that drain the declivity. ■ 
These prairies have much analogy with chalk downs in aspect as 

w ell as in minora! constitution. . 

«^4tli. The Kocky Mountain chain, and the alpino ranges audi 
isolated peaks which riso to tho westward of it, may bo considered I 
as a fourth district which nourishes some peculiar species of plants.! 

5th. And iho low er woodland country on the Pacific s ide ofthej 
.range forms a fifth. , 

If we traco any ono of these districts northward, making due allow- 
ance for tho varying altitudo of the country above the sea, we rriay 
ascertain the effect of increase of latitude on the vegetation of that 
meridian ; but, if we compare one district with another, we must 
keep in view tho cliinatological fact of tho rise of tho isothermal 
lines in proceeding westward. Tho course of tho forest boundary 
is one illustration of this phenomenon; and we have another in the 
range of certain species or forms constituting that forest. 



The" physiognomy of the woodland district through which the' 
canoe route lies has been incidentally touched upon in the descrip- 
tions of several localities that have been introduced into the narrative, 
yet it will not be out of place to recall its general features here. 
Of this district, which has a breadth of about 600 geographical 
miles between the 50th and 55th parallels, the white spruce is the 
most abundant and characteristic tree; yet up to the 51th parallel 
it is conjoined, and especially on the banks of the rivers, with other 
trees which break tho monotony of tho dark evergreen forest. Be- 
yond tho banks of the Saskatchewan the oaks, elms, ashes, maples, 
bass-wood, white thorns, Virginian clematis, and various other trees 
and shrubs cease to grow; and the white spruce may be said to 
cover the face of the country, except on the alluvial borders of 
rivers and lakes, whore the aspen, balsam poplar, balsam fir, alder, 
and multitudes of willows usurp its place, or on the edges of swamps 
Vvhero the black spruce leads a lingering, unhealthy existence.. 
With tho black spruce the larch is often associated; though it is 
not confined to morasses, yet it is too much isolated in its distribution 
to produce a difference of tint sufficiently massive to please the eye, 

414 
except in very few localities. The Bnnksitn pino is more fre- 
quently seen in considerable patches, and its appearance is agree- 
able to the voyager; for, independent of the fact that its spreading 
branches and general form, resembling that of the Scotch fir, is a 
rest to the eye wearied with the tapering stilfness of the spruce, it 
offers the prospect of a dry and comfortable encampment. 

Tho agency of man is working a ch ange in the aspect of the forest 
even in tho thinly peo pl ed north. ( The woods are wasted by ex- 

( tensive fires, kindled accidentally or intentionally, which spread 
with rapidity over a wide extent of country, and continue to burn 
until they are extinguished by heavy rains. These conflagrations 
consume even the soil of the drier tracts; and tho bare and whiten- 
ed rocks testify for centuries to the havoc that has been made. A 
new growth of timber, however, sooner or later springs up; and 
tho soil, when not wholly consumed, being generally saturated with 
alkali, gives birth to a thicket of aspens instead of the aboriginal, 



le frozen subsoil of tho northern portions o f the woodl 

415 



may 
and] 



'country does not prevent the timber from attaining a good size, for 
the roots of the white spruce spread over the icy substratum as they 
would over smooth rock. As may be expected, however, the growth 
of trees is slow in the high latitudes. On tho borders of Great 

1 Bear Lake, four hundred years are required to bring the stem of 
the white spruce to the thickness of a man's waist. When the 
tree is exposed to high winds, the fibres of the wood are spirally 
twisted ; but in sheltered places, or in the midst of the forest, the 
grain is straight and the wood splits freely. 



At tho limit of the woods tho white spruce is every where the 
most advanced troo, growing either solitarily, with its branches 
clinging to the ground and its dwarfed top bent from the blast, or in 
small clumps in some favorable locality. The Salix speciosa may 
indeed be said to pass beyond tho spruce ; but it does so only on the 
alluvial points of rivers, and not in its tree form. 1 

Though the species of plaula bL'(!6ine less numerous as we nd- 
vanco northward through the woody region, thero is no faHjne off 
in tho number of indivi duals of tho species that remain 



only is the forest crowded, nnd often almost impenetrably so, whot. 

the trees are young, but on tho margins of rivers, and other open I 

places, there is a dense herbaceous vegetation, which clothes thai 

ground in Rupert's Land as perfectly as it is covered in a lower] 



latitui 



Ul 



though the vegetation be less rank. f Oi 
'kits tall carices grow as closely as they can 



On the inundated 



alluvial Hats tall carices grow as closely as they can stand, and furn- 
ish an nbundanco of nutritious hay. There is, however a total ab- 
sence in the north of the Lianas, Tillandsite, and parasitic Orchideee 
which impart so peculiar an aspect to the forests in some of the 
warmer districts of tho earth. Tho great hedge bindweed (Caly- 
stegia), the Virginia creeper, the hop plant, and the twining her- 
baceous Smilacina, with its grape-like clusters of blackberries, dis- 
appear on the south side of Lake Winipeg, and the only aerial 
parasite in the north is the leafless Arceulhobium oxycedri, which 
seats itself on the branches of the Banksian pine. The graceful 
Usnece which hang from the branches of tho ancient black spruces in 
long, thread-like hanks, have, it is true, some resemblance to the 
Tillandsiee which forms an elegant drapery to the evergreen oaks 
o f Georgia and F lorida. 






In the eastern woodland district, from the St. Lawrence to the" 
Saskatchewan, the Composites are. the most numerous family of 
plants, and they form between the sixth nnd seventh of tho whole 
phamogamous vegetation. Next to them come tho Cyperaceee, which 
owing to tho great development of the genus Carer, constitute moro 
than one-ninth of tho Fhanerogamia of tho district. 

In tho second, or barren ground district, in places where the soil 
is formed of tho coarse sandy debris of granite, and is moderately 



416 



f dry, the surface is covered by a dense carpet of the Corniculariee 
*lristis, divergens, ochroleuca, and pubescens, mixed in dumper spots 
with Cetrarice cucullata and islandica. In more tenacious soils 
other plants flourish ; not, however, to the exclusion of lichens, ex- 
cept in trncts of meadow ground. The Rhododendron lapponicum, 
Kalmia glauca, Vaccinium uliginosum, Empetrum nigrum, Ledum 
paluslre, Arbutus uva ursi, Andromeda telragona, nnd several de- 
pressed or creeping willows, lie close to the soil, their stems short, 
twisted, and concealed, with onl y the summits of the branches 
showing among mosses or lichens, f Here and there, on the moister 



t and the hand- 
m. (or Lathyrus)\ 
lue and yellow] 
of those plants/ 



sides of the bills, there is a gay display of saxifrages, pediculares, 
or primroses ; and a few of the sandy spots on the coast are en- 
livened by a beautiful dwarf phlox or a handsome dodecathoon. On 
the alluvial banks of rivers only are willows of erect growth to be 
found, a nd of the S alix sp eciosa is the most robust and the hand- 
somest. [ On the sandy shore of the sea the Pisum 
hnarilimum, the Polemonium ceeruleum, various blu 
VAslragali, and several Artemisia flourish. Most 
(als o occur, though more sparingly, in tho interior. \ One circum- 
stance which came under my observation, nnd has been cursorily 
alluded to in the Narrative (page 192), is the existence of very 
ancient stumps of trees, either solitary or grouped, in various places 
of the barren grounds, seemingly the vestiges of the forest, which 
had spread more widely over tho country some centuries ago than 
in the present day. Further evidence that such was the case may 
be obtained in the extension of Pyrolie, and some other woodland 
plants to the coasts of the Arctic Sea. On the sheltered banks of 
rivers, even in the barren grounds, clumps of living trees occasion- 
ally occur; but the stumps I speak of stand often on the exposed 
side of a hill, nnd indicate a deterioration of climate, however that 
may have been produced. We 6aw no young firs growing up in 
such situations to leave similar vestiges in a future age. 



In many sheltered valleys on tho sea-coast, and even in the morel 

elevated intorior, especially where a fertile soil has been formed by] 

the decomposition of trap rocks, there is a good growth of grasses,] 

several of which flo uris h well on land s that are oc casionally inun 
j.j , ., / . — pi ™ )!' rr — rr— 



d a ted by the sea.j Among theso are Elvmui mollis. Sveirlinn 



446 



cynosuroidcs, Calamagrostis stricta, Carices stans, compacta, glare- 
osa, memhranacea, and livida, Colpodium, Dcschampsia, Festuca, 
and sovoral Pote. In boiiio of tho maritime meadows to which the 
roindoer resort to bring forth thoir young, thero nro treacherous 
mud-banks, wliich aro soft enough nnd deep enough to swallow up 
a deer or musk ox, that may rush heedlessly into them when chased 
by a wolf; but in gonornl the frozen subsoil is so nonr the surface 
as to preclude any such accident. The existence of these boggy 

417 

places, which were seen only on tho sea-coast, scarcely affords a 
satisfactory solution to tho problem of tho entombment of a living 
eloplmut or rhinoceros, and tho subsequent preservation of the en- 
tiro carcass in the frozen soil. But in whatever manner this may 
havo taken place, I should infer, from tho economy of the arctic 
regions, that theso animals were migratory, like the reindeer of the 
present day, and wintered in milder climates. 

On approaching the arctic circle the relative proportion of the 
Composite greatly decreases, and that of tho Cyperacea increases 

within t ho wo od y tracts, tho ugh it falls off on the barr en grounds. 
■■ . ■ . ■^"■™— i *— — *— ^— ^— — ^ *■■— ■*— * 



Taking tho whole zone between the arctic circle and the extremity 
of tho continent, wliich includes much woodland, tho Ci/peracete are 
tho most numerous family of plants, and aro more than doublo the 
Gramineee. Tho Crucifcra come next to the Cyperacea in this 
zone. In the polar regions beyond the continent, the Crucifcra 
take the first place in respect of number of species, then c ome the 
Graminete, which are closely followed by tho S a.rifr agea.r ~~ 

The third, or prairie district, lws the prevailing aspect ot a grassy 
plain, tho herbage, however, having a considerable intermixture of 
carices among the true grasses. Tho herbage grows up rather 
wiry in the dry summers of that region ; but, in consequenco of tho 
fires that frequently spread over vast tracts, a young growth takes 
place, to which the bison and deer rosort. On the Arkansas, the 
"buffalo or bison grass" is tho Sesleria dactyloidcs. Whother this 
species extends to tho Saskatchewan or not, I am unablo to say : 
we certainly did not gather it there; but at tho timo that Mr. 
Druminond and I visited that part of the prairie, recent fires had 
made (lowering specimens of grasses very rare. Of tho phrenoga- 
mous prairie plants actually collected, the Gramineee form about the 
eleventh, nnd the Cyperacea the sixteenth. On the plains the 
Composites nro numerous and showy ; there is a considerable variety 
of handsome Leguminosa, with some pretty Bnraginea ; and the 
Artemisia, owing to the quantity of surface they cover, though tho 
spo > : es are not numerous, contribute greatly to the hoary aspect of 
tho prairie vegetation. The Rosacea vie with tho Cyperacea in 
numbor of species; but many of them are fruit-bearing shrubs, 
growing on tho banks of the rivers that serpentine among alluvia) 
points, in channels sunk deeply below the general surface of the 
prairie. 

418 

Of the Polar plants, amounting to ninety-one species, which in- 
habit Melville Island, the shores of Barrow's Straits and Lancaster 
Sound, and the north coasts of Greenland, between the 73d nnd 
75th parallels of latitude, about seven-ninths range to Greenland, 
Lapland or Northern Asia. Of the remainder, some havo been 
gathered on the shores of the Arctic Sea from Baffin's Bay to Beer- 
ing's Straits; and it is probable that if these high latitudes wore 
fully explored, the flora of the entire zone would be found to be 
uniform, "ome of the more local plants will perhaps bo ascertain- 
ed, on further acquaintance, to be mere varieties altered by pecul- 
iariths of climate. That tho flora as well as the fauna in the high 
northern latitudes is nearly alike in the soveral meridians of Europe, 
Asia, and America, has long been known. And even when we 
descend to some distance south of the arctic circle, wo find that this 
law is superior to the intrusion of high mountain chains, and is but 
partially infringed upon. In tnking the St. Lawrence basin for in- 

419 

stance, if wo allow for the rise of the isothermal lines on the west 
coast, and make our comparisons in an oblique zone, including Sitka 
.■d Wisconsin, we shall find that there is much similarity in the 
floras on the two sides of the continent. The Rocky Mountain 
ridge is not by any means a boundary to tho peculiar vegetable' 
forms of tho Pacific coast ; on the contrary, many of them cross the 
ridge to its eastern declivity, though they do not descend into the 
low country; nnd there is actually more similarity between the 



vegetation of tho prairies of Oregon, and those of the Missouri and 
Saskatchewan, than there is between tho latter and eastern parti 
of the U/iited States and Canada. In still more southern latitudei 
the case may bo different; and Ehrenberg has found a totally dif- 
ferent group of Infusoria in California from that which exists on the 
east side of the continent; tho Rocky Mountains, in his opinion, 
p roving a complete barrier to these organisms. 

.J The' families of Polar plants which are most rich in species are 
tho Crucifcra, Graminete, Saxifragete, Caryophyllea, and Compo- 



site. Of these the Saxifr agca are most cha racteristic of extreme 
northern vegetation. \ All ot them that inhabit the 74t!i parallel id 
America nro found also in Spitzbergen, Lapland, or Siberia; and 



even tho polar species are twice as numerous as thoso which exist 
in the wido district which Gray's " Flora of the Northern States" 
comprehends. If we reckon nil that enter the arctic circle, we 
shall find them to be four times as ma ny as thoso wliich Dr. Gray 
enumerates; nnd we may add thatj the pla nt which Humboldt] 
(traced hirhest on the Andes was a saxifrage.] The Caryopliyllete 
and Crucifcrea, which vie with tho saxifrages in number on the 74th 
parallel, include many of the doubtful local species abovo alluded to. 
Of the most northern Graminete, about ono half are, as far as we 
yet know, exclusively American ; the few species which tho other 
families contain have as extensive a lateral range as the saxifrages. 

Arctic zone. — On descending to the main land from the 71st 
parallel down to the arctic circle, including a zone of four degrees 
of latitude, we find that the species have increased eight-fold in 
number, and thero is a large addition of generic forms, as might ba 
expected on entering within the limits of the forest. 

Tho Polar families are — 



Ranunculacea; 

Papavera-ceoB 

Ciuciferas 

Caryophyllea? 

Leguminosffl 

Rosacea? 

Onagrariae 

Saxifrageaj 



Composite' Polygoncas 

Cicharacea SalicacetB 

Eupatoriacea Junces 

Scnccionidea CypcraeceB 

CampanulaceiB Gramincie 

Ericea? Lycopodines 

Polemoniacea? Equistacea* 
Scrophularinea) , Cryptogamia 



441 

CosiFERM. — Pinut banksiana, gray pine, the Cypres of the voyagers, 
gr s from the arctic circle on the Mackenzie, down to the great Canada 
la! •. south of wliich, Dr. Gray has scarcely seen it, but has heard that it 
is found in the northern districts of Maine ; and it occurs in the list of 
Wisconsin plants published by the American Association. It crosses thn 
Rocky Mountains to the Spokan River in latitude 47° north. This would 
be an ornamental tree on many sandy and otherwise unproductive wastes. 
P. resinosa, red pine, has its southern limit, according to Emerson, at 
Wilkesbarre, in Pennsylvania (latitude 41j° north). I have traced it to 
56j° of latitude on Methy River, and it crosses the Rocky Mountains to 
latitude 43° in Oregon. Dr. Gray says that its height in the Northern 
States is from 60 to 80 feet, and Emerson relates that a few years ago it 
was not uncommon to find trees of this species in the southern parts of 
Maine exceeding 100 feet in height, with a stem four feet in diameter. 
P. inops, which was not seen by us on the canoe route to the north of the 
United States boundary, extends on the northwest coast from Oregon to 
Sitka, and ascends Mount Rainier to near the snow limit. P. itrobut, 
white or Weymouth pine, has its equatorial limit on the Allcghanies of 
Virginia or North Carolina, and it ranges northward to the south end of 
Lake Winipeg. In the Middle States this tree has a shaft of 100 feet; and 
Emerson has collected instances of trees formerly existing which had the 
extraordinary length of from 220 to 260 feet. Even near its northern 
te rmination it is still a stately tree. 

^^Abies balsamea, balsam fir, was not traced beyond the 6Hd parallel on^ 
fthe canoe route. It is Le Sapin of tho voyagers, who prefer its spray to 
I that of any other tree for- laying the floor of a tent or winter bivouac. 
iDr. Gray traced it on the Alleghanies only to Pennsylvania. In the lati- 
tude of Norfolk Sound (57°) it crosses the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific 



In Virginia, North Carolina, anu ijeorgia, Pinut Jraten, or the small 
fruited balsam fir, occupies the Alleghanies to the exclusion of the preceding. 
It does not reach the great lakes. A. canadentu, hemlock spruce, was 
observed on the Kamenistikwoya, but not further north than the 49th par- 
allel; though Mr. Tolmie traced it up to the 57th degree of latitude on tho 
shores of the Pacific, and it was observed by Mertens on Sitka. In Mary- 
land this species is found on the Alleghanies only; and Dr. Gray thinks 
that it ceases to grow in North Carolina and Tennessee. A. alba, whita 
spruce. Of this species we have had frequent occasion to speak in the pre- 
ceding pages, as it is especially the forest tree in Rupert's Land. It if 
L'epinette blancht of the voyagers, and the Mina-hik of the Crecs. 



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456 



LE GRAND VOYAGE 

DV PAYS DES HVRONSjj 
fkuc en f Ameriquc vers la Me'r 
' r : douce , cs derniers conrins 
de la nouuellc Prarice > 
ditc Canada. 

Ou il eft amplcment traicc dc tout cc qui eft 4a pay* , iei 
mcrurs& dunatUret desSauuagcs, de leur gouuernement 
'& faCons dc faire , tanc dedans leuts pays.qu 'aflans en voya- 
gei.-Dc leurfoy Sc croyancc-.Dc Icurs corifcils & giierres , &c 
.de quel genre dc tourmens ilsfonc miourir lcurs prjfonnicrs. 
Commeils fcmaricnc.& efleucnt lcurs enfans:Dc leursMc- 
decins , ic des remedes done ils vfent i lcurs maladies : Die 
Icurs dances & clianfoni -De la chaffe , de la pefebe , & des 
oyfeaux fcanimaux rerrcftrcs & aquatiques qu'ils ont. Des 
licheftcs du pays : Commc ils culnuent les tcrre$,& accom- 
inodent leur Meneftre De leur deiiil , plcurs it lamenta- 
cions",& ccxnrne ils cnfcucliffcnt Sc entcrrcnt lcurs morrs. 

Aoec vri Dictionaire dc la languc Huronne.pbuj la commodi- 

tedcccuxquio.ua voyager dans ;le pays, &n*6nt 

l'lntclligencc d'icellc languc. 

WrT. Gabriel £agari> Th i o© a t, ktceBtt it 
> ■ ' S.Franfou,delaPreHincedeS.D*njtmFrA*ti.: 

A PARIS, 

Cl*cz Uenys MaKEAv, rue S. lacqiics , a 



la Salamandrc d' Argent. 

M DC. XXXII. 
Jduei PriuUejp dn Roj. 

t$6 Le grand Voyage 




f - SECONQE P.ARTIE. 

* / '■ ' , "V" 

Ouilefi train? des Mnimauxterreftres 
* & aquatiques >& des Fruifls,Plantes 
CT Richeffes qui fe retrouuent com- 
manement dans lepay§ de,nos Sautia- 
ges 5 puis de noftre retour de laProtrin- 
cedes Hurons en ceUe de Canada, auec 



yn petit Diftionnairc des mots princi- 
pauxde la langue Huronne , neceffake 
a ccux qui n ont [intelligence £iceUc t 
0* ont a trainer auec lejdits Hurom \ 



Des Oyfeaux* 

C n a ri T *'i h 

Remierement, ie commenceray 
par I'Oyfeau le plus beau , lc plus 
? fare & plus petit qui foit , peut- 
c ftre, au mondc qui eft le Vicilin , ou Q£ 




du pays des Huroni. 197 

feau.moufclie , que les In diensappellene) 
tn leuc langue Rcflufcice.j Cec oyleau, en 
corps , n'elt pas plus gros qu'vn grillon, il 
ale bee long dc tres-delie , de la grofTeur 
dela poincle dvnc aiguille, & fescuilfes 
& fes pieds aufli menus que la ljgned'vne 
efcriture : Ton a autrefois peze Ton nid a- 
ucc les oyfeaux , & trouue qu'il nc pezc 
d'auantage de vingc-quatre grains ,j il ife 
hourriftaeIarolce& delodeurdes tleurs 
fans fepoferfuricelles.maisfeulernentea 
voltigeant par.deffus. Sa plume eft aufli 
dcliee que duucc,& eft trcs-plaisate & bel- 
le a voir pour la diuerlhedefes couleurs. 
Cec oyfeau (ace qu'on die ) fe meurc , ou 
pour raieux dire s endort, au moisd'O" 
dobrcdemeurant attache a quelque pe- 
tite branchette d arbre par les pieds , & fe 
reueilleau moisd* Auril ,que les tleurs fonc 
en abondance,& quelques fois plus tard, 
&pourcette caufc eft appcllc en langue 
Mexicaine, Re(Tufcite.H en vient quanti- 
ty en noftrc iardin de Kebec , lors que les 
fieurs & les poids y font fleikis,& prenois 
plaifir delcs y voir ;| maisilsvont iiyifte, 
quen'eftoiirquonen peut par fois appra- 
cher de fort prez , a peine les prendroit-on 
poqr oyfeaux; ains^pour papillons ; m\us 



457 



du pays des Huron*, jtj 

gucspcaux, &en font des fronteaux dc 
paradequi leur pendent par dcrrierc vne 
bonne aulnc de longueur , &c plus h dc 
chacun code. 



Outre les Grenourlles que nous auons 
par deca, qu'ils appellet Ktotoutfiche y ils en 
ont encore d'vne autre efpece , qu'ils ap- 
pelant Oiiraon , quelques-vns les appel- 
ant Crapaux , bien qu'ils n'ayent aucun 
venin; mais ie ne les tiens point encette 
quality quoy queien'aye veuentousces 
pais des Huros aucune efpece de nos Cra- 
paux,nyoiiydirequ'ilyen ait, finon en 
Canada. 11 eft vray qu Vne perfonne,pour 
exa&e quelle foit,ne peut entieremet fga- 
uoirny obfeiuertoutce qui eft d'vn pais, 
ny voir &ouyr tout ce qui s'y pafle,& e'eft 
laraifonpourquoy les Hiftories & Voya- 
geurs ne fe tcouuent pas toufiours d'ac- 

c ordenplufieurschofes. 

^JCes OUraons, ou grofles Grenoiiilles,] 
fontverdes,&deuxou troisfois grofles 
comme les communes j mais jclles ontv- 
nevoixftgrofle & fipuiflantc;, qu'on les 
entend de plus d'vn quart de lieue loin le 
foir, en temps ferain, fur le bord des lacs 
& riuieres, &fembleroit(a quin'en au- 
roit^encore poitit vcu ) que ce fuft d'ani^ 



^16 Le grand Voyage 



maux vingt-fbis plus gros : pour moy ie 
confeflc ingenucment que ic ne fcauois 
que penfer au commencement , cntcn- 
dant dc ces grofles voix , & m'imagi- 
nois que e'eftoic de quelque Dragon , ou 
biende que lqu'autrc gros animal a no.us 
incogneu.ilayouy dire a nos Religieux 



Jans le pays, qu'ils ne feroient aucune dir*- 
ficultc d'en manger,en guife dc Grenoiiil- 
les: mais pour moy k ie doutc ft iel'aurois 
youlu faire.n'cftant pas encore bien aflcu- 
xedelcurncttete. 



Dcsfruifls, flames , arbres 0* richejjis 
dupays. 

C ha p IT RE III I. 

N bcaucoup d'endroicxs, 
contrees , ifles & pays, le 
Jong des riuieres, & dans 
les bois.| lly a fi grandc 
fquantitede B lues ,que les 
%^s%%^£) Hurons appellent ohen- 
itaqm, & autrcs petits fruicts , qu'ils appel- 
Jlcnc d'vn no general Hahific , que les Sau- 



dupays des, Hurons. 317 

uages en font feicheriepour rhyuer,comc 
nous faifonsdes prunes feicheesaufoleil, 
& celaleur fcrt de confitures pour les ma- 
lades, &pourdonner gouft a leur Saga- 
mite, Sc audi pour mettre* dans les petits 
pains qu'ils font cuire fous les cendres. 
Nous en marigeafmes en quantite fur les 
chemins , comme aufli desfraizes , qu'ils 
nomment Tichionte, zuec de certaines grai- 
nes rougeaftres , & grofles comme gros, 
pois , que ietrouuoistres- bonnes jmais ic 
n'en ay point veu en Canada ny en Fran- 
ce de pareilles , non plus que plufieurs au- 
tres fortes de petits fruicts & graines mco- 
gneues par dec£, defquclles nous man- 
gionsjCommemcts d elicieuxquand nous 



enpouuions trouuer.| llyen a de rouges 
qui femblent prefque du Corail , & qui 
viennent quafi coptre terre par petits bou- 
quets » auec deux ou trois fueilles, reflem- 
blans au Launer , qui luy donnent bonne 
grace , & femblent dc tres-beaux bou- 
quets . & fcruiroient pour tels s'ilyeha-J 
uoic icyjll ya dc ccs autrcs grains plus 



gros encore vne fois , comme i'ay tantoft 
dicl jdecouleur noirafte,& quivienncne 
ehdestiges , hautes dVnecoudee. 11 y a 
aufli des arbres qui femblent de 1'Efpine 



458 



• H1STOIRE 

DV CANADA, 

^VOYAGES QVE LE.S fRERES 
Mmcurs Recollects y one fai&s pour 
P - laj^nucyiiop dcs Infidciles. 

DIVISFZ EX' QV AT RE Li V RES. 

Ou eftatupletr.ent rraidledes chofcs principles ar« 
ru^scLiis lr pays ilcpuisl'an r^ij iufqucs ilapn- 
fcquienaefter'.u&K-p.u les Aiiglois. Desbiensclw 
conjmoditcziju'oiitti pcuc cfpcrcr. Dcs mcmr$ k 
ceremonics,crcancc , Lux, & couftumes mciiieil- 
leufcs deles habuans. Dtlaconuefilon &buptcf- 
mede plu(icurs,cVr1c<; m<>;.es <:cccflairespourIcj 
amenera lacognoifl'.uicc dc Pieu.L'eimerien or- 
dinaire dc nos Maiimcrs , & amies paiticularitei 
qui Ce icmarqucnt en la fuitc dc 1'hiftoirc. 

f<titCrctmpt/ep*rU F. GABRIEL ^A G A R D, 
THEODAT, tdmmr }{,«oll<tt dcU Frohincc de PmTM, 

* A PARIS, ' 

r .h,-7 Clavdc Sokkivs.ujcj S. Jacques, A rfifcuj* 
^_____ Caflc, 3: au Coitjpas tt'ot, 
" M. DC XXXV L 



44. 



Cent trouue mauuais qu'eufilons fait du cor. 
tr aircpouraucunrcipeft. __ 



S 1 8 Iltftoire dn Canada ,, 

mais il$ en croyent bicn d'autres, qui nc vai- 

lentguercmicux. 

Lc (oir ariiuc, mes Sautrages mangcrcm 
vn aiglc , dc laquellc ie nc mangcay pa; 
feu'ement du botiillon , & encor moinsde 
]a chair, caril cftoit iour dc Vcndredy, 
cespauurcsgens m'en demandcrenc larai- 
ion , car ils Tijauoient bien ma neceflitc , & 
Ie pcu que nous auidns pris lo matin 
auant partir , & ayant fecu que ie le fai- 
fois pour l'amour du bon lefus, ils en re- 
fte rent fort cdificz & contens , c*r commc 
ils font cxac"tcs obferuatcurs dc leurs cere- 
monies , ils trouuoient aulli tres bon que 
nousfifllons felon noftre croyancc, & euf- 



Sitoftqu'il commence a fairc iour nous 1 
nous mifmes fur l'cau, couuertes par rout 
d'vn nombre prefquc infiny dc papiflons,en 
l'cften'due dc plus dc trois heurcs de che« 
mil , & la riuierc qui fcmbloit vn lac en 
cette efpace, large dc plus dc demye heu'c 
cftoit demefme par tout couucrtcdccc* pe- 
tit; animaux, dc forte que i'culTe aupan- 
uantdoute, s'd y en auroit bicn cu autanr 
en tout lc reftc du Canada, commc ils'yen 
cftoit noy 6* dans cctte feulc riuierc. De dire 
quel vent lesauoit la amencz , & commc il 
s'y en eft pu trouuer vn fi grad nombre en vn 
fculendroit,c'cftcc que ie f$ay moins que 
dcsmofquites.&couuns , qui font engen 
dresdclapourruurcdtfsbois. > 

Lme Iffr jr<y 

fpafic cette mer dcpapillons, noustrou- 
'uirncs vnc cheutc d'eau dans laqudle vn 
Francois nomrai la Montague ,pcnfa tom- 
ber auec tous fes Sauuagcs , d'ou ils ne Ce fuf- 
fenc Jam ais renrez que morts & brifcz dcs 
rochcts.B Leurimprudcnccicsauoit mis dans 
ce danger , pour n'auoir pas ajTeZ toft pris 
terre,&s'ilsncfe fuflent promptement ice- 
tcx dans reaii,lecourant les iettoit infailli- 
blement dans lc precipice , & dc la I la mort, 
qu'eftoit la fin d« leur voyage. 

974 

'Cjfres cf ceurtoijics its Sattuagts t a 
Frar.fbis de Kebec t & dc l*ex(tHi 
fujuipage d'vnt barque frift f*r I 
\Anglois\ 



APres que nous auons eu mene t 
deux Peres a Paris, efchapez de ta 
de dmgers, il nous a cfte; necciTaire dct 
tourneraKebec, voir la contehanccdem 
7 ens affiigcz de routes les difgraces qOc pa 
* necertitc i ma:s qui fut foitlagec i la d 
ueurdepiuileurs Nurions S.iuuagcs qui I; 
afliftcrentchacunlclonfon petit pouuoir 
A la my lanuifr i<f>j. les Montagm; 
commencerenratucrde l'cflan, dbnc ils li 
rent bonne parr i nos Franc;oisiparticuliett 
mentChuuinin, qui tone expres vbuluto 



i 



baner aucc (oh frerc Neogabinac dans 1c 
boisautqiirdcKcbecj pout: Icspouiioiril 
lifter de leur chafle , auec plus dc faliciti 
qu'ils neuflcnjfccu fake in loing. Ii ycu 1 
auflilc (auuage Manroucharchc autrcmcn; 
nommc la Naflc , par les Francois a caul: 
^u'lllefcruoic rouiiouu d'vue Nailcpourlf 

lAkrt If. S7S 

ifthcderan^uillc, ccqucne font pas or- 
ruircmcnt les mures Sauuages, ayda fort 
ix Rencrends Peres lefuircs , conime fit 
illiC'iourrtin.&l'Hyucreftaiit paflTc' il fc 
i ik habicu'er au defer; defdits Peres Iefuites, 
iulUbouraautclcur pctmifllon, vn bout 
,lcur terrc , qui auoir produit vn trcs-bcad 
kdquandlcs Angloislesprirent. 
t.'Hyucr nc fut pas moins loing que Ie 
recrdent, car les neiges n'gftoicnt pa 1 , en- 
fvi« flftnduiis a Palqucs , dui cftoit 1c ij. 
Amil tctrc annex la , toutefois elles ne du- 
eienlpUVsgueresaprcs , car lc 18 d'Auril 
on comma tv^a d'ouutir la terrtyefc lc fecond 
our'iic May i'on tenia du bled fromenr, que 
on;»ppel»echFtanccbl> drharcets. 
LcrenomieAufut aifcz beau &: fauorablc 
lourf.ireles (cniaillcs k maisceux dcl'habi- 
ntion uc s'aiiiufo.ent coufiours qu'apres 
cur ford, fondani l'cfpcrance dc feur vie 
nr les Nauircs , (ans s'amufcr a cultiuer, 
luntilsferepentireniapres , nuis aucevne 
;rop legere punitibn d'vne negligence fi 
jraiidc , car les Nanires pouuoicnt pcrir, oil 
:ftre ptis des ennemis , conime ils furent all 
F.ndcs An^lois. 

Le rnois dc May s 'cfcoul .1 fans que Ton eri- 
tendit aucunc nouuclle dc France, ce qui 
fnit en peine tous les hyuemans a qui les 
ienrs croiflbient comme l'hcrbe en bonne 
crre.fautc d'auotr dequoy les employer » 
:ir felon leur calcul il dcuoic eftrc arriui 
luclcjucs Nauircs des le commencement du> 

S 7 G Hifloirt du Canada 

mois | cVeut cfte bicn necellaire d ce con 
que tousles viurcsdcfiilloient , car dc fen 
cfcucllcs degram quclefieurde Champlai 
anoit ordonc par fepmaine desle Noel pad 
pourcliaquc pcrfonnedcThabitacion, ilci 
talkie retrancher plus de la moine , & couti 
lesboismfqucsacinq & fixlieucsloin, pou 
troimcr des racines de bon manger , car eel. 
les des enujrons dcKcbcc auoient eftc route 
conibmmecs. 



459 



Sceatt dc 

Salomon 
ricinc. 



fll y a vnc cevrainc racine entre les autres, Ii > 
Jqiitlle nous appclIonsiV////"r 1 S'<r/<»'wo»/V,fcca 
de Salomon, qui les ayda grandement, ci 
el le eft aflez bonne, execptc qn'ellc eft vn pe 
forte mangeecreu'c.i'.iyappris quelle eft vi 
fouuerain remede contrc les hemoroides 
coupce en roiiellcs &r portcc au col fur I 
chair nn'c en chappclcrs, dontvne Damcrl 
Paris m'fiancuree en auoir cfte guarie. Ell: 
leur fcruoit le plus fouuenr de pain , & d'an 
tre fois 1 Is laccoromodoient auec du glan, ft 
vn pcu de farine d'or^e, aucc lc fon cV ii 
paillc, qu'ils faifoicnr boliillir& reduireen 
mcneftrc.mais pour ce que lc. glan eft fen 
amercn ccs pays la, & nc ie pouuoit manger 
fansy apporrcr de i'muention, Ton failoit 
vnpcu bouillirramande dans de l'cau aue; 
delaccndrepav dcuxdiucrfes fois , puis Ie 
gland eftant bicn hue & ncctoyc dc ccs cen- 
tres , on le pilloit & mefloit parmy la. farine 
d'orge , a demie cuirce pour en cfpeflir U 
bouillie.danslaquclle I'on mefloit auili da 
poifl'on deminfle , q uand.l'.on en gttojrt, m*'^ 



Liure IV, $yy 

fmsfel.car il n'y en auoir plus a Kcbcc. 

Le fieur dc Champl.-in cnuoya le (Tcur 
Boullcfonbrau frerc auec quelqucs aurfc* 
Francois vers Tadouflac, pour voir la on y 
en !>oruroitfaire,mai;aynns experiments le* 
jaux par lc feu ils n'en pUrcnt rucr la plaine 
main, dilans pour cxcufe,mais vcritablemf t, 
que l'cau n'y cftoir pas propre, bicn qu'ile 
1'cuilent , fair conlommcr dans des placques 
de plomb qu'ils y auoicnc portecS,par l'ordre 
dudit (leur dc Champlain. 

Vne matinee i quoy on penfoit le moins 

tomba vnc des tourcllcs du foi r,qui fir croire 

lUxFrancois, comme al'annce palli^e d'vn 

pucil accident , qitel'on auroit bicn toft des 

nonuellcs dc France, ou d'Angletcrrc,ce qui 

e s rcfiouir.car ils (e foucioict aftex peu pour 

orsd'otl elles viendroiet pourueu qu'ils fuf^ 

cnt aftiftez , &: tircz hors dc leurs mi feres. 

Lcficur dc Champlain voulant euiteraux 

aulfes Propheties , (ir promptcment racom- 

nodcr Is. tout cllc.&r cnuoya quelquc Matte- 

o;s vers Gafpe voir s'il y auroit quelqucs 

is.uiires Francois pour entirer du fecours, 

nais n'y ayant trouuc pcrfonne, ils pefchcrcc 

luelqucsmoiu'es.ramairerent vn reftedefel 

jn'ils trouuerenr fur lc galay, & puis s'enre- 

otirnerent au (leur dc Champlain, qui fe rc- 

pemautdesnegligccespafteesqu'iltouchoic 



400 




CO 

o 

H 



I— < 

H 






a 
c 

< 

B 

c 
< 

a 

w 





4fl 




REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE ZURl AND COLORADO RIVERS. 




462 



RAMBLES 

AND 

RECOLLECTIONS 

OF 

AN INDIAN OFFICIAL. 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL W. H. SLEEMAN, 

OF THE BENGAL AHMV. 

" The proper study of mankind is man." 

Pope. 

IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. I. 



LONDON: 
J MATCH AllO AND SON, 187, PICCADILLY. 

1841. 



34 A SUTTEE ON .THE NEUDtJDDA. 

"And you think that the women were really 
called to be burned by the Deity ?" 

" No doubt : Ave all believe that they were called 
and supported by the Deity ; and that no tender 
beings like women could otherwise voluntarily un- 
dergo such tortures — they become inspired with 
supernatural powers of courage and fortitude ! When 
Dhoolee Sookul, the Sehora banker's father, died, the 
wife of a Lodhee cultivator of the town declared, all 
at once, that she had been a suttee with him six 
times before ; and that she would now go into para- 
dise with him a seventh time. Nothing could dis- 
suade her from burning herself. She was between 
fifty and sixty years of age ; and had grandchildren; 
and all her family tried to persuade her that it must 



be a mistake, but all in vain. She became a suttee, 
and was burnt the day after the body of the 
banker !" 

" Did not Dhoolee Sookul's family, who were 
35 
Brahmans, try to dissuade her from it, she being a 
Lodhee, a very low caste ?" 

" They did ; but they said all things were possible 
with God ; and it was generally believed, that this 
was a call from heaven." 

" And what became of the banker's widow ?" 

"She said that she felt no divine call to the 
flames. This was thirty years ago ; and the banker 
was about thirty years of age when he died." 

" Then he will have rather an old wife in pa- 
radise ?" 

" No, sir ; after they pass through the flames 
upon earth, both become young in paradise." 

" Sometimes women used to burn themselves with 
any relict of a husband who had died far from home, 
did they not ?" 

" Yes, sir, I remember a fisherman, about twenty 
years ago, who went on some business to Banares 
from Jubbulpore, and who was to have bee n back in 
two m onths._ J Six months passed away without any 
news of him ; and at last the wife dreamed that he 
had died on the road, and began forthwith, in the 
middle of the night, to call out Sut, Sid, Sid! 
Nothing could dissuade her from burning ; and in the 
morning a pile was raised for her, on the north 
bank of the large tank of Iloonooman, where you 
have, planted an avenue of trees. There I saw 
her burned with her husband's turban in her arms — 
and in ten days after, her husband came back !" 

" Now the burning has been prohibited, a man/ 
can not get rid of a bad wife so easily?"/ 1 

70 At 

Beragur, the high priest of the temple told us, that 
Ourungzebe and his soldiers knocked off the heads, 
arms, and noses of all the idols, saying, " that if they 
had really any of the godhead in them, they would 
assuredly now show it, and save themselves." But 
when they came to the door of Gouree Sunkur's 
apartments, they were attacked by a nest of hornets, 
that put the whole of the emperor's army to the 
route ; and his imperial majesty called out, " Here 
we have really something like a god, and we shall 
not suffer him to be molested: if all your gods 



463 



could give us proof like tins of their divinity, not a 
nose of them would ever be touched!" 

'Hie popular belief, however, is that after Ourung- 
zebe's army had struck oil" all the prominent features 



TIlOOl'S ROUTED BY HORNETS. 



71 



of the other gods, one of the soldiers entered the 
temple, and struck off the ear of one of the prostrate 
images underneath their vehicle, the Bull. " My 
dear," said Gource, " do you sec what these saucy 
men are about ?" Her consort turned round his 
head ; and seeing the soldiers around him, brought 
all the hornets up from among the marble rocks 
below, where there are still so many nests of them, 
and the whole army fled before them to Tcoree, five 
miles. It is very likely that some body of troops by 
whom the rest of the images had been mutilated, 
may have been driven off by a nest of hornet s from 
within the temple where this statue stands, j l have\ 
'"seen six companies of infantry, with a train of artil- \ 
lcry, and a squadron of horse, all put to the route by I 
a single nest of hornets ; and dri ven oft' some miles) 
with all their horses and bullocks, f The officers gene- 
rally save themselves, by keeping within their tents, 
and creeping under their bed-clothes, or their carpets ; 
and servants often escape by covering themselves up 
in their blankets, and lying perfectly still. Horses 
are often stung to a state of madness, in which 
they throw themselves over precipices, and break 
their limbs, or kill themselves. The grooms, in try- 
ing to save their horses, are generally the people who 
suffer most in a camp attacked by such an enemy. 
I have seen some so stung as to recover with diffi- 
culty ; and I believe there have been instances of 
people not recovering at all. 



ment of the land, and inspection of fields, with a view' 
to estimate their capabilities to pay; which the people 
considered a kind of incest, and which he himself, the 
Deity, can never tolerate. The land is," said he, "consi- 
dered as the mother of the prince or chief who holds 
it — the great parent from whom he derives all that 
maintains him— his family and his establishments. 
If well treated she yields this in abundance to her 
son ; but if he presumes to look upon her with 'the 
eye of desire, she ceases to be fruitful ; or the Deity 
tsends down hail or blight to destroy all that she 

249 



248 



LiLIGIITS. 



I had a visit from my little friend the Sureemum, 
and the conversation turned upon the causes and 
effects of the dreadful blight to which the wheat- 
crops in the Nerbudda districts had of late years 
been subject. He said that " the people at first at- 
tributed this great calamity to an increase in the 
crime of adultery which had followed the introduc- 
tion of our rule, and which," he said, " was under- 
stood to follow it everywher e ;{that afterwards it was 
r by most people attributed to our frequent measure- 



yields ! ] The measuring the surface of the fields, and 
the frequently inspecting the crops by the chief him- 
self, or by his immediate agents, were considered by 
the people in this light ; and in consequence he never 
ventured upon those things. They were," he thought, 
" fully satisfied that we did it more with a view to 
distribute the burthen of taxation equally upon the 
people than to increase it collectively : still," he 
thought, " that either avc should not do it at all, or 
delegate the duty to inferior agents, whose close in- 
spection of the great parent could not be so displeas- 
ing to the Deity." * 

* We are told in 2 Samuel, chap, xxiv., that, the Deity 
was displeased at a census of the people, taken by Joab by the 
order of David, and destroyed of the people of Israel seventy 
thousand, besides women and children. 

261 

During the discussion of the question with the 
people, I had one day a conversation with our Sudder 
Ameer, or head native judicial officer, whom I have 
already mentioned. He told me, " that there could 
be no doubt of the truth of the conclusion to which 
the people had at length come ! There are," he said, 
" some countries in Avhich punishments follow crimes 
after long intervals, and, indeed, do not take place 
till some future birth ; in others they follow crimes 



immediately j/and such is the country bordering the 
stream of Mother Nerbudda ! This," said he, " is a 
stream more holy than that of the great Ganges 
I herself, since no man is supposed to derive any be- 
Incfit from that stream, unless he either bathe in it 
or drink from it ; but the s'ujht of the Nerbudda from 
a distant h ill could bless him, and purify him. J in 

262 

other countries, the slaughter of cows and bullocks 



464 



might not bo punished for ages; and the harvest, in 
.such countries, might continue good through many 
successive generations, under such enormities : in- 
deed, he was not quite sure that there might not be 
countries in which no punishment at all would in- 
evitably follow; but so near the Nerbudda this could 
not be the case ! Providence could never suiter beef 
to be eaten so near her sacred majesty without visit- 
ing the crops with blight, hail, or some other cala- 
mity ; and the people with cholera morbus, small-pox, 
and other great pestilences. As for himself, he 
should never be persuaded that all these afflictions 
did not arise wholly and solely from this dreadful 
habit of eating beef. I declare," concluded he, " that 
if government would but consent to prohibit the 
eating of beef) it might levy from the lands three 
times the revenue that they now pay." 

The great fes'tival of the Hooghly, the saturnalia of 
India, terminates on the last day of Phagoon, or 16th 
of March. On that clay the Hooghly is burned ; and 
on that day the ravages of the monster (for monster 
they will have it to be) are supposed to cease. Any 
field that has remained untouched up to that time is 
considered to be quite secure from the moment the 
Hooghly has been committed to the flames. What 
gave rise to the notion I have never been able to 
discover ; but such is the general belief. I suppose 
the silicious epidermis must then have become too 
hard, and the pores in the stem too much closed 

263 

up to admit of the further depredation of the 
fungi. 

^JTn thclatter end of 1831, while I was at Saugor, 
a cowherd, in driving his cattle to water at a reach 
of the Beeose river, called the Nurdhardhar, near the 
little village of Jusruttce, was reported to have seen 
a vision, that told him the waters of that reach, taken 
up and conveyed to the fields in pitchers, would effec- 
tually keep off the blight from the wheat, provided 
the pitchers were not suffered to touch the ground 
on the way. On reaching the field, a small hole was' 
to be made at the bottom of the pitcher, so as to 
keep up a small but steady stream, as the bearer car- 
ried it round the border of the field, that the water 
might fall in a complete ring, except at a small open- 
ing, which was to be kept dry, in order that the 
monster or demon blight might make his escape 

\ through it, not being able to cross over any part 



C, _ 
watered b^ the holy stream. The waters of the 

Beeose river generally are not supposed to have any 
peculiar virtues. The report of this vision spread 
rapidly over the country ; and the people who had 
been suffering under so many seasons of great calamity 
were anxious to try anything that promised the 
slightest chance of relief. Every cultivator of the 
district prepared pots for the conveyance of this 
water, with tripods to support them while they rested 
on the road, that they might not touch the ground. 
The spot pointed out for taking the water was im- 
mediately under a fine large peepul-tree which had 

264 
fallen into the river, and on each bank was s eated a 
Byragee, or priest of Vishnoo^ J'The blight began to 
manifest itself in the ulsce (linseed) in January, 1832, 
but the wheat is never considered to be in danger till 
late in February, when it is nearly ripe ; and during 
that month and the following the banks of the river 
were crowd ed with people in search of the water. 
Some of these people came more than one hundred 
miles to fetch it ; and all seemed to feel quite sure 
that the holy water would save them. Each person 
gave the Byragee priest, of his own side of the river, 
two half-pence, (copper pice,) two pice weight of 
ghee, (clarified butter,) and two pounds of flour, be- 
fore he filled his pitcher, to secure his blessings from 
it. These priests were strangers ; and the offerings 
Avcre entirel y voluntary. [ The roads from this reach 
fof the Beeose river, up to the capital of the Orcha 
Rajah, more than a hundred miles, were literally 
lined with these water-carriers ; and I estimated the 
number of persons who passed with the water every j 
day, for six weeks, at ten thousand a day.j 



After they had ceased to take theAvater, the banks 
were long crowded with people who flocked to see 
the place whose priests and waters had worked such 
miracles, and to try and discover the source whence 
the water derived its virtues. It was remarked by 
some, that the peepul-tree, which had fallen from 
the bank above many years before, had still con- 
tinued to throw out the richest foliage from the 
branches above the surface of the water. Others de- 
265 

clared that they saw a mon/cvj/ on the bank near the 
spot, which no sooner perceived that it was observed 
than it plunged into the stream and disappeared. 
Others again saw some flights of steps under the 



465 



waters, indicating that it had in days of yore been 
the site of a temple, whose God, no doubt, gave to 
the waters the Avondcrful virtues it had been found 
to possess. The priests would say nothing, but "that 
it was the work of God ; and, like all Ins works, be- 
yond the reach of man's understanding." They made 
their fortunes, and got up the vision and miracle, no 
doubt, for that especial purpose. As to the effect, I 
was told .by hundreds of farmers who had tried the 
waters, that though it had not anywhere kept the 
blight off entirely from the wheat, it Avas found that 
the fields which had not tho advantages of water 
were entirely destroyed ; and where the pot had 
been taken all round the field without leaving any 
dry opening for the demon to escape through, it was 
almost as bad ; but when a small opening had been 
left, and the water carefully dropped around the field 
elsewhere, the crop had been very little injured, 
which showed clearly the efficacy of the water, when 
all the ceremonies and observances prescribed by 
the vision had been attended to ! 



RAMBLES 



RECOLLECTIONS 



AN INDIAN OFFICIAL. 



BY 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL W. H. SLEEMAN, 

OF THE BENGAL ARMY. 



1 The proper study of mankind is man. 



POPB. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 



VOL. II. 



LONDON: 

J.IIATCHARD AND SON, 187, PICCADILLY. 

18 11. 



188 

PUHLIC SPIRIT OF THE HINDOOS — TREE CULTIVATION, AND 
SUGGESTIONS l'OR EXTENDING IT. 

I may here be permitted to introduce, as something, 
germane to the matter of the foregoing chapter, a 
luccoLLECTioN of Jubbulpore, although we are now far 
past that locality. 

My tents are pitched where they have often before 
been, on the verge of a very large and beautiful tank 
in a fine grove of mango trees, and close by a hand- 
some temple. There are more handsome temples 
and buildings for accommodation on the other side 
of the tank, but they are gone sadly o ut of repair. 
| The bank all round this noble tank is beautifully! 
J ornamented by fine banyan and peep ul trees, between ) 
which and the waters edge intervene numerous 
clusters of the graceful bamboo. These Avorks were 
formed about eighty years ago by a respectable 
agricultural capitalist who resided at this place, and 
died about twenty years after they were completed. 
No relation of his can now be found in the district ; 

189 
and not one in a thousand of those who drink of the 
water or eat of the fruit, knows to whom he is in- 
debted. There are round the place some beautiful 
bowlies, or large wells with flights of stone steps from 
the top to the water's edge, imbedded in clusters of 
beautiful trees. They were formed about the same 
time for the use of the public by men whose grand- 
children have descended to the grade of cultivators 
of the soil, or belted attendants upon the present 
native collectors, without the means of repairing any 
of the injury which time is inflicting upon these 
magnificent works. ^ Three or four young peepul 
trees have begun to spread their delicate branches 
and pale green leaves rustling in the breeze from 
the dome of this fine temple, which these infant 
Herculcses hold in their deadly grasp and doom to 
inevitable destruction. Pigeons deposit the seeds of 
the peepul tree, on which they chiefly feed, in the 
crevices of buildings. 

No Hindoo dares, and no Christian or Mahomcdan 
will condescend to lop off the heads of these young 
trees, and if they did, it would only put off the evil 
and inevitable day ; for such are the vital powers of 
their roots, when they have once penetrated deeply 
into a building, that they will send out their branches 
I again, cut them off as often as you may, and carr y om 



466 



\their internal attack with undiminished vigou 

i\o wonder that superstition should havo conse- 
crated this tree, delicate and beautiful as it is, to the. 
fi'°ds. | The palace, the castle, the temple, and the) 

190 



tomb, all those works which man is most proud to 
raise, to spread and to perpetuate his name, crumble 
to dust beneath her withering grasp. She rises 
triumphant over them all in her lofty beauty, bear- 
ing high in air amidst her light green foliage frag- 
ments of the wreck she has made, to show thej 
nothingness of man's greatest efforts. J 



While sitting at my tent door looking out upon 
this beautiful sheet of water, and upon all the noble 
works around me, I thought of the charge, so often 
made against the people of this fine land, of the total 
want of public spirit among them, by those who have 
spent their Indian days in the busy courts of law, 
and still more busy commercial establishments of 
our great metropolis. 

If by the term public spirit be meant a disposition 
on the part of individuals to sacrifice their own en- 
joyments, or their own means of enjoyment for the 
common good, there is perhaps no people in the 
world among whom it abounds so much as among 
the people of India. To live in the grateful recol- 
lections of their countrymen for benefits conferred 
upon them in great works of ornament and utility is 
the study of every Hindoo of rank and property. 
Such works tend, in his opinion, not only to spread 
and perpetuate his name in this world, but, through 
the good wishes and prayers of those who are bene- 
fited by them, to secure the favour of the Deity in 
the next. 

According to their notions, every drop of rain 
191 
water or dew that falls to the ground from the green 
leaf of a fruit tree, planted by them for the common 
good, proves a refreshing draught for their souls in 
the next. When no descendant remains to pour the 
funeral libation in their name, the water from the 
trees they have planted for the public good is des- 
tined to supply its place. Every thingjudiciously 
laid out to promote the happiness of their fellow 
creatures will, in the next world, be repaid to them 
tenfold by the Deity. 

In marching over the country in the hot season, 



we every morning find our tents pitched on the 
green sward amid beautiful groves of fruit trees, with 
wells of puckha (brick or stone) masonry, built at 
great expense and containing the most delicious 
water ; but how few of us ever dream of asking at 
whose cost the trees that afford us and our followers 
such agreeable shade, were planted, or the wells that 
afford us such copious streams of fine water in the 
midst of dry arid plains, were formed — we go on 
enjoying all the advantages which arise from ' the 
noble public spirit that animates the people of India 
to benevolent exertions, without once calling in 
question the truth of the assertion of our metro- 
politan friends, that " the people of India have no 
public spirit!" 

333 

RENT-FREE TENURES — RIGHT OF GOVERNMENTS TO RESUME 
SUCH GRANTS. 



On the 27th, we went on fifteen miles to Begum- 
abad, over a sandy and level country. All the 
peasantry along the roads were busy watering their 
fields ; and the singing of the man who stood at the 
well to tell the other who guides the bullocks when 
to pull, after the leather bucket had been filled at 
the bottom, and when to stop as it reached the top, 
was extremely pleasing. It is said that Janseyn, of 
Delhi, the most celebrated singer they have ever 
had in India, used to spend a great part of his time 
in these fields listening to the simple melodies of 
these water-drawers, which he learned to imitate and 
apply to hi s more finished vocal music, j Popular belief 
ascribes to Janseyn the power of stopping the river 
i Jumna in its course. His contemporary and rival, 
Brij Bowla, who, according to popular belief, could 
split a rock with a single note, is said to have learned/ 



his base from the noise of the stone-mills which the 
■women use in grinding the corn for their families 



Janseyn was a Brahman from Patna, who entered 
the service of the Emperor Akbar, became a Mus- 
sulman, and after the service of twenty-seven years, 
during which he was much beloved by the Emperor 
and all his court, he died at Gwalior in the 34th 
year of the Emperor's reign. His tomb is still to 
be seen at Gwalior. All his descendants are said to. 
have a talent for music, and they have all Seyn 
added to their names. 



467 



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THE H E I M S K R I N G L A ; 



OE, 



CHRONICLE 



THE KINGS OF NORWAY. 



TRANSLATED 



FROM THE ICELANDIC OF SNORRO STURLESON, 



aSEitft a $«Ummarg Dissertation, 



SAMUEL LAING, ESQ. 

AUTHOR OF " A RESIDENCE IN NOEWAT," " A TOUR IN SWEDEN,' 
" NOTES OF A TRAVELLER," ETC. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 



VOL. I. 



^ 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR. 

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS, 

PATERNOSTER-ROW . 

1844. 



109 PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION 

The extent of every little property has been 
settled for ages, and want of soil and space prevents 
any alteration in the extent, and keeps it within the 
unchangeable boundaries of rock and water. It is 
highly interesting to look at these original little family 
estates of the men who, in the 9th and 10th centuries, 
played so important a part in the finest countries of 
Europe, — who were the origin of the men and events 
we see at this day, and whose descendants are now 
seated on the thrones and in the palaces of Europe, 
and in the "West are making a new world of social 
arrangement s for themselves. ( The sites, and evenj 

I the names, ot the little estates or gaards on which 
these men were born, remain unchanged, in many 
instances, to this day; and the posterity of the original 



proprietors of the 9th century may reasonably be sup- 
posed, in a :ountry in which the land is entailed by 
udal right upon the family, to be at this day the 
possessors — engaged, however, now in cutting wood 
for the French or Newcastle market, inste ad of in 
conquering Normandy and Northumberland. { 



Some of our great English nobility and gentry 
leave their own splendid seats, parks, and estates in 
England, to enjoy shooting and fishing in Norway for 

110 

a few weeks. They are little aware that they are 
perhaps passing by the very estates which their own 
ancestors once ploughed, — sleeping on the same spot 
of this earth on which their forefathers, a thousand 
years ago, slept, and were at home ; men, too, as proud 
then of their high birth, of their descent, through 
some seven-and-twenty generations, from Odin, or his 
followers the Goclar, as their posterity are now of 
having " come in with or before the Conqueror." The 
common traveller visiting this land destitute of archi- 
tectural remains of former magnificence, without the 
temples and classical ruins of Italy, or the cathedrals 
and giant castles of Germany, will yet feel here that 
the memorials of former generations may be materially 
insignificant, yet morally grand. These little farms 
and houses, as they stand at this day, were the homes 
of men whose rude, but just and firm sense of their 
civil and political rights in society, is, in the present 
times, radiating from the spark of it they kindled in 
England, and working out in every country the eman- 
cipation of mankind from the thraldom of the insti- 
tutions which grew up under the Roman empire, and 
still cover Italy and Germany, along with the decaying 
ruins of the splendour, taste, magnificence, power, 
and oppression of their rulers, j Europe holds no me-/ 



monais of ancient historical events which have beenl 
attended by such great results in our times, as somej 
rude excavations in the shore-banks of the island of 
Vigr*, in More, — which are pointed out by the finger 
of tradition as the dry docks in which the vessels of 
Rolf Ganger, from whom the fifth in descent was our 
William the Conqueror, were drawn up in winter, and 
from whence he launched them, and set out from 
Norway on the expedition in which he conquered 



Normandy.! The philosopher might seat himself be- 



* VigToe, the isle of Vigr, is situated in Haram parish, in the baili- 
wick of Soud Mor. — Strohm's Biskryvelse over Mure, and Kraft's Norgc. 

Ill 

side the historian amidst the ruins of the Capitol, and 
with Rome, and all the monuments of Roman power 
and magnificence under his eye, might venture to ask 
whether they, magnificent and imposing as they are, 
suggest ideas of greater social interest, — are connected 
with grander moral results on the condition, well- 
being, and civilisation of the human race in every 
land, than these rude excavations in the isle of Vigr, 
which once held Rolf Ganger's vessels. 



469 



130 

STATE OF THE USEFUL ARTS AMONG THE NORTHMEN. 

The architectural remains of public buildings in a 
country — of chivrchcs, monasteries, castles, — as they 
are the most visible and lasting monuments, are often 
taken as the only measure of the useful arts in former 
times. Yet a class of builders, or stone-masons, wan- 
dering from country to country, like our civil en- 
gineers and rail-road contractors at the present day, 
may have constructed these edifices ; and a people or 
a nobility sunk in ignorance, superstition, and sloth, 
may have paid for the construction, without any dif- 
fusion of the useful arts, or of combined industry, in 
the inert mass of population around. Gothic archi- 
tecture in both its branches, Saxon and N orman, has 
evidently sprung from a seafaring people. j The nave 

_ i? j.1 /' il." .i-T ,1 1 ! j. 1 . 1 a - 1 * j_ _ H 



of the Gothic cathedral, with its round or pointed 
arches, is the inside of a vessel with its timbers, and 
merely raised upon posts, and reversed. No working 
model for a Gothic fabric could be given that would 
not be a ship turned upside down, and raised on 
pillars. The name of the main body of the Gothic 
church — the nave, navis, or ship of the building, as 
it is called in all the northern languages of Gothic 
root — shows that the wooden structure of the ship- 
builder has given the idea and principles to the archi- 
tect, who has only translated the wood work into 
stone, and reversed it, and raised it to be the roof 
instead of the bottom of a fabric.) The Northmen, 



however, can lay no claim to any attainment in archi- 
tecture. The material and skill have been equally 
131 

wanting among them. From the pagan times nothing 
in stone and lime exists of any importance or merit 
as a building ; and the principal structure of an early 
age connected with Christianity, the cathedral of 
Drontheim, erected in the last half of the 12th cen- 
tury, cannot certainly be considered equal to the great 
ecclesiastical structures of Durham, York, or other 
English cathedrals, scarcely even to that of the same 
period erected in Orkney — the cathedral of Saint 
Magnus. We have, however, a less equivocal test of 
the progress and diffusion of the useful arts among 
the Northmen than the church-building of their 
Saxon contemporaries, for which they wanted the 
material. "When we read of bands of ferocious, igno- 
rant, pagan barbarians, landing on the coasts of Eng- 
land or France, let us apply a little consideration to 
the accounts of them, and endeavour to recollect how 
many of the useful arts must be in operation, and in 
a very advanced state too, and very generally diffused 
in a country, in order to fit out even a single vessel 
to cross the high seas, much more numerous squad- 
rons filled with bands of fighting men. Legs, arms, 
and courage, the soldier and his sword, can do nothing 
here. We can understand multitudes of ignorant, 
ferocious barbarians, pressing in by land upon the 
Roman empire, overwhelming countries like a cloud 



of locusts, subsisting, as they march along, upon the 
grain and cattle of the inhabitants they exterminate, 
and settling, with their wives and children, in new 
homes ; but the moment we come to the sea we come 
to a check. Ferocity, ignorance, and courage, will 
not bring men across the ocean. Food, water, fuel, 
clothes, arms, as well as men, have to be provided, 
collected, transported ; and be the ships ever so rude, 
wood-work, iron-work, rope-work, cloth-work, cooper- 
work, in short almost all the useful arts, must be in 
full operation among a people .... 

136 

One of our long large 

steam vessels, with high poop deck and forecastle 
deck, low waist, and small breadth, would probably 
have very nearly the same appearance in the water 
as such a vessel as the Long Serpent ; only, instead of 
paddle-boxes and wheels on each side, there would be 
thirty-four oars out on each side between the fore- 
castle and the poop. The Northmen appear by the 
saga to have been lavish in gilding and painting their 
vessels, j One of these long low war-ships of the 



vikings, with a gilded head representing a dragon on 
the stem, and a gilded representation of its tail at the 
stern curling over the head of the steersman, with a 
row of shining red and white shields hung over the 
ra'ls all round from stem to stern, representing its scaly 
sides, and thirty oars on each side giving it motion and 
representing its legs, must have been no inapt repre- 
sentation of the ideal figure of a dragon creeping over 
the blue calm surface of a narrow gloomy fiord, sunk 
deep, like some abode for unearthly creatures, between 
precipices of bare black rock, which shut out the full 
light of day. Dragon was a name for a class or size 
of war-ships, but each had its own name. The Crane, 
the Little Serpent, the Long Serpent, the Bison, and 
other vessels of about thirty banks for rowers, are 
mentioned ; and vessels of from twenty to twenty-five 
banks appear to have been common among the con- 
siderable bonders, and cutters of ten or fifteen banks 
to have been the ordinary class of vessels of all who 
iwent on sea, j A vessel of thirty or thirty-four banks 



for rowers would have that number of oars out on 
each side, and not fifteen or seventeen only on each 
side ; because the breadth of such a vessel would be 
sufficient to give two rowers, sitting midships, a suffi- 
157 

cient length of lever between their hands and the 
fulcrum at the gunwales on either side, to wield and 
work any length of oar that could be advantageous : 
but in the smaller class of vessels of ten or fifteen 
oars it is likely that one oar only was worked on each 
bank, as in our men-of-war's boats, the whole breadth 
of the vessel being required for the portion of the 
lever or oar within the fulcrum or gunwale. Under 
the feet of the rowers, in the waist of the vessel, the 
chests of arms, stones for casting, provisions, clothing, 
and goods, have been stowed, and protected by a deck of 
moveable hatches. Upon this lower deck the crew ap- 



470 



pear to have slept at night, sheltered from the weather 
by a tilt or awning, when not landed and under tents 
on the beach for the night. Ship-tents are mentioned 
in the outfit of vessels as being of prime necessity, as 
much as ship-sails. In the voyages in the sagas, we 
read of fleets collected in the north of Norway, from 
Drontheim, and even from Halogahtnd, sailing south 
along the coast every summer as far as the Sound, 
and thence into the Baltic, or along the coast of Jut- 
land and Sleswig, and thence over to Britain, or to 
the other coasts. The major part of the vessels ap- 
pear to have taken a harbour every night, or to have 
been laid, on the coast of Norway, close to the rocks, 
in some sheltered spot, with cables on the land, or 
with the fore-foot of the vessel touching the beach ; 
and the people either landed and set up tents on 
shore, or made a tilt on board by striking the mast, 
and -laying the tilt cloths or sails over it. The large 
open vessels which at present carry the dried fish from 
the Lofoden isles to Bergen, although open for the 
sake of stowage, are of a size to carry masts of 40 
feet long which are struck by the crew when not 
under sail, there being no standing rigging, and only 
one large square-sail. This appears to have been the 
rig and description of all the ancient vessels . , t c 

152 In 1831 the missionary De Fries 

found near Igigcitum, in latitude 60°, a tombstone 
used as a door-lintel to a Greenland house, with an 
inscription in Roman characters — " Her Hvilir Hro 
Kolgrims;" w hich is, " Here rests Hroar or Ilroaldr 
But the most interesting oi' these in- 



Kolgrimson." 

scriptions is one discovered in 1824, in the island 
Kingigtorsook inBaffin'sBay, in latitude 72° 55' north, 
longitude 56° 5' west of Greenwich ; as it shows how 
bold these Northmen have been in their seamanship, 
and how far they had penetrated into regions supposed 
to have been unvisited by man before the voyages of 
our modern navigators. It now appears that Captain 
Parry and Captain Lyon had only sailed over seas 
which had been explored by these Northmen in the 
12th century. The inscription found in this high 
latitude was sent to three of the greatest antiquaries 
and Runic scholars in Europe — Finn Magnuscn, 
Professor Rask, and Dr. Bryniulfson in Iceland ; and, 
without communication with each other, they arrived 
at the same interpretation, viz. "ErlingSighvatson and 
Biorne Thordarson and Eindrid Oddson, on Saturday 
before Ascension Week, raised these marks and cleared 
ground. 1135." The meaning is, that in token of 
having taken possession of the land, they had raised 
marks or mounds of which Kragh and Stephenson 
observed some vestiges on the spot where the inscrip 
tion was found, and had cleared a space of ground 
around, being a symbol of appropriation of the land. 



lai 

T 



.'he interesting part of this inscription has not been 
sufficiently noticed and examined. In the Romish 
church the days of the Ascension Week arc of peculiar 
solemnity. The priests, accompanied by the people, 
walk in long processions with lighted torches around 



153 
the churches and consecrated ground, chanting, and 
sprinkling holy water. From the numerous processions 
going on at this festival, the Ascension Week was 
called the Gang Dayis,or Ganging Dayis, in old Scotch, 
— is still called the Gang Week in some parts of Eng- 
land, — was called GangDagas in Anglo-Saxon, — and 
Ascension Day, Gagn Dagr in the Icelandic ; and the 
going in procession, not the Gagn or Gain of Spiritual 
Victory, has given the name to the Dies Victorias in 
the northern languages. It appears that there are 
two festivals which might be called Gagn Dagr in the 
Romish church, from their being celebrated by proces- 
sions: one is the Dies Victoria) Maximus, about the 24th 
of April ; the other procession day is about the 1 4th of 
May; and theLaukardakinfyrirGakndag of the inscrip- 
tion may be the Saturday before either of these pro- 
cession days. But, to whichsoever it refers, the people 
who made these marks at that time of the year must 
have wintered upon the island. By the accounts of 
all northern voyagers, the sea in Baffin's Bay is not 
navigable at or near Ascension Week, or any church 
festival to which Gakn Dagr applies. We must either 
suppose that these Northmen, without any of our 
modern outfit of ships for wintering in such high 
latitudes, did not only winter there, but found the 
country so endurable as to take possession of it by a 
formal act indicating an intention to settle in the 
island ; or we must suppose that the cold, within so 
recent an historical period as 800 years ago, has in- 
creased so much in the northern parts of the globe, 
that countries are now uninhabitable by man which 
were formerly not so. Both, perhaps, may be taken into 
account. The capability of enduring cold or heat in 
extreme degrees may be acquired by individuals or 
tribes, and the habits and functions of the body be- 
come adapted to the temperature. The advance of 
ice locally in Davis's Straits, and on the east coast of 

154 
Greenland, seems also ascertained by the yearly in- 
crease of the fields of ice in the neighbouring seas 
within the experience of our whale fishers. 

The discovery of America, or Vinland, in the 11th 
century, by the same race of enduring enterprising 
seamen, is not less satisfactorily established by docu- 
mentary evidence than the discovery and colonisation 
of Greenland ; but it rests entirely upon documentary 
evidence, Avhich cannot, as in the case of Greenland, 
be substantiated by any thing to be discovered in 
America. One or two adventurers made voyages, 
came to new countries to the south and west of 
Greenland, landed, repeated their visits, and even 
remained for one or two years trading for skins with 
the natives, and felling timber to take home in their 
ships ; but they established no colony, left none behind 
them to multiply, and, as in Greenland, to construct, 
in stone, memorials of their existence on the coast of 
America, f All that can be proved, or that is required? 
(to be proved, for. establishing the priority of the dis-J 



471 



covery of America by the Northmen, is that the saga 
or traditional account of these voyages in the 11th 
century was committed to writing at a known date, 
viz. between 1387 and 1395, in a manuscript of un- 
questionable authenticity, of which these particular 
sagas or accounts relative to Vinland form but a small 
portion ; and that this known date was eighty years 
before Columbus visited Iceland to obtain nautical 
information, viz. in 1477, when he must have heard 
of this written account of Vinland ; a nd it was not, 
^ill 1492 that he discovered America.^ 'l'his simple 
Tact, established on documents altogether incontro- 
vertible, is sufficient to prove all that is wanted to be 
proved, or can be proved, and is much more clearly 
and ably stated by Thormod Torfteus, the great anti- 
quary of the last century, than it has been since, in 
his very rare little tract, " Historia Vinlandia3 Anti- 

155 
qu?o, 1707." This, however, has not been thought 
sufficient by modern antiquaries, and great research 
and talent have been expended in overlaying this 
simple documentary fact, on which alone the claim of 
the Icelanders to the priority of discovery rests, with 
a mass of documents of secondary importance and no 
validity. These are of secondary importance; because 
the circumstances which led to or happened upon these 
voyages, the family descent, or even identity of the 
adventurers, and the truth or falsehood of the details 
related, do not either confirm or shake the simple fact 
on which every thing rests, — that a discovery of a new 
land to the west and south was made and recorded, 
taken out of the mere traditionary state, and fixed in 
writing in 1387, or 100 years before Columbus's first 
voyage. They are of no validity ; because, after Co- 
lumbus's first voyage in 1492, the seafaring people in 
every country would be talking of and listening to 
accounts of discoveries, new or old, — imagination 
would be let loose, — and old sagas would be filled 
up and new invented ; so that no document relative 
to this question is of real validity which is not proved 
at setting out to be older than 1492, — that is to say, 
not merely an older story which may have circulated 
in the traditionary state from the 10th or 11th cen- 
tury, but older than 1492 on paper or parchment. 
220 
AVhen Odin of Asaland came to the north, and the 
gods with him, he began to exercise and teacli others 
the arts which the people long afterwards have 

221 
practised. Odin was the cleverest of all, and from 
him all the others learned their magic arts ; and he 
knew them first, and knew many more than other 
people. But now, to tell why he is held in such high 
respect, we must mention various causes that contri- 
buted to it. When sitting- among his friends his 
countenance was so beautiful and friendly, that the 
spirits of all were exhilarated by it ; but when he 
was in war he appeared fierce and dreadful. This 
arose from his being able to change his colour and 



form in any way he liked. Another cause was, that 
he conversed so cleverly and smoothly, that all who 
heard were persuaded. He spoke every thing in rhyme, 
such as now composed, and which we call scald-craft. 
He and his temple gods were called song-smiths, for 
from them came that art of song into the northern 
countries. Odin could make his enemies in battle 
blind, or deaf, or terror-struck, and their weapons so 
blunt that they could no more cut than a willow 
twig; on the other hand, his men rushed forwards 
without armour, were as mad as dogs or wolves, bit 
their shields, and were strong as bears or wild bulls, 
and killed people at a blow, and neither fire nor iron 
told upon them. These were called Bersaerkers.* 

Odin could transform his shape : his body would 
lie as if dead, or asleep ; but then he would be in shape 
of a fish, or worm, or bird, or beast, and be off in 
a twinkling to distant lands upon his own or other 
people's business. With words alone he could quench 
fire, still the ocean in tempest, and turn the wind 
to any quarter he pleased. Odin had a ship which 
was called Skidbladnir, in which he sailed over wide 

* Bersscrker — so called from ber, bare ; and serkr, shirt: that is, 
bare of any shirt of mail, as they fought without armour. The Ber- 
sserkers appear to have gone into battle intoxicated with opium, or some 
exciting drug ; as the reaction after their berserker gang was over, and 
their lassitude and exhaustion, prove the use of some stimulant previously 
to a great excess. 

222 

seas, and which he could roll up like a cloth.* Odin 
carried with him Mimir's head, which told him all 
the news of other countries. Sometimes even he 
called the dead out of the earth, or set himself 
beside the burial-mounds ; whence he was called 
the ghost-sovereign, and lord of the mounds. He 
had two ravens, to whom he had taught the speech 
of man ; and they flew far and wide through the 
land, and brought him the news. In all such 
things he was pre-eminently wise. He taught all 
these arts in Runes, and songs which are called 
incantations, and therefore the Asaland people are 
called incantation-smiths. Odin understood also the 
art in which the greatest power is lodged, and which 
he himself practised ; namely, what is called magic. 
By means of this he could know beforehand the pre- 
destined fate f of men, or their not yet completed lot ; 
and also bring on the death, ill luck, or bad health of 
people, and take the strength or wit from one person 
and give it to another. But after such witchcraft 
followed such weakness and anxiety, that it was not 
thought respectable for men to practise it ; and there- 
fore the priestesses were brought up in this art. Odin 
knew finely where all missing cattle were concealed 
under the earth, and understood the songs by which 
the earth, the hills, the stones, and mounds were 
opened to him ; and he bound those who dwell in 
them by the power of his word, and went in and took 
what he pleased. From these arts he became very 
celebrated. His enemies dreaded him ; his friends put 
their trust in him, and relied on his power and on 



472 



himself. He taught the most of his arts to his 
priests of the sacrifices, and they came nearest to 

Many 

the 



himself in all wisdom and witch-knowledge 



* This possibly refers to boats covered with skin or leather ■ 
coracle of the Welsh and Irish. 

f Orlbg — the original law, the primaeval law fixed from the begin- 
ning. It is curious that this idea of a predestination existed in the 
religion of Odin. 

223 

others, however, occupied themselves much with it; 
and from that time witchcraft spread far and wide, 
and continued long. People sacrificed to Odin, and 
the twelve chiefs from Asaland, — called them their 
gods, and believed in them long after. From Oclin's 
name came the name Audun, which people gave to 
his sons; and from Thor's name comes Thorer, also 
Thorarinn ; and also it is sometimes augmented by 
other additions, as Steenthor, or Hafthor, and many 
kinds of alterations. 

Odin established the same law in his land that had 
been in force in Asaland. Thus he established by 
law that all dead men should be burned, and their 
property laid with them upon the pile, and the ashes 
be cast into the sea or buried in the earth. Thus, 
said he, every one will come to Valhalla with the 
riches he had with him upon the pile ; and he would 
also e njoy whatever he him sel f had buried in the 
earth. [For men of consequence a mound should be! 

[raised to their memory, and for all other warriors who I 
had been distinguished for manhood a standing s tone ; | 
which custom remained long after Odin's time. J To- 
wards winter there should be blood-sacrifice for a 
good year, and in the middle of winter for a good 
crop ; and the third sacrifice should be in summer, 
for victory in battle. Over all Sweden the people 
paid Odin a scatt or tax — so much on each head; but 
he had to defend the country from enemy or dis- 
turbance, and pay the expense of the sacrifice feasts 
towards winter for a good year. 

338 
King Hakon took all the ships of the sons of Eric 
that had been left upon the strand, and had thern 
drawn quite up, and brought on the land. Then he 

339 

ordered that Egil Ullsccrk, and all the men of his 
army who had fallen, should be laid in the ships, 
and covered entirely over with earth and stones. 
King Hakon made many of the ships to be drawn up 
to the field of battle, and the hillocks over them are 
to be seen to the present day a little to the south 
of Freydarberg. At the time when King Hakon was 
killed, when Glum Geirason, in his song, boasted of 
King Hakon's fall, Eyvind Skaldaspiller composed 
these verses on this bfittle : — 

" Our dauntless king with Gamle's gore 
Sprinkled his bright sword o'er and o'er; 
Sprinkled the gag that holds the mouth 
Of the fell demon Fenri's wolf.* 
Proud swelled our warriors' hearts when he 
Drove Eric's sons out to the sea, 
With all their Gotland host : but now 
Our warriors weep — Hakon lies low !" 



[High standing stones f mark Egil Ullsacrk's grave.) 

■f The stones set on end in the ground, and 10 or 12 feet hi"h or 
more, are called standing stones in the Orkney Isles, and other places 
held by the Scandinavians; and the oblong tumuli found on the coast 
have very probably been cast over small shi_ps turned bottom up over 
the bodies of the slain, as described in this chapter, and are called ship 
mounds, to distinguish them from other mounds, by the Norwegian 
antiquaries. 

454 

King Olaf was more expert in ell exercises than 
any man in Norway whose memory is preserved . to 
us in sagas ; and he was stronger and more agile than 
most men, and many stories are written down about 
it. One is, that he ascended the Smalsor Horn *, and 
fixed his shield upon the very peak. Another is, 
that one of his followers had climbed up the peak 
after him, until he came to where he could neither get 
up nor down ; but the king came to his help, climbed 
up to him, took him under his arm, and bore him to 
the flat ground. \ King Olaf could run across the oars' 



'outside of the vessel while his men were rowing the 
Serpent. He could play with three daggers, so that 
one was always in the air, and he took the one falling 
by the handle. He could walk all round upon the 



* Now called Hornelen, — an inaccessible peak or needle on the sum. 
mit of a mountain in Bremanger. 

455 



ship's rails, could strike and cut equally we ll with bothj 
hands, and could cast two spears at once. \ King Olaf 
was a very merry frolicsome man ; gay and social ; had 
great taste in every thing ; was very generous ; was 
very finical in his dress, but in battle he exceeded all 
in bravery. He was distinguished for cruelty when 
he was enraged, and tortured many of his enemies. 
Some he burnt in fire ; some he had torn in pieces by 
mad dogs ; some he had mutilated, or cast down from 
high precipices. On this account his friends were 
attached to him warmly, and his enemies feared him 
greatly ; and thus he made such a fortunate advance 
in his undertakings, for some obeyed his will out of 
the friendliest zeal, and others out of dread. 





THE 


HEIMSKRINGLA; 

OB, 

CHRONICLE 


THE 


KINGS OF NORWAY. 






TRANSLATED 


FROJ 


[ THE 


ICELANDIC OF SNORRO STURLESON, 



473 



aSlitf) a ^rdtminarg Bfssertatt'on, 



SAMUEL LAING, ESQ. 

AUTHOR OK "A RESIDENCE IN NORWAY," "A TOUH IN SWEDEN, 
" NOTES OF A TRAVELLER," ETC. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 

vol. in. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR 

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS, 

PATERNOSTER-ROW. 
1844. 



54 

One summer King Harald went from thence with a 
few light ships and a few men. He steered south- 
wards out from Viken, and, when the wind served, 
stood over to Jutland, and marauded ; but the country 
people collected and defended the country. Then 
King Harald steered to Lymfiord, and went into 'the 
fiord. Lymfiord is so formed that its entrance is like 
a narrow river ; but when one gets farther into the 
fiord, it spreads out into a wide sea. King Harald 
marauded on both sides of the land ; and when the 
Danes gathered together on every side to oppose him, 
he lay at a small island which was uncultivated. 
I They wanted drink on board his ships, and went up\ 
jinto the island to seek water ; but finding none, they) 
reported it to the king. He ordered them to look for\ 
some long earth-worms on the island, and when they 
found them they brought them to the king. He 
ordered the people to bring the worms to a fire, and 
bake them before it, so that they should be thirsty. 
Then he ordered a thread to be tied round the tails 
of the worms, and to let them loose. The worms 
crept away immediately, while the threads were wound 
off from the clew as the worms took them away ; and 
the people followed the worms until they sought 
downwards in the earth. There the king ordered 
them to dig for water, which they did, and found so 



jmuch water that they had no want of it.\ King Harald 
now heard from his spies that King Swend was come 
with a large armament to the mouth of the fiord ; but 
that it was too late for him to come into it, as only 
one ship at a time can come in. King Harald then 
steered with his fleet in through the fiord to where 
it was broadest, to a place called Lygsbrcid. 
101 
King Harald was a handsome man, of noble appear- 
ance ; his hair and beard yellow. He had a short 



beard, and long mustachoes. The one eyebrow was 
somewhat higher than the other. He had large hands* 
and feet ; but these were well made. His height was 
five ells.f He was stern and severe to his enemies, 
and avenged cruelly all opposition or misdeed. So 
says Thiodolf: — 

" Severe alike to friends or foes, 
Who dared his royal will oppose; 
Severe in discipline to hold 
His men-at-arms wild and bold; 
Severe the bonders to repress; 
Severe to punish all excess; 
Severe was Harald — but we call 
That just which was alike to all." 

King Harald was most greedy of power, and of all 
distinction and honour. He was bountiful to the 
friends who suited him. So says Thiodolf: — 



J * It is a singular physical circumstance, that in almost all the swords 
of those" ages to be found in the collection of weapons in the Antiquarian 
Museum at Copenhagen, the handles indicate a size of hand very much 
smaller than the hands of modern people of any class or rank. No 
modern dandy, with the most delicate hands, would find room for his 
hand to grasp or wield with ease some of the swords of these Xor th-j 
men. / "* 

■f The old Norwegian ell was less than the present ell; and Thorlacius 
reckons, in a note on this chapter, that Ilarald's stature would be about 
four Danish ells, viz about eight feet. It appears that he exceeded the 
ordinary height of men by the offer made him of seven feet of English 
ground, or as much more as he required for a grave, in chapter 94. 

140 
It is said that Magnus composed the following 
verses about the emperor's daughter: — 

" The ring of arms where blue swords gleam, 
The battle-shout, the eagle's scream, 
The joy of war, no more can please: 
Matilda* is far o'er the seas. 
My sword may break, my shield be cleft, 
Of land or life I may be reft ; 
Yet I could sleep, but for one care, — 
One, o'er the seas, with light-brown hair." 

He also composed the following : — 

" The time that breeds delay feels long, 
The scald feels weary of his song; 
What sweetens, brightens, eases life? 
'Tis a sweet-smiling lovely wife. 
My time feels long in Thing affairs, 
In Things my loved one ne'er appears. 
The folk full-dressed, while I am sad, 
Talk and oppose — can I be glad ? " 

When King Magnus heard the friendly words the 
emperor's daughter had sp>oken about him, — that she 
had said such a man as King Magnus was appeared 
to her an excellent man, he composed the follow- 



" The lover hears, — across the sea, 
A favouring word was breathed to me. 
The lovely one with light-brown hair 
May trust her thoughts to senseless air : 
Her thoughts will find like thoughts in me; 
And though mv love I cannot see, 
Affection's thoughts fly in the wind, \ 
And meet each other, true and kind./ 



• This Matilda is considered by Torfseu* /"Hist. Norv. vol. iii. lib. 7. 
c. 5. p. 439-) to have been a daughter of tli .inperor Henry IV. 

178 

J Sigurd" : " It is the conversation of all that the] 
[expedition I made out of the country was a princely I 



474 



1 expedition, while you in the mean time sat at home 
like your father's daughter." 

Eystcin : " Now you betake yom-self to your cud- 
gel. I would not have brought up this conversation 
if I had not known what to reply on this point. I 
can truly say that I equipped you from home like a 
sister, before you went upon this expedition." 

Sigurd : " You must have have heard that on this 
expedition I was in many a battle in the Saracen's 
land, and gained the victory in all ; and you must 
have heard of the many valuable articles I acquired, 
the like of which were never seen before in this 
country, and I was the most respected wherever the 
most gallant men were ; and, on the other hand, you 
cannot conceal that you have only a home-bred repu- 
tation. I went to Palestine, and I came to Apulia ; 
but I did not see you there, brother. T gave Rogorj 



179 



the Great the title of king ; I won seven battles, and\ 
you were in none of them. I was at our Lord's grave ; 
but did not see thee there, my brother. On this 
expedition I went all the way to Jordan, where our 
Lord was baptized, and swam across the river ; but 
did not see thee there. On the edge of the river- 
bank there was a bush of willows, and there I twisted 
a knot of willows which is waiting thee there ; for I 
' said this knot thou shouldst untie, find fulfil the vow, 
brother, that is bound up in it." 

Eystein : " It is but little I have to set up against 
this. I have heard that you had several battles 
abroad, but it was more useful for the country 
what I was doing in the mean time here at home. 
In the north at Vaage I built fish-houses, so that all 
the poor people could earn a livelihood, and support 
themselves. I built there a priest's house, and en- 
dowed a church, where before all the people almost 
were heathen ; and on this account I think aH these 
people will remember that Eystein was once king of 
Norway. The road from Drontheim goes over the 
Dovrefielde, and many people had to sleep out of 
doors, and make a very severe journey; but I built 
inns, and supported them with money; and all tra- 
vellers know that Eystein has been king in Norway. 
Out at Agdaness was a barren waste, and no harbour, 
and many a ship was lost there ; and now there is a 
good harbour and ship-station, and a church also 
built there. Then I raised beacons on all the high 
fielde, of which all the people in the interior enjoy 
the benefit. In Bergen I built a royal hall, and the 
church of the Apostles, with a stair between the two; 
so that all the kings who come after me will remem- 
ber my name. I built Michael's church, and founded 
a monastery beside it. I settled the laAvs, brother, so 
that every man can obtain justice from his fcllow- 
jnanj and according as these are observed the country/ 



180 



land people are again joined to this kingdom, and 
more by prudence and kind words than by force and 
war. Now although all this that I have reckoned up 
be but small doings, yet I am not sure if the people 
of the country have not been better served by it than 
by your killing blucmen for the devil in the land of 
the Saracens, and sending them to hell. Now if you 
prize yourself on your good deeds, I think the places 
I have raised for chaste people of God will serve me 
not less for my soul's salvation. So if you tied a 
knot for me, I will not go to untie it ; and if I had 
been inclined to tie a knot for thee, thou wouldst not 
have been king of Norway at thy return to this 
country, when with a single ship you came into my 
fleet. Now let men of understanding judge what 
you have above me, and you will discover that here 
in Norway there are men equal to you." 

Thereupon bot h were silent, and there was anger 
on both sides. ) More things passed between the bro 



fwnfb 
jand ii 



be trie better 



_.ie better governed. I set a warping post 
on rimr in the sound of Sinsholm.* The Jemte 



3 



thers, from which it appeared that each of them 
would be greater than the other ; however, peace was 
preserved between them as long as they lived. It is 
told that once when King Sigurd had taken his seat, 
and Eystein had not arrived, Ingeborg, Guttorm's 
daughter, the wife of King Eystein, said to Sigurd, 
" The many great achievements, Sigurd, which you 
have performed in foreign lands, Avill long be held in 
remembrance." He answered her in these verses: — 

" White was my shield 

When I took the field, 
And red when I came home : 

The brave takes all 

That may befall ; 
Fate deals out what's to come. 

181 

" My men I taught, 

In the onslaught, 
The blow to give and fend — 

The weal or woe 

Of every blow 
Is just what God may send." 

It is told that King Sigurd was at a feast in the 
Upland, and a bath was made ready for him. When 
the king came to the bath, and the tent was raised 
over the bathing-tub, the king thought there was 
a fish in the tub beside him ; and a great laughter 
came upon him, so that he was beside himself, and 
was out of his mind, and often afterwards these fits 
returned. 

Magnus Barefoot's daughter, Ragnhild,was married 
by her brothers to Harald Kefia, a son of the Danish 
king Eric the Good ; and their sons were Magnus, 
Olaf, Canute, and Harald. 

King Eystein built a large ship at Nidaros, which, 
in size and shape, was like the Long Serpent which 
King Olaf Tryggvesson had built. At the head there 
was a dragon's head, and at the stern a crooked tail, 
and both were gilded over. The ship was high-sided ; 
but the fore and aft parts appeared less than they 
should be. 



476 



FOREST LIFE 


AND 


FOREST TREES: 


COMPRISING 


WINTER CAMP-LIFE AMONG THE 


LOGGERS, AND WILD-WOOD 


ADVENTURE. 


WITH 


DESCRIPTIONS'OF LUMBERING OPERATIONS ON 


THE VARIOUS RIVERS OF MAINE AND 


NEW BRUNSWICK. 

J 


BY JOHN S. SPRINGER. 


NEWYORK: 


HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 


62 CLIFF STREET. 


1851. 



PART I. 

TREES OF AMERICA. 

CHAPTER I. 
Trees, how regarded by Lumbermen. — Cedars of Lebanon. — Oldest Tree 
on Record— Napoleon's Regard for it — Dimensions. — Durability of the 
Cedar, how accounted for. — The Oak — Religious Veneration in which it 
was held by the Druids — The Uses to which their Shade was appropri- 
ated. — Curious Valuation of Oak Forests by the Ancient Saxons. — The 
Number of Species. — Its Value. — Remarkable old Oak in Brighton. — Char- 
ter Oak. — Button-wood Tree — Remarkable Rapidity of its Growth. — Re- 
markable Size of ono measured by Washington — by Michaux. — Disease 
in 1842, M3, and '44. — The Oriental Plane-tree— Great Favorite with the 
Ancients. — Ciinon's Effort to gratify tho Athenians. — Pliny's Account of 
its Transportation. — The Privilege of its Shade a Tax — Used as an Orna- 
ment — Nourished with Wine. — Hortensius and Cicero. — Pliny's curious 
Account of one of remarkable Size Page 13 



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470 

mont. — Cooking. — Disturbed Slumbers. — Ludicrous Fright. — Deer. — En- 
counter with Bears. — Mode of Exploring. — Forest Observatory. — Climbing 
Trees. — The Emotions excited by the View. — Necessity of Compass. — 
Nature's Compass. — The Return. — Annoyances from mischievous Beare. — 
Stumpage. — Permits. — Outfit and Return. — Crossing Carrying-places. — 
A Strong Man. — Skill of Boatmen. — Item of personal Experience. — Blind 
Path. — A Family in the Wilderness. — Things to be considered in locating 
Camps 44 

( CHAPTER III. 
Method of constructing Camp and Hovel. — Timber. — Covering. — Arrange- 
ment of Interior.— The Bed. — Deacon Seat. — Ingenious Method of mak- 
ing a Seat. — Cooking: superior Method of Baking.— The nightly Camp 
Fire. — Liabilities from taking Firo. — A Camp consumed. — Men burned to 
Death. — Enjoyment. — The new Camp: Dedication. — A Song. — A Story. 
—New Order in Architecture. — Ox Hovel. — Substitute for Lime. — The 
Devotedncss of the Teamster. — Fat and lean Cattle. — Swamping Roads. — 
Clumps of Pine. — The points of Interest in a Logging Road. — The Team- 
ster's Path. — Regret. — The peculiar Enjoyment of Men thus engaged 

'' „ Pag 65 

CHAPTER IV. 

Tokens of Wiuter.-rThe Anticipation. — Introduction of Team. — Difficulties 
attending it. — Uncomfortable Boating. — The Contrast. — Method of cross- 
ing Streams and Rivers. — The Docility of the Ox. — Facilities of Turnpikes. 
—Stopping-places. — Arrival.— An Adventure.— Ten Oxen in the Ice. — 
Method of taking them Out. — An uncomfortable Night. — The midnight Ex- 
cursion. — Oxen running at large in the Wilderness. — Developments of 
Memory. — Logging. — Division of Labor. — How to manage in the absence 
of a Cook. — "Uncle Nat." — Anecdote. — Felling Pines. — Ingenuity of 
Choppers. — Preparatory Arrangements. — The Bob-sled. — Method of Op- 
eration described. — The Excitement. — Comparison. — Immediate Length 
of Pine-trees. — Conclusion 83 



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CHAPTER V. 

The Skill and Enterprise of Lumbermen. — Method of taking Logs down 
Hills and Mountains. — Dry Sluice. — Stern Anchor. — Giant Mountain 
Steps. — Alpine Lumbering. — Warping a Team down Steeps. — Trial of 
Skill and Strength. — The rival Load. — Danger and Inconvenience of Hills 
in Logging Roads. — A distressing Accident. — Solemn Conclusion of a Win- 
ter's Work. — Some of the Perils attendant upon Lumbering. — A fearful 
Wound. — Narrow Escape. — The buried Cap. — The safest Way of Retreat. 
— A Sabbath in the Logging Camp. — Sunday Morning Naps. — Domestic 
Camp Duties. — Letter Writing. — Recreations. — Sable Traps. — Deer and 
Moose. — Bear Meat. — A rare Joke. — Moose Hunt. — Bewildered Hunters. 
— Extraordinary Encounter. — Conclusion of Sabbath in the Woods.. 100 

CHAPTER VI. 

Camp Life. — Winter Evenings. — An Evening in Camp. — Characters. — 
Card-playing. — A Song. — Collision with wild Beasts. — The unknown An- 
imal in a Dilemma. — "Indian Devil.'- -The Aborigines' Terror. — A shock- 
ing Encounter — The Discovery and Pursuit. — The Bear as an Antagonist 
— Their thieving Propensities. — A thrilling Scene in the Night. — A des- 
perate Encounter with three Bears „„ Page 129 

CHAPTER VII. 
Provision Teams. — Liabilities. — A Night in the Woods. — Traveling on Ice.— 
A Span of Horses lost. — Pat's Adventure. — Drogers* Caravan. — Horses in 
the Water. — Recovery of a sunken Load.— Returning Volunteers from 
Aroostook. — Description of a Log Tavern. — Perils on Lakes in Snow-storms. 
— Camping at Night. — Rude Ferry-boats 142 



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477 

Peril of Boys. — Editorial Observations. — Lumber Statistics. — Where the 
Lumber finds a Market. — Speculations on future Prospects of Lumbering 
Interests. — Anticipations of the Future. — Bangor 186 . 

CHAPTER V. 
Length of Kennebeck. — Moose-head Lake — Its peculiar Shape — Its Islands. 
— Burned Jacket. — Interesting Deposit. — Mount Kineo. — The Prospect 
from its Summit. — Moose River. — Old Indian. — The Banks of the Kenne- 
beck. — Beauties of the Country, &c. — Lumber on Dead River. — Falls at 
Waterville. — Skowhegan Falls. — Arnold's Encampment. — Nau-lau-chu- 
wak — Caritunk Falls. — Lumber. — Statistics. — Author's Acknowledg- 
ments. — Androscoggin — Course aud other Peculiarities. — A question of 
Rivalry. — Water Power. — Original Indications. — Interesting Sketch of 
Rumfoid Falls.— Estimated Water Power.— Lumber Statistics.— Droughts 
and Freshets.— Umbngog Lake. — The serpentine Megallo way.— Granite 
Mountains. — Beautiful Foliage. — Romantic Falls.— Character of Country. 
— Manner of Life in Log-cutting, &c.— Statistics, &c. — Presumpscot Riv- 
er, great Water-powers of. — Warmth of Water.— Statistical Remarks. — 
Saco River - 227 

CHAPTER VI. 

HEW BRUNSWICK. 

Object of the Chapter. — Description of St. John's River. — First Falls. — Con- 
tiguous Country. — "Mars Hill." — Prospect. — Grand Falls. — The Aca- 
dians, curious Facts respecting them. — The Mirimachi River. — Immense 
amount of Timber shipped. — Riots. — Stato of Morals. — The great Miri- 
machi Fire. — Hurricane. — Destruction of Human Life. — Area of the Fire. 
— Vessels in Harbor. — Painfully disgusting Sights. — Destruction among 
Fish. — Fire, rapidity of Progress. — Curious instance of Escape. — Risti- 
gouche River, its Length — Capacious Harbor. — Appearance of the Coun- 
try. — High Banks. — Groves of Pine. — A Statistical Table Page 241 



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The Beech is a tree of no ordinary interest ; first, as being 
more free from impurities than any tree with Avhich we arc ac- 
quainted. The bark is very clean and smooth, of a light lead 
color, sprinkled with fine dots of black, so that it has a grayish 
appearance. It attains the height of sixty to eighty feet. The 
lower branches are throwir out in a horizontal attitude, while the 
upper ones assume somewhat of an erect position. The leaves 
are of graceful proportions, and profuse, forming a dense shade. 
Some seasons this tree produces an abundance of nuts, which 
grow in round, prickly burrs, very similar to chestnuts. The 
nuts arc triangular in shape, and supply the pigeon, partridge, 
squirrels, bears, and other animals with food. The squirrel will 
hoard up in his little burrow many quarts of these nuts, where he 
eats them at his leisure during the seasons of winter and spring. 
It is quite amusing to sec the little fellows repeat their visits to 
their underground habitations, or leap from branch to branch, 

with their cheeks stuffed nearly to bursting with the precious 
Beech-nut. The Beech docs not dispense its fruit until after se- 
vere frosts occur, when the burr either opens or drops from the 
limb where it grew; in the former case, after a smart frost at 
night, the early morning breeze shakes them from their elevated 
position, when the y come rattling down upon the dry leaves like 
showers of hail, { impelled by hunger, bears often climb and] 
gather the nut before it is ripe. I have frequently seen, during | 



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478 



W A I K N A; 



OR, 



ADYENTURES 



MOSQUITO SHOEE 



BY SAMUEL A. BARD/fjo^J 



"Whatever sweets salute the northern sky, 
With vernal lives, that blossom bat to die ; 
These here disporting, own the kindred soli, 
Nor ask luxuriance from the planter's toll ; 
While sea-born gales their gelid wings expand, 
To winnow fragrance ronnd the smiling land." 

Goldsmith. 



WITH SIXTY ILLUSTRATIONS. 




NEW YORK: 
HARPER & BROTHERS. 

829 & 881 PEABL STBEET. 
1855. 



46 



It was during the night, therefore, that Antonio 
and Frank, who kept themselves concealed in the 
bushes, rushed out upon the turtles, and with iron 
hooks turned them on their backs, when they be- 
came powerless and incapable of moving. The day 
following, they dragged them to the most distant 
part of the island, where they " shelled " them ; — a 




■■M.i-\i:- ('T-l ,- '$ ■' A*- •"%**: 



ift {■J&£^ifi'.- / C 




W- 



Nc-vV-YoA; /■% 



HARPEi\&BROS. 



SHELLING TURTLES. 



cruel process, which it made my flesh creep to 
witness. Before describing it, however, I must ex- 
plain that, although the habits of all varieties of 
the turtle are much the same, yet their uses are 
very different. The large, green turtle is best 
known ; it frequently reaches our markets, and its 
flesh is esteemed, by epicures, as a great delicacy. 

47 
The flesh of the smaller or hawk-bill variety is not 
so good, but its shell is most valuable, being both 
thicker and better-colored. What is called tor- 
toise-shell is not, as is generally supposed, the bony 
covering or shield of the turtle, but only the scales 
which cover it. These are thirteen in number, 
eight of them flat, and five a little curved. Of the 
flat ones four are large, being sometimes a foot 
long and seven inches broad, semi-transparent,, 
elegantly variegated with white, red, yellow, and 
dark brown clouds, which are fully brought out, 
when the shell is prepared and polished. These 
laminae, as I have Baid, constitute the external 
coating of the solid or bony part of the shell ; and 
a large turtle affords about eight pounds of them, 
the plates varying from an eighth to a quarter of an 
inch in thickness. 



The fishers do not kill the turtles ; did they do 
bo, they would in a few years exterminate them. 



479 



When the turtle is caught, they fasten him, and 
cover his back with dry leaves or grass, to which 
they set fire. The heat causes the plates to separ- 
ate at their joints. A largo knife is then carefully 
inserted horizontally beneath them, and the 1am- 
inaa lifted from the back, care being taken not to 
injure the shell by too much heat, nor to force it 
off, until the heat has fully prepared it for separa- 
tion. Many turtles die under this cruel operation, 
but instances are numerous in which they have 
been caught a second time, with the outer coating 
reproduced ; but, in these cases, instead of thirteen 



48 



I pieces, it is a single pieces As I have already said, 
1 could never bring myself to witness this cruelty 
more than once, and was glad that the process of 
" scaling" was earned on out of sight of the hut. 
Had the poor turtles the power of shrieking, they 
would have made that barren island a very hell, 
with their cries of torture. 

We had been nearly two weeks on the island, 
when we were one morning surprised by a sail on 
the edge of the horizon. We watched it eagerly, 
and as it grew more and more distinct, our spirits 
rose in proportion. Its approach was slow, but at 
__^ noon Frank declared that 

it was a turtle schooner, 
from the island of Cata- 






^V,. v ^«r,^f,-> 









&\V- ■■•:-. 



A sail! a sail! 

rina or Providence, and that it was making for " El 
Roncador." TOO 

The conviction was now forced upon me that, in 
spite of all our efforts to avoid it, we were to be 
involved in a second fight. I laid aside my paddle, 
and got out my gun. And now I experienced again 
the same ague-like sensations which I have de- 
scribed as preceding our struggle on the Prinza- 
pulka. It required the utmost effort to keep my 
teeth from chattering audibly. I had a singular 
and painful sensation of fullness about the heart. 
So decided were all these phenomena, that, not- 
withstanding our danger, I felt glad it was so dark 
that my companions could not see my weakness. 
But soon the veins in my temples began to swell 
with blood, pulsating with tense sharpness, like the 
vibration of a bow-string ; and then the muscles 



became rigid, and firm as iron. I was ready for 
blood ! Twice only have I experienced these terri- 
ble sensations, and God grant that they may never 

ag onize my nerves again ! 

(Our enemies were now so near that I was on the\ 
point of venturing a random long shot at them, I 
when, with a suppressed exclamation of joy, Anto- 
nio suddenly turned our canoe into a narrow creek 
where the mangroves separated, like walls, on cither 
side. Where Ave entered, it was scarcely twenty 
feet wide, and soon contracted to ten or twelve. 
We glided in rapidly for perhaps two hundred 
yards, when Antonio stopped to listen. I heard 
nothing, and gave the word to proceed. But the 



191 



crafty Indian said " No ;" and, carefully leaning 
over the edge of the boat, plunged his head in the | 
water. He held it there a few seconds, then started 
up, exclaiming, " They are coming !" Again we , 
bent to the paddles, and drove th e boat up the J 
narrow creek with incredible velocity. ) 

1 was so eager to get a shot at our pursuers that 
I scarcely comprehended what he meant, when, 
stopping suddenly, Antonio pressed his paddle in 
my hands, and, exchanging a few hurried words 
with the Poyer boy, each took a machete in his 
mouth, and leaped overboard. I felt a sudden 
suspicion that they had deserted me, and remained 
for the time motionless. A moment after, they 
called to me from the shore, " Paddle ! paddle !" 
and, at the same instant, I heard the blows of their 
machetes ringing on the trunks of the mangroves. 
I at once comprehended that they were felling trees 
across the narrow creek, to obstruct the pursuit ; 
and I threw aside the paddle, and took my gun 
again, determined to j)rotect my devoted friends, at 
any hazard. I never forgave myself for my mo- 
mentary but ungenerous distrust ! 

Our pursuers heard the sound of the blows, and, 
no doubt comprehending what was going on, raised 
loud shouts, and redoubled their speed. Kling ! 
Ming ! rang the machetes on the hard wood ! Oh, 
how I longed to hear the crash of the falling trees ! 
Soon one of them began to crackle — another blow, 
and down it fell, the trunk splashing gloriously in 
the water ! 




480 



FAMILIAR HISTORY 



OF 



BIRDS; 



THEIK NATURE, HABITS, AND INSTINCTS. 



BY THE LATE 



EDWARD ^TANLEY, D.D., F.R.S., 

LORD BISHOP OF NORWICH; 
PRESIDENT OP THE LINNJiAN SOCIETY. 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION, 

APPOINTED BY TD.E SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING 

CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. 



THE FIFTH EDITION. 

LONDON: 
JOHN W. PARKER, WEST STRAND. 

MDCCCLI. 



PAGE 

Introduction 1 

Chapter I. Bank of Birds in the Animal Kingdom. — 
Tables of Classification. — Directions for their appli- 
cation 5 

Chapter II. Structure of Birds. — External Structure. — 
Skeleton. — Character of Beak. — Bones, their lightness. 
— Solidity of Back-bone. — Breastbone, use of. — Wing- 
bones. — Legs, peculiarities of. — When resting on one leg, 
why Birds do not fall 26 

Chapter III. Internal Structure. — Digestive Organs. — 
Gullet, Crop, Stomach — Adaptation of, to different habits 
of Birds. — Gastric Juice — Its use and properties. — Giz- 
zard, its grinding powers. — Bespiration of Birds 44 

Chapter IV. Organs of Sound. — Ducks, Crane, Goat-Sucker, 
Bell-Bird, &c. — Distance at which Sounds may be heard. 
— Plumage. — Structure of Feathers. — Goose-Plucking. — 
Summer and Winter Plumage , 58 



Chapter V. Flight. — Muscular power of Wings. — Pecu- 
liarity of, in different Birds — Adapted to various habits — 
Rapidity of motion, and rate of — How calculated. — Long 
continuance of Flight accounted for. — Migration, Causes 
of — Tendency of most Birds to wander at particular times 
— Why seldom seen in the act of Migrating— Instinctive 
power of finding their way 73 

Chapter VI. Eagle and Hawk Tribe.— Wild Eagle— Tamed 
— Muscular powers of — Carry off Children, Lambs, &c. 
— Sometimes killed on the Wing by Weasels. — Battle 
between Cat and Eagle. — How caught when fishing — 
Voracity of — Nests — Singular mode of capturing their 
prey. — Bird of Washington. — Eagle Traps. — Feathers 
prized 98 

Chapter VII. Vultures — Loathsome feeders — Strength of. 
— Snake-Eater. — Mode of killing Serpents. — Hawks — 
Character of. — Hawking for Bustards — Value of. — Iceland 
Falcons much prized. — Falconry in former days. — Contest 
with Herons. — Modes of Catching. — The Sparrow-Hawk. 
— Anecdotes. — The Glead, or Kite. — Herons. — Food of 
the Hawk Tribe — Their disposition. — The Hawk sacred 
to the Egyptians and Turks 124 

Chapter VIII. Owls — Superstitions respecting — Short- 
eared. — The Great Snowy Owl — White Owl — Mode of 
feeding — Attachment to young — Used in Bird-catching. — 
Burrowing Owl. — Dentirostral ; Notch-billed Birds. — 
Shrikes — Mode of feeding — Nests of — used in taking 
Falcons. — Puff-backed Shrike. — Thrush genus — Instinc- 
tive hubits of feeding. — Anecdote. — Thrush and young 
Cuckoo. — Fly- C atchers. — Cotinga. — Tanagers — Beauty 
of. — Serratirostral, or Serrated Beaks. — Hornbills. — 
Plenirostral ; Strong-billed. — Grackles. — Paradise Birds... 157 

Chapter IX. Ravens — Occasionally desert their Young — 
Predacious Habits — Sagacity. — Various Anecdotes. — 
Crows and Books — Characters of each. — Tame Crow. 
— Meetings or Councils of Crows, Herons, Magpies, 
&c. — Whether Books are beneficial or injurious to the 
Farmer. — Hard Winters favourable to Insects. — Rook- 
eries. — Red-legged Crow. — Jackdaws. — Jays and Magpies. 195 

Chapter X. Passerine Order, continued. — Conirostras ; 
Conical Beaks. — Orioles. — Starlings. — Habits of.— Finch 
Tribe. — Goldfinch. — Anecdotes of. — Nests rapidly com- 
pleted. — Curious Nests in Africa. — Age of smaU Birds. — 
Canary Birds, — Trade in. — Bullfinches, Piping. — How 
trained.— Boldness of. — Affectionate and social Habits of 
— Also of Linnets. — Use of small Birds in destroying 
Insects 229 

Chapter XL Subulirostres; Awl-shaped Bills. — Manakins : 
curious Nests of. — Tomtits. — Wagtails. — Redstarts. — 
Robins, &c. — Migration of this Tribe. — Nightingales. — 
Whether they return to same nests. — Ear for Music. — 
Night-Singing-Birds.— Planirostres ; Flat-billed. — Swal- 
low Tribe. — Whether occasionally Dormant; instances of. 
— Migration of. — Insects, number devoured by Swallows. 
— Spiders, high Flights of. — Curious Nests of Swallows. 
— Courage of 251 

Chapter XII. Swallows' nests, continued. — Edible Nests, 
East Indies. — Goat-suckers. — Mode of seizing Moths. — 
Cavern with their Nests, described. — Tenuirostres; Narrow- 
billed. — Nuthatch. — Tree-Creeper. — Bee-Eater. — Hoopoe. 
— Kingfisher. — Humming Birds. — Climbing Birds. — 



481 



Cuneirostres ; Wedge-billed. — Jacamar. — Anis. — Cuckoo. 

— Anecdotes and Habits of 272 

Chapter XIII. Cuueirostral, continued. — Woodpecker — Tame 
one. — Wryneck — Tongue of. — Levirostral ; Light-billed. 
— Parrots. — Toucan. — Gallinaceous ; Poultry Tribe. — 
Pigeons, American — Prodigious numbers of — Eapid flight 
— Employed as Messengers — Mode of catching— Attach- 
ments of. — Cocks. — Pheasants — Courage of. — On breed- 
ing Pheasants — Box for Feeding. — Prized by Ancients. — , 
Turkeys, Wild — Social Habits of. — Partridges, tamed — 
Nests of — Various sorts of. — Quails— Immense Flights 
of. — Bustards. — Ostrich — Nests of — Affection — Hunting 
— Strength of. — Cassowary and Emu 293 

Chapter XIV. Water Birds. — Waders. — Pressirostral ; 
Narrow-beaked. — Water-Hens. — Anecdotes of — Nests 
of. — Coots — Nests of. — Jacanas — Singulur Foot of. — 
Horned Screamers. — Kails. — Oyster-Catchers — Tamed, 
Cultrirostra; Cutting-billed.— Herons— Toothed-claw of 
— Voracity of. — Storks and Cranes — Migrations of— 
Respect paid to. — Gigantic Crane — Particulars respect- 
ing. — Jabiru. — Anastomus; Open-beaked. — Tantalus ... 325 

Chapter XV. Latirostral— Flat-beaked. — Boat-bill.— Spoon- 
bill.— Flamingo — Mode of Feeding— Nests of— Watchful 
Habits. — Tenuirostral, or Longirostral; Long, Slender- 
billed Birds. — Avoset. — Sand- Pipers. — Dotterel — Preser- 
vation of its young. — Dunlin's Nest and Eggs. — Plover 
— Mode of Catching. — Ibis — Mummies of— Why held 
Sacred 354 

Chapter XVI. Palmipedes; Web-footed — Serrated or Tooth- 
billed. — Geese — Flocks of — How managed— Plucking. — 
Singular attachment — Sagacity — Courage of. — Tree Geese. 
— Swans — Muscular Strength— Courage. — Black Swans. 
— Trade in Swan-quills , 376 

Chapter XVII. Duck Tribe — Management of— Chinese 
mode. — Wild Ducks building in trees — Affection of. — 
Eider Ducks. — How caught. — Duck-shooters, Danger 
attending. — Decoys 395 

Chapter XVIII. Pinnipedes; Swimming feet. — Pelican — 
Fable of drawing its blood explained — Mode of fishing. — 
Sea-birds feeding on fish thrown up by Whales. — Cor- 
morants — Voracity of — May be tamed — Fierceness of. — 
Frigate-bird. — Solan Goose — Lightness and buoyancy, of 
— Nests. — Anhingas, or Darters 411 

Chapter XIX. Longipennes; Long-winged — Skimmers — 
Singular bill. — Terns, or Sea-Swallows — Anecdote of. — 
Gulls — Capacity for enduring cold — Voracious feeders — 
Breeding-places. — South Stack described. — Albatross — 
Roaming habits. — Tristan d'Acunha, Resort for breeding 
— Voracity. — Petrels — Nests — Feed at night — Supersti- 
tion of sailors respecting. — Brevipennes ; Short-winged. 
— Divers. — Crested Grebe — Great destroyers of fish. — 
Guillemots. — Razor-Bills. — Puffins and Auks 42C 

Chapter XX. Penguins; Fin-winged. — King Penguin of 
the southern regions described — Breeding-places — Vulu- 
able for oil. — Sea-fowler's perilous occupation — Descrip- 
tion of, in Shetland, St. Kilda, &c. — Singular escapes — 
Fatal accidents 460 



THE BEAK. 



29 



birds just mentioned, curving and overlapping the lower 
bill so much, that if the lower bill only had motion, the 
bird could scarcely open its mouth sufficiently wide to 
receive food; yet neither the hook nor the overlapping 
could be omitted, since it is by the beak that Parrots so 
readily climb; for which purpose it is therefore fitted, as 
well as for breaking nuts and other hard substances on 
w hich they feed. 

JThe way by which the Parrot's beak is able to answer] 
both purposes is this : the upper mandible, which in other J 
birds forms one uniform piece or continuation of the skull, I 
is united to the bone of the head by a peculiar membrane ' 
placed on each side of it, enabling the bird to lift or depress 
it at pleasure. The muscular power of this contrivance is 
very great, for the truth of which all who have incautiously 
exposed their fingers to the bite even of a Paroque t will/ 
jjeadily vouch, j " 

There is a bird, sometimes found in this country, called 
the Cross-bill, from the singular construction of its beak, 
the mandibles of which, instead of shutting together like 
those of other birds, cross each other; at first sight this 
might be supposed to be an accidental deformity , , . . 



THE BONES. 



36 



thin, firm, and partly elastic substance, formed in layers, 
apparently fastened together, and almost always hollow ; 
the cavities never containing marrow, but air, and communi- 
cating with the lungs by considerable openings; whereby 
they are rendered buoyant and lig ht to a much greater 
degree than is generally supposed. jThus a portion of the' 



/fT 



leg of a Goose, about two inches in length, weighed about 
forty grains, while a piece of the leg of a rabbit (the marrow 
having been extracted, and both being perfectly dry, and as 
nearly as possible of the same thickness and length,) weighed 
seventy-five grains, or nearly twice the weight of the 
similarly-sized bone of the goose, and yet so firm and strong 
was this latter, that although in diameter it was less than 
one-eighth of an inch, and the solid tubular part not more 
than one-hundredth part of an inc h in thickness, it could 
not be broken asunder by the hand. J 



It is upon this principle mechanics and engineers act in 
constructing strong supports, knowing that if any quantity 
of material is to be fabricated into a rod of a certain 
length, the rod will be strong in proportion to its thickness; 
and that if the figure remains the same, that thickness 
can only be increased by making it hollow. Therefore 
hollow rods or tubes of the same length and quantity of 
matter have more strength than solid ones of less dia- 
meter. This is but one out of the hundreds of instances, 
in which the wisdom of man has been perfected by studying 
the mode by which the great Creator accompbshes His 
purposes. 



THE STOMACH. 



48 



The bill of the Parrot is also hooked, but is at the 
game time unfitted for the uses to which it is applied by the 



We next come to the part called the second stomach, 
which, like the rest of the digestive organs, varies very 
much in size, and internal arrangement. In some birds it 
is extremely small ; in certain cases, as in the Kingfisher, it 
is actually wanting ; whereas in the Ostrich it considerably 
exceeds even the real stomach, being capable of holding 
several pints of water. It is in this cavity that the grand 
business or process of digestion is carried on, it being 
abundantly supplied with a number of glands or vessels 
secreting that very curious bquid, called the gastric juice, 



48S 



which acts most powerfully on every variety of food. They 
are called the solvent glands on this account ; and, as birds 
generally require a more rapid digestion, they are larger, 
and more distinct from the other organs of digestion, than 
in other animals. 

There may also be another reason why this liquid may 
be more essentially necessary for birds, which seem to 
require greater warmth than other animals, since it is found 
that their blood circulates more r apidly, and is warmer than 
the blood of the human body, f For instance, the heat of 
the human body will raise the mercury of a thermometer to 
about 95 or 96 degrees, the true blood-heat being 98 ; but if 
the same thermometer is placed under the wing of a Parrot, 
or a Canary, it will raise it to 100 or 101 ; of a Fowl, to 
103 j of a Sparrow or Robin, sometimes to 110 or 111 ; and 
no doubt, if tried on certain other birds, requ iring additio nal , 
warmth, it would be found to rise still higher.] ' flow the gas- 
tric juice, from some very ingenious experiments,* is supposed 

* Spallanzani. 
to contain a much stronger principle of life and warmth 
than other liquids; thus when water, salt and water, and 
gastric juice were exposed to great cold, the gastric juice 
was the last to freeze, and the first to thaw. The greater 
portion of this juice, therefore, found in birds, may be an 
additional means by which the wisdom of God furnishes 
them with more warmth, and enables many of them to 
resist very strong degrees of cold. In proof of their en- 
durance of cold, at the bird-market of St. Petersburgh, in 
Russia, during the intensity of those dreadfully cold winters, 
several thousand cages, containing birds of every description, 
are hung on the outside of about eighty shops ; in a part 
of each cage, a small quantity of snow is placed, which is 



oi eacn cage, a sman quantity ot snow is placea, which is 
said to be necessary to keep them alive. J That birds, ori- 
/ginally from warm climates, suffer from the colder regions 
of the North, is, to a great degree, true ; but by far the 
greatest number of birds, found dead in our severe winter, 
perish not from the inclemency of the weather, but the 
deficiency of food ; for instance, our little Wren is just as 
active and cheerful in the severest frost as the warmest 
summer's day, — his supply of food, consisting of small 
insects, concealed under the bark of trees, never failing 



Is a proof that small birds are not affected so much 
by temperature as want of food, Captain King* observed 
the lesser Redpole existing without apparent inconvenience 
in a climate, and at a season, when the thermometer was 
not unfrequently at seven degrees below zero ; and in the 
inclement atmosphere of Cape Horn, on the desolate shores 
of Terra del Fuego, Humming-birds were constantly seen 
hovering over the blossom of a species of Fuchsia, when 
the jungle composed of this shrub was partially covered 
with snow. 

There is another singularity in this mysterious liquid, 
namely, the different force with which it acts on the various 
substances used for food by different birds. 

ORGANS OF BREATHING. 54 

Having taken a short view of the frame-work and 
internal construction of a bird, with reference to the dis- 
posal of its food, we shall next consider some other of the 
vital functions, commencing with those of breathing and 
voice. The lungs of men and animals occupy, as is well 
known, a large portion of the chest, whereas, in birds, the 
space occupied is not only much smaller, but the lungs them- 



selves are i»f a more firm and compact texture. At the same 
time they are most plentifully supplied with air-cells, com- 
municating with other cells, profusely distributed over every 
part of the system, by which their bodies are in a man- 
ner blown up and rendered buoyant ; a considerable por- 
tion of the skeleton, moreover, as we have shown, being 

55 
formed into receptacles for this light and elastic fluid, of 
which birds partake in so much greater a degree than 
most other portions of the creation. In fact, a bird 
destined as it is to live in air, may be almost called an 
absolute air-vessel, so completely does air fill up and 
circulate throughout its whole frame. While men and 
other land animals breathe in air through the nostrils 
alone, a bird respires through a variety of other channels 
tA wounded Heron was observed to live a whole day,\ 
\ breathi ng solely throug h a broken portion of th e wing- J 
/bone.* ] Uther experiments have connrmea the lad; the 
fractured portion of a bone that had been separated, 
when immersed in soap and water, was observed to 
emit bubbles from the part nearest the body, proving, 
beyond a doubt, that it contained air in considerable 
quantities. 

The quills of the feathers are also air-vessels, which can 
be emptied and filled at pleasure. 

There is a bird called the Gannet, or Solan-Goose, 
which is a beautiful instance of this wonderful provision; 
it lives on fish, and passes the greater part of its time 
either in the air or on the water, even in the most tem- 
pestuous weather, when it may be seen floating like a 
cork on the wildest waves. To enable it to do so, with 
the least possible inconvenience, it is provided with a 
greater power of filling and puffing itself with air than 
almost any other bird. It can even force air between 
its skin and its body, to such a degree, that it becomes 
nearly as light and buoyant as a bladder. This buoy- 
ancy, however, entirely prevents its diving after fish : 
Nature, therefore, has applied a remedy by giving an ex- 
traordinary force and rapidity of flight, in enabling the 
creature to dart down on a shoal from a" great height. 
This velocity is so prodigious, that the force with which 
it strikes the surface of the water is sufficient to stun a 
bird not prepared for such a blow, or force the water 

* See Liniuzan Traniactiom.Yol. xl., p. 11. 

56 

up the nostrils. But the Gannet has nothing to fear 
from either of those causes, the front of its head being 
covered with a sort of horny mask, which gives it a singu- 
larly wild appearance ; and it has no nostrils, a deficiency 
amply remedied by the above-mentioned reservoirs of air, 
and capacity for keeping them always filled. Some notion 
may be formed of the rapidity of their descent by a curious 
mode of taking them, occasionally practised by the fisher- 
men in the North. A board is turned adrift, on which 
a dead fish is fastened. On seeing it, the Gannet pounces 
down, and is frequently killed or stunned by striking the 
board, or is secured by its sharp-pointed beak being actually 
en into the wood like a nail and holding it fast,. 
>There is another bird even more copiously supplied with] 
air than the above, called the Chavana Fidele, in which 
the skin is entirely separated from the flesh, and filled 
with an infinity of small air-cells, the legs and even toes | 
partaking of the same singularity, so that it appears j 



483 



much larger than it really is, and when pressed by the 
finger, the skin sinks in, but resists pressure like a foot- 
ball, or other elastic body. The air, in this case is sup- 
posed to assist in producing a powerful screaming voice, 
the bird being a wader, and not calculated for lengthened 
.flights. 

^ Generally speaking, the bones of birds, excepting when 
' young, are without marrow, the gradual absorption of 
which, till the bones become a hollow tube, is most easily 
perceptible in young tame Geese, when killed at different 
periods of the autumn and winter. From week to week 
the air-cells increase in size, till, as the season advances, 
the air-bones become transparent. Towards the close of 
the Slimmer and beginning of autumn, although in exter- 
nal apoearance the young Goose resembles the parent, no 
trace of air-cells can be discovered in its bones, — the 
interior being still filled up with marrow, which does not 
entirely disappear till about the end of the fifth orsixth 
month. ) 

In the Eagle, Hawk, Stork, Lark, and other birds in the 

57 
habit of soaring, the air-cells' are very large, particularly 
those in connexion with the wing. On the other hand, in 
Ostriches, or those birds which either never, or seldom fly, 
those of the wing are comparatively small ; but as a com- 
pensation, it has been remarked, that as great strength as 
well as lightness is desirable to enable them to run swiftly, 
their bones are almost all of them remarkably hollow. 
Such are some of the advantages derived from this abundant 
supply of air. 

We have alluded to the additional warmth possessed by 
birds, in comparison with other animals, to which this 
greater quantity of air must essentially conduce. "We may 
here again refer to the Gannet, which, passing so much of 
its time in the depth of winter, exposed to the severest 
weather, would, if not provided with additional means of 
keeping itself warm, often perish from cold ; but having, as 
we have observed, a power of filling up the space between 
its flesh and outward skin with air, it is thus furnished 
with a light, but at the same time admirable coat, which 
effectually prevents it from feeling the effects of cold, how- 
ever severe. 

ORGANS OF VOICE. 60 



Jl'he Goat-sucker. iNight-jar. Haw'Kmoth. lor, as it is 
better known in many places, the Wheel-Bird, owing to 
its making a sound much resembling a spinning-wheel,| 
is another bird not uncommon in this country during 
the summer months, frequenting heaths and commons 



The best time to hear it is about dusk, when it may be 
cautiously approached, and discovered sitting with its head 
downwards, repeating, for a considerable time, its rough 
jarring cry. 

In foreign countries, however, there are birds possessing 
a far greater power of imitation. We need scarcely men- 
tion the Mocking-bird of North America at the head of the 
list; so widely spread over the world is its character, not 
only having the power of imitating the note of every bird 
it hears, but also that of animals, and other sounds. It 
can bark like a dog, mew like a cat ; then all of a sudden 
make the exact noise of a trundling wheelbarrow; some- 
times it will call the hens together by screaming like 
a wounded chicken; or entice the house-dog from the 
fire-side by whistling for it in its master's well-known 



summons. 

There is a species of Crow in India, (Corvus leucotophus,) 
which assembles in flocks of about twenty or thirty, in the 
recesses of forests, and whose note so exactly resembles the 
human voice in loud laughing, that a person ignorant of the 
real cause, would fancy, that a very merry party were close 
at hand. 

There is also a species of Skylark, in India, whose powers 
of imitation are described as astonishing. One of these 
birds had so completely learned the wailing cry of a Kite 
soaring in the air, that although the Lark's cage was in a 
room, and within a few feet of the listener, he could scarcely 

61 

persuade himself that the cry he heard did not, in reality, 
proceed from a distant Kite. They are taught by being 
carried daily to the fields and groves, in close-covered cages, 
and are so prized, that a fine, well-instructed bird, has been 
known to sell for 41. 

We have spoken of our English Goat-suckers, but there 
are many of this family never seen in our island, and far 
more interesting. In South America there are several 
sorts, whose notes are so singular, that the natives look 
upon them with a degree of awe and reverence, and will 
never kill them. They have received names from the 
different words they are supposed to speak, and absolutely 
bewilder strangers on first arriving in those parts. Thus, 
one of the most common will alight close to the door, 
and, on a person going out, will flit, and settle a few 
yards before him, crying out, "Who are you? who, who, 
who are you ?" another calls out, " Work away, work away, 
work away !" a third, in a mournful tone, says " Willy 
come go ; Willy, Willy, Willy come go !" While another, 
which is also a very common one, is known by the name 
of Whip-poor-Will, from constantly repeating these words 
But the most extraordinary note yet remains to be men- 
tioned, that of the Campanero, or Bell-Bird, found in 
South America, and also in Africa (Cotinga carunculata). 
A traveller in the first-mentioned country speaks of it as 
never failing to attract the attention of a passenger, at a 
distance of even three miles, when it may be heard tolling, 
like a distant church-bell. When eveiy other bird, during 
the heat of the day, has ceased to sing, and all nature 
is hushed in midnight silence, the Campanero alone is 
heard. Its toll sounds, then a pause for a minute, then 
another toll, then another pause, and then a toll, and 
again a pause. In Africa, two travelling missionaries 
have given nearly the same account, but at somewhat 
greater length. They were journeying onwards, in the 
solitude of the wilderness, when the note of the Campa- 
nero fell upon their ear. " * Listen,' said my companion, 
t did not you hear a church-bell ?' We paused, and it tolle d 

62 

f again; and so strong was the resemblance, that we could 
scarcely persuade ourselves that we did not hear the low and 
solemn sound of a distant passing bell. When all was 
silent, it came at intervals upon the ear, heavy and slow, 
like a death-toll; all again was then silent, and then again 
the Bell-Bird's note was borne upon the wind. We never 
seemed to approach it, but that deep, melancholy, distant, 

I dream-like sound, still continued, at times, to haunt us like 
an omen of evil 
How 



the Bell-Bird utters this deep loud note is not 
known, though it is supposed that a fleshy protuberance 



484 



on its head, which, when inflated with air, stands up like 
a horn, is, in some way, the cause; hut the Goat-suckers, 
in all probability, are indebted to their peculiar width of 
mouth and throat for this power of voice ; for- many other 
birds, in uttering loud notes, are observed to puff and swell 
out their throats in a very extraordinary manner. For 
instance, our little summer visitant and sweet songster, the 
Blackcap, when warbling forth his finest notes, distends his 
throat in a wonderful degree; and those who have chanced 
to see a Brown Owl in the act of hooting, will have noticed, 
that they swell up their throats to the size of a Pigeon's 
egg. And persons who have fine ears for music, have 
ascertained, by comparing their notes with a pitch-pipe, that 
their variations are according to certain rules, most of them 
hooting in b flat, though some went almost half a note 
below a. This strain upon the throat is sometimes carried 
to a pitch which endangers the bird's life. The bird-fanciers 
in London, who are in the habit of increasing the singing 
powers of birds to the utmost, by training them, by high 
feeding, hot temperature of the rooms in which they are 
kept, and forced moulting, will often match one favourite 
Goldfinch against another. They are put in small cages, 
with wooden backs, and placed near to, but so that they 
cannot see, each other : they will then raise their shrill 
voices, and continue their vocal contest till one frequently 
drops off its perch, perfectly exhausted, and dies on the 
spot. This will even happen sometimes to birds in a wild 

63. 

state. In the garden of a gentleman in Sussex, a Thrush 
had for some time perched itself on a particular spray, 
and made itself a great favourite from its powerful and 
constant singing. When one day it was observed, by the 
gardener, to drop suddenly from the bough, in the midst of 
its song. He immediately ran to pick it up, but found it 
quite dead ; and, upon examination, discovered that it had 
actually broken a blood-vessel by its exertions, and thus 

perished, ■ 

^jThat the notes and cries of birds serve them instead of 1 
language, there can be little doubt; one person indeed is on 
record, who, having passed much of his time in boyhood 
alone, in lonely situations, had by close attention acquired 
such a knowledge of this language, that, from the song of 
the parents, .he knew where the nests were situated, whether 
they contained eggs, or whether the brood was hatched, 
knowing even the nu mber of young birds, and the ir age, 
before he saw them.* j In fact a common observer may, in' 
some instances, understand their different notes, and all 
their different wants and emotions, as well as the birds them- 
selves do. 

Thus, while walking in a wood, if we happen to get 
sight of a flock of Jays before they chance to notice our 
approaching, they will be seen enjoying themselves, and 
chattering in seeming confusion. Suddenly one will be 
heard to utter a peculiar short deeper-toned note, when 
in an instant all is silent, and they may be seen skulking 
off one by one, only to be heard again when they have 
sheltered themselves at a considerable distance. Crows 
and Fieldfares, with many others of what are called congre- 
gating birds, or those that live together, act in the same 
manner. Every sportsman knows how difficult it is to 
get within gunshot of a large flock of these birds, though 
they appear to be so busily employed in pickiug up their 
food in a meadow, that it might be supposed they saw 
nothing else. 

• See Quarterly Review, on Lord Holland's Life of' Lope de Ve^a- 
Jol. xvjli., p. 36. * ° ' 



THE FEATHERS. 67 



Of a feather's lightness, we may form some idea when 
we find that the largest quill of a Golden Eagle weighs 
only sixty-five grains, and that seven s uch quills do not 
weigh more than a copper penny-piece ;p hat the fe -xl 
oi' a common fowl, which weighs thirty-seven ounces, 




only three ounces; and that the enti re 

weighs only one ounce and a half J Meant as they are, 



some for covering and some for strength, we shall find 
them, on examination, very differently put together. The 
light downy part, when examined through a microscope, 
will be found to bear little resemblance to the flat part 
or blade of the quill. If it were not so, a bird would 
scarcely be able to fly at all ; for when the flat of the wing 
was pressed down, the air would pass through it and 
yield no resistance. The fibres of the downy part, we 
see, have little connexion with each other; they have 
short and loose side shoots, just sufficient to mat them 
together when pressed close to the skin; whereas, the 
side shoots of the quill-feather hook and grapple with one 
another, so as to make one firm and united surface. Some 
idea of this may be formed from the annexed figures, 
the second of which represents a piece of the finest down 
magnified. 

It is clear, that if water could soak into the soft 
feathery covering of a bird, every shower of rain would 
be the death of thousands, inasmuch as it would increase 
their weight considerably, and at the same time, by 
destroying the fine elastic nature of the feathers, entirely 
disable them from flying, and they must remain in a 
helpless state upon the ground, either to perish from 
hunger, or become a prey to men or animals, who would 
catch them without trouble. But against such a possi- 
bility they are guarded by an abundant oily covering, 
which is constantly renewed ; so that the rain, instead of 
sinking in, runs off, without remaining an instant; and 
we all know, that if we take up a Duck, or any swim- 
ming bird, we shall find, though it might have been diving 
just before, that it is perfectly dry and free from all damp. 
But this principle of life, if it may be so called, in 
a feather, ceases with the life of a bird; for if we 
were to throw a dead Duck into the water, we should 
find that its coat had lost all power of re sisting water. 
and become a spo ngy mass of moisture. I But besides 

[this, some birds, certain Eagles, Hawks, Owls, and 
Herons, for instance, are furnished with a very fine dust 
or powder, which is supposed to be of use in preserving 
their pl umage, though in what way is not at present exactly^ 
known. \ « 

The growth of feathers in young birds in hot and 
favourable weather is very remarkable. It has been 
ascertained by attending to nestlings, that in eight days 
after their appearing from the egg in a helpless naked 
state, they have acquired a full coating of feathers, and are 
able to make some use of their wings. 



RAPIDITY OF FLIGHT. 



76 



J Few people, we believe, are aware of 



the very great rapidity of a bird's flight, and many will 
doubtless be surprised when they are informed, that even 
our slower birds can most of them make their way at the 
rate of thirty miles an hour, without any extraordinary 
effort; but that, if pressed, they can considerably exceed, 
that speed.) There is an easy way of ascertainir 



easy way of ascertaining with 



tolerable accuracy the rate of a bird's flight, which from 
experience we can recommend as equally amusing and 
interesting. It is this : — 

Suppose any bird, a Partridge for instance, rises in the 
middle of a stubble, and flics in a straight line over a hedge; 
all the observer has to do is to note by the seconds hand 
of a watch (and those who have not seconds-hand watches 
may easily learn, at least sufficiently for practical purposes, to 
count them), the number of seconds between the moment 
of the bird's rising and that of its topping the hedge; and 
then ascertain the distance between the point from whence 
it rose and the hedge by stepping and counting the 
number of paces; when, supposing each pace to be a yard, 
we have a common Rule of Three sum. Thus, if a 
Partridge, in three seconds, flies one hundred yards, how 
many yards will it fly in 3600 seconds, or one hour? or 

seconds yards seconds 

as 3 : 100 : : 3600: the number of yards required, 
which will be 3600^100 or ! 20,000 yards, which will 
amount to (as there are 1760 yards in a mile) about sixty 
miles an hour. 

Again, suppose some Starlings are seen feeding in a 
field at a, at no great distance from a church tower, b c, 
in which they are building; or a Crow flies from a certain 
spot to the top of a tree; we may proceed in the same 
manner : for the height of the tower or tree will, in most 
cases, be too inconsiderable to make any material altera- 
tion in the result, though, if greater accuracy is required 

77 
it may be ob- 
tained by the 
usual mode of 
measuring tri- 
angles. Thus, 
let b c be the 
height of the 
tower, and a 
the point from 

whence the Starling rose, flying to the point b. Knowing 
the height of the tower and the distance a c, we have 
to calculate a b, which is easily learned, since by the 
well-known problem of Euclid, a b" = a c' + b c 2 ; by 
extracting the square root, we therefore find the exact 
le ngth of a b. 



486 





^B 






^MM^- 


C 


^\ 






^ 



engt 
Jfi 



^.jlt was by an application of this simple rule that the 
/flight of an Eagle was ascertained to be little short of 
\ one hun dred and forty mil es an hour. J The bird was 
seen nastenmg on its way over a valley in the Pyrenees, 
and the number of seconds was observed, which elapsed 
between its passing from the summit of one high point, 
till it reached the brow of a mountain on the other side, 
the space between which was known by reference to a 
good map, in which the distances were well laid down. 
Such a rapid progress, we are aware, will scarcely be 
credited; but a celebrated naturalist, in speaking of the 
large white Fishing Eagle of North America, gives reasons 
for suspecting that its speed is still greater : he says, that, 
from an immense height, on perceiving their prey, they 
glide downwards with such rapidity as to cause a mighty 
rushing sound, not unlike that produced by a violent gust 
of wind passing amongst the branches of trees ; and that 
the fall of this bird, enormous as it is, can on such occasions 
be scarcely followed by the eye.* Those who ride over 
commons of fine turf, may often have witnessed a quickness 
of flight, probably not much inferior to these Eagles; 



78 
for they will, even at their fullest speed on the fleetest 
horse, have seen Swallows skimming in all directions, 
pursuing the small insects which the horse puts up in 
its course over the grass, sometimes leisurely keeping 
at an equal pace, then shooting ahead, and not un- 
frequently actually flying round the rider in wide circles, 
with an ease and facility, betraying neither effort nor 
labour in so doinfl. 



laboj 



...... ... ^ v.^,1.^. 

The flight of the common Swallow has been computed 
at 90 miles, that of the Swift has been conjectured to 
be nearly 180 miles per hour. We can scarcely, indeed, 
calculate or limit the speed which can he produced by the 
effort of a wing's vibrations. That a small insect can with 
ease accomplish forty or fifty miles an' hour, and probably 
much more, we know to be a fact, from our own experience 
on the Liverpool and Manchester Railroad; for, when 
rolling along, at the rate of about thirty miles an hour, 
we saw bees and flies, sometimes hovering round th,e 
carriages, sometimes settling, then, when disturbed, flyin°- 
to the right or left, in an irregular course, but still keeping 
up, without the slightest appearance of extra exertion; and 
often, when tired of continuing with the train, shooting 
forward, and in an instant leaving us far behind, and th is 
too, in opposition to a fresh breeze heading them. J 
■Another mode of ascertaining the flight of birds has 



2 



ieen by Carrier Pigeons. These are a particular breed, 
which can be so trained, that when carried to great dis- 
tances from the place of their usu al abode, and turned, 
out, they will find their way back. ) A short time ago, 
fifty-six of these birds were brought over from a part of 
Holland, where they are much attended to, and turned 
out from London, about half-past four in the morning: 
they all reached their dove-cotes at home by noon; but 
one favourite Pigeon, called Napoleon, arrived about a 
quarter after ten o'clock, having performed the distance 
of 300 miles at the rate of above fifty miles an hour, 
supposing he lost not a moment, and proceeded in a 
straight line; but as they usually wheel about in the 

79 
air for some time before they start off, and then probably 
deviate more or less from the direct course, this first 
bird must have flown, most likely, at a much quicker 



rate; of whichj we have an instance which occurred at the 
fair of Ballinasloe in Ireland, in 1842, where a bird of this 
species belonging to Thomas Bernard, Esq., was let go 
in the town at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, with a note 
appended to it, directing dinner to be ready at his re- 
sidence at Castle Bernard at a given time, as he pur- 
posed being home that day, which message reached the 
appointed destination in eleven minutes, having travelled 
23 miles Irish in that wonderfully short space of time, on 
in other words, at the r ate of 125^ miles an hour./ These 
pTgeons, of which Air. .Bernard Had a large dock, were so 
domesticated, that he could handle them as he pleased, and 
so very tractable were they, that whenever he called, they 
attend promptly. 

A curious way of guessing at the speed of a Pigeon's 
flight has been noticed in America. Birds have been shot, 
which, on opening them, were found to have fed on coffee- 
berries, so fresh, that they could not have been in the 
stomach above four or five hours; but, as the nearest part 
of the country known to produce coffee was some hundreds 
of miles distant, it was calculated that they must have flown 



486 



at the rate of sixty or seventy miles per hour. 

But besides this great speed, many, even of those ap- 
parently least calculated for continued flight, can remain on 
the wing for a much longer time than we are apt to imagine, 
from seeing them slowly and heavily waddling, as in the 
case of farm-yard Ducks and Geese, or of a Sparrow, 
hopping leisurely from b ough to bough, or flitting from 
thence to the house-top,. FThus the tame domestic Geese." 



'belonging to several Cossack villages, near the river Don, 
in Russia, leave their homes in March or April, as soon as 
the ice breaks up, and take flight in a body to the more 
northerly lakes, the nearest of which must be five or six 
hundred miles off, where they breed and constantly reside 
during the summer; but in the beginning of winter, the. 



80 



[parent bird returns with their young ones, e ach alighting] 
I with its brood at the door to which it b elongs, f That flights 
of this sort are not confined to Russia, we may learn, from 
the following instance, corroborating the fact just mentioned. 
A gentleman walking near Aberdeen, in Scotland, one morn- 
ing, during a heavy gale which blew from the north-west, 
was attracted by a loud cackling overhead: from the awkward 
motion of their wings, he was certain they were not wild 
Ducks, and they seemed to him to be helped on as much 
by the wind as their own exertions. He next day heard 
that the duck-pond of a person in the neighbourhood had 
been deserted the morning before about the time he saw 
them, by thirty Geese, which had all taken flight, and not 
been since heard of. 

An instance of uncommon flight, though not to the 
extent of the above, occurred not long ago in Yorkshire. 
A person had a large flock of Geese, which fed on high 
ground not visible from the house. They were lessened, 
as occasion required, to about six ; these were fetched 
home, every night, for some weeks ; and very frequently, 
on seeing the house from the top of the hill, they would 
take wing, and fly homewards, making a circuit of about 
a mile. On one occasion they were on the point of 
alighting on a pond of water, near the next farm-house, 
instead of a smaller one near home ; they soon, however, 
discovered their mistake, and raised themselves in the 
air, to nearly as great a height as before, alighting on 
their own water; and were there long before their driver, 
notwithstanding that he went mostly in a direct line. 
These flights were considered as particularly remarkable, 
because the- Geese were at the time quite fat and heavy. 
]We have a similar instance of a common tame Duck, in 
Hertfordshire, which was in the constant habit of taking 
flights, with the same power, and at the same height, as 
a Crow, or as if in its wild state. The people of the village 
were all aware of its singular propensity, asserting that it 
would often rise and take the circuit of a mile. 

As to our smaller species, there is scarcely a part of 

81 
the wide ocean, in the usual route of navigators, over 
which some of the little land-birds have not been seen 
flitting, blown off, in many instances possibly, from their 
native shores, by gales of wind, and no doubt often 
perishing in the waters, but still leaving survivors enough 
to give evidence of their uncommon strength of wing. 
Thus our well-known cheerful little bird, .the Tomtit 
(Parus major), has been met with in latitude 40° north 
and longitude 48° west, about 920 miles from land;* 
• Foster's North America, vol. i. 



but a still more extraordinary instance, both as regards 
distance from land and situation, is that of a common 
Titlark (Alauda pratensis) having alighted on board a 
vessel from Liverpool, in latitude 47° 4' south, longitude 
43° 19' west, in Sept. 1825, at a distance of at least 
' 1300 miles from the nearest main land of South America, 
and about 900 from the wild and barren island of Georgia, 



The poor little traveller was taken, and brought back to 
Liverpool, where it was seen by Dr. Traill, one of our 
most eminent naturalists. An Owl has been also seen 
gliding over the midst of the Atlantic Ocean, with as much 
apparent ease as if it had been seeking for mice amongst 
its native fields. To the distant voyages of this bird, we 
can indeed bear our testimony, when sailing in the 
Mediterranean. At daylight a brown Owl was observed on 
the main-top-gallant yard, and secured by an active sailor: 
for three or four days it was detained, but as it appeared to 
pine, it was again turned adrift. At first it seemed be- 
wildered, but after wheeling round the ship twice or thrice, 
it steered, direct as an arrow from a bow, for the nearest 

landj jlistant about eig hty miles. 

VWe cannot, after this, be surprised to hear, that, rprtnin' 
seafaring birds are constantly found at a thousand miles, 
or often at greater distances, from land. Three of the 
most remarkable of these wild wanderers are the Alba- 
tross [Diomedea exulans), the Tropic-Bird (Phaeton Pha- 
nicurus), and the Frigate-Bird (Tachypetes aquila). The 



82 

first of these, the Albatross, the largest of the aquatic 
tribe, with plumage of the most delicate white, except 
the back and tops of its wings, which are of a dark gray, 
floats in the air, borne up by a vast expanse of wing, 
measuring fourteen feet, or even more from tip to tip. 
The air and the water, indeed, seem to be far more 
natural to it than the land, where it is so helpless, owing 
to its enormous length of wing, which prevents it from 
rising, unless it can launch itself from a steep precipice or 
projecting rock, that it is completely at the mercy of those 
who approach, and one blow on the head generally kills it 
instantly. 

The Tropic-Bird is the very reverse of the heavy 
gigantic Albatross, and might fairly be called the fairy of 
the ocean; seen as it is in the genial latitudes of the 
warmest climates of the globe, — now a stationary speck, 
elevated as far as the eye can reach, contrasted with the 
dark blue of the sky, like a spangle in the heavens ; then 
suddenly descending like a falling star, and as suddenly 
checking its course, to hover for a while over the top- 
most point of a vessel's masts, and then darting like a 
meteor, with its two long projecting tail-feathers streaming 
in the air downwards, on a shoal of flying-fish; and then 
rising gracefully with its prize, again to soar aloft and take 
its rest above the clouds. . 



,_JBut light and any as is the Tropic-Bird, what shall 
we say to the Frigate-Bird, which surpasses all others in 
its power of flight, inasmuch as, excepting at the breed- 
ing season, it seldom visits the land; and, still more 
extraordinary, is never seen to swim or repose upon the 
waters! Its very structure, indeed, renders its living on 
either land or water a matter of difficulty; its wings are 
so long, that, like the Albatross, unless perched upon 
the pinnacle of a rock, or projecting point of a branch, 
it cannot take flight. Neither is it adapted for a life 
upon the waves; as its feet are but partially webbed, and 



t! 



in addition to its length of wing, which renders it as 
difficult to rise from a flat-water surface as from the 

83 







487 



level ground of the land, its feathers arc not of that] 
close and downy texture peculiar to aquatic birds 
'Whereas, its whole form and internal arrangement s are J 
• calculated for, it may be almost said, eternal flight.J Its 
length of wing, ten or twelve feet from tip to tip, forked 
tail, and short legs, (the thighs or tarsi not exceeding an 
inch in length,) bear a close resemblance to those of our 
common Swift, of whose wonderful powers of flight we have 
said so much ; but nature has provided the Frigate-Bird 
with still more surprising means, for not only floating for 
a time, but for ever, without fatigue in the regions of air, 
and even sleep without risk of falling ; we shall endeavour 
to explain this (at first sight) most improbable capacity, so 
as to render it no longer a matter of doubt or difficulty, 
but merely an additional instance of the beautiful arrange- 
ment adopted by the providence of God in all his wondrous 
w orks. 

(On examining it, we shall find just beneath the throat 
a large pouch communicating with the lungs, and with 
the hollow and particularly light bone-work of its skele 
ton. Suppose, then, that the bird wishes to rest in the 
air ; — in the first place, it avails itself of its large wings, 
which it is enabled by constant habit to keep expanded, 
and which are in themselves nearly sufficient to sustain its 
weight and float its light body in the air. But, in addi- 
tion to the wing, suppose the bird fills its large pouch with 
air, and from thence forces it into all its bones and cavities 
between the flesh and the skin, what will happen ? That 
the heat of its circulation (and it is well known that the 
heat of a bird's circulation is considerably beyond that of 
other animals) will rarefy the internal air; which will 
therefore puff up, not only the pouch, but every cavity, and 
thus give the bird a surprising additional buoyancy or 
power of floating, even in the higher regions of the atmo- 
sphere. And that this is the case may be presumed from 
its habits ; for when the lower currents of air are stormy 
and disagreeable, up goes the Frigate-Bird to a higher and 
^calmer current, where, just as we see the light fleecy clouds 



84 



in the sky, it remains, suspended with outspread wing, 
motionless, and at rest, till, roused by hunger, it expels 
the rarefied air, and emptying its pouch, descends towards 
the waves; but as it never either dives or swims, on 
approaching within a few feet, it instantly stops, and 
changes its direction, so as to skim along and catch the 
flying-fish with its hawk-like bill or talons, or both toge- 
ther. So averse are they, in fact, to diving, or even 
touching the water, that, instead of dashing downwards 
head foremost, like the Gannet and other diving birds, the 
Frigate-Bird holds its neck and feet in a horizontal direction; 
striking the upper column of air with its wings, then 
raising and closing them one against the other above its 
back, it darts on the flying-fish with such skill and certainty, 
as almost invariably to ensure success, f 
Most travellers who nave visited 



Constantinople, by 
the passage of the Dardanelles and the Sea of Marmora, 
may have noticed a bird not quite so large as a Pigeon, 
abundant in that neighbourhood, though occasionally 
seen in other parts of the Archipelago, as at Napoli and 
Vourla, which must have excited their curiosity and sur- 



prise. "Every day," says one of the many authors who 
nave noticed it, " they are to be seen in numerous flocks, 
passing up and down the Bosphorus with great rapidity. 
"When they arrive either at the Black Sea, or Sea of 
Marmora, they again wheel about, and return up the 
channel, and this course they continue, without a mo- 
ment's intermission, the whole day. They arc never 
seen to alight, either on land or water; they never for 
a moment deviate from their course, or slacken their 
speed; are neve*r known to search for, or take any food; 
and no visible cause can be assigned for the extraordi- 
nary and restless instinct by which they are haunted. 
They fly very near the surface of the water; and if a 
boat meets a flock of them, they either rise a few feet 
over it, or it divides them like a wedge. Their flight is 
remarkably silent; and though so numerous and so close, 
the whirr of their wings is scarcely ever heard. They are 

85 
so abundant in the Sea of Marmora, that near twenty 
flocks have been counted in the passage of a few miles. 
One reason why they have escaped the close attention of 
naturalists, is, that no person is permitted to kill any bird 
upon the Bosphorus without incurring the displeasure of 
the Turks, who, although very indifferent as to the lives of 
human beings, are extremely averse to take away the lives 
of animals."* 

' WALSH'S Constantinople. Sge ateo-Sfrefeherhi Greece. 
•tin Andreossi's work, Sur le Bosphoi-e, it is termed Halcyon Voya- 
•geur. 

MIGRATION AND FLIGHT. 90 

The foregoing instances, while they assure us (if 
assurance was necessary) that birds at wonted times 
change their habitations, still add to, rather than remove, 
the difficulties as to the real causes. But if of these we 
must. for the present remain in ignorance, we have enough 
left in the actual facts of migration to call forth all our 
wonder, in considering the regularity, order, and disci- 
pline, with which these unaccountable journeys are con- 
ducted, and the unknown compass placed within the 
bosoms of these airy travellers, enabling them to go, and 
return from, points thousands of miles apart, with as 
much certainty as the sailor steers his ship across the 
wide ocean by his skill in navigation, a nd that myste- 
rious needle ever pointing to the north, j Neither is this' 



instinct confined to birds; it has been observed in turtles, 
which cross the ocean from the Bay of Honduras to the 
Cayman Isles, near Jamaica, a distance of 450 miles, 
without the aid of chart or compass, and with an accu- 
racy superior to human skill; for it is affirmed, that 
vessels which have lost their reckoning in hazy weather, 
have steered entirely by the noise of the turtles in swim- 
ming. The object of their voyage, as in the case of birds, 
is for the purpose of laying their eggs on a spot peculiarly ^ 



favourable, i" 

It is, indeed, this instinctive power and stimulus which 
is the real point to excite our astonishment in the mi- 
gration of birds; for when we take into consideration 
what has been said of their rapid flight, which would 
enable an Eagle in nine clays, allowing him sixteen or 
seventeen hours for repose, to go round the world, there 
is nothing so very extraordinary in the journey of a 
Swallow from the shores of England to those of Sierra 
Leone in Africa, where a person, who resided there for 



SI 

■even years, constantly observed our three species, many 
of them remaining all the year, but their numbers much 
diminished from spring to autumn, when they were sup- 
posed to be absent, spending their summer in Europe. 

On looking at the map, it will be seen, that without 
further peril by sea than simply crossing the short space 
of the British Channel and Straits of Gibraltar, (either 
of which, at their narrowest parts, even a barn-fed 
Sparrow might easily do in an hour or two,) a bird 
might make almost a direct course to Sierra Leone, a 
distance of about 3000 miles, which space a Swallow 
would without effort traverse in three days, including 
time for roosting at night, and which even a Sparrow 
could perform at leisure, and without the least fatigue, 
in less than a fortnight. The above calculation is made 
on the supposition, that the airy travellers keep over the 
land as much as possible; but if the straightest course 
were preferred, they might, by crossing the Bay of Biscay, 
perform it in less time. And that Swallows do, at least 
occasionally, take this line we know, from the very curious 
fact of one settling on the rigging, and caught on board 
a vessel bound to the French port of Havre, beneath the 
wing of which was found a very small ■ slip of paper, on 
which was written in French "The ship Armide, Captain 
Borgnet, going to Martinique, latitude 48° 33' north, 
longitude 10° 39' west." On reference to the map it 
will be seen, that this point is nearly in a straight line, 
drawn from the Land's End in England to the western 
coast of Africa. 

110 

The Vulture, too, floats on a prey of a very different 
description. In the rivers of the East, says a traveller,* one 
is constantly shocked with the sight of a floating corpse, 
with a vulture perched upon it, and expanding its wings to 
cause it to land, that it may devour its horrid meal in 
leisure. 

From what has been said, it will be readily believed, 
that they are most voracious in their appetites. These 
large fish-eaters have been known to consume a bucket- 
full a day ; and, as if aware at the same time of the un- 
certainty of always insuring a supply, particularly when 
they have in addition to their own wants, their young to 
provide for, they are in the habit of collecting an over- 
abundance on the high rocks where thei r nests are situated, 
so as to have an amnle stock in hand. | And so well aware 
are the North American Indians of these stores, that an 
Eagle's nest is familiarly called an Indian's larder; from 
which the wild hunters can readily supply themselves, at 
least during the breeding and rearing season, from May to 
September with a plentiful store of hares, ducks, and geese,^ 
besides fish-tT 



488 



In England, though large Eagles are now very rare, 
naturalists have met with similar instances. Mr. Wjl- 
loughby, an excellent authority, mentions a nest which 
he saw in the woodlands, near the river Derwent, in the 
Peak of Derbyshire, about 150 years ago; he described 
it as about two yards square, formed of great sticks, 
resting one end on the ledge of a rock, and the other 
on two birch-trees, upon which was a layer of rushes, and 
over them a layer of heath, and upon the heath rushes 
again, upon which lay one young one, and an addle 
egg,' and by them a lamb and a hare, and three heath- 
poults. • Transatlantic Sketches, vol. ii. 
t Heakne'S Journey. 



EFFECTS OF FROST. 150 

In Scotland, also, during 
a severe frost, a Heron was found struggling on the ice ; 
it seems the foot on which it had been standing, had been 
during the night completely frozen up ; probably when first 
it settled on the previous evening, the surface was in a 
fluid state, but a severe frost setting in, the foot was soon 
encrusted with ice, and the bird fettered to the spot. 
Again, in one of Captain Sir Edward Parry's Northern 
Expeditions, the hand of a marine was so dreadfully frost- 
bitten, that it was found necessary to amputate some of the 
fingers; previously to which, by way of restoring circula- 
tion gradually to the parts which had not been frost-bitten, 
the man's hand was dipped in cold water, when to the 
great surprise of the medical attendants, the water was 
seen to congeal round the frozen joints for a considerable 
length of time after its immersion. In another of his ex- 
peditions, it was observed that the Ravens which were seen 
on the wing had a white circle round their neck like a 
collar, which was at last discovered to be a regular coating 
of frozen breath, that had thus collected on the feathers, 
as it escaped from the bird's mouth. But a still more 
curious instance, and very similar to that of the Kites, 
occurred near Windsor. One morning a person was em- 
ployed in a yard adjoining to his house, when his atten- 
tion was attracted by the growling of his cat, who seemed 
to be in violent agitation, though confined to the spot on 
which she stood. On examining the cause of her distress, 
it appeared that she had been making her breakfast on 
some offal scraps of meat, which had been thrown there ; 
and the place being wet, and the thermometer at the tirue 
being fifteen degrees below freezing, her feet had actually 
frozen to the ground, and a minute or two elapsed before 
she could extricate herself from her unpleasant situation. 
One other instance we have met with, which is stated by 

151 

the writer to be a positive fact, and as in our view of the 
case it is by no means unlikely to have occurred, we give it. 



[A peasant, in the mountainous part of the South of France, 
observing a great number of wild Ducks settled on the ice 
of a small river that was frozen over, fired into the midst of 

I them, and was surprised to find that not one of them took 

I to flight. On going up, he found, that owing to the 
severity of the frost, they were not only completely 
fastened to the ice by their feet, but that nearly one-half^ 

^were fro zen to death. ) The above anecdotes will appear 
less improbable, wnen we consider how rapidly, under 
favourable circumstances, even in our comparatively tem- 
perate winters, ice is formed, and how unexpectedly birds 
or animals unaware of it, might in consequence be im- 
prisoned. It is easy to form ice to a considerable extent, 
in a few minutes, if water is poured over a level surface so 
that none shall escape ; for instance, over a wide floor or 
plain, smoothed with Roman cement, flooded to the depth 
of less than a quarter of an inch. A thin coating of water 
thus applied, will, even if the thermometer is scarcely 
lower than the freezing-point, almost immediately become 
a sheet of ice, and if repeated two or three times, will form 
a covering, capable of bearing the heaviest weight without 
giving way. 

CROWS AND ROOKS. 208 
It has been observed, that they are usually of solitary 
habits, seldom associating in greater numbers than pairs ; 



but this rule has also its exceptions, and the following 
instances of the mysterious assemblages of birds may be 
justly classed amongst their most extraordinary instinctive 
h abits. 

^Jln the northern parts of Scotland, and in the Feroe 
Islands, extraordinary meetings of Crows are occasionally 
known to occur. They collect in great numbers, as if 
they had been all summoned for the occasion; a few of 
the flock sit with drooping heads, and others seem as 
grave as judges, while others again are exceedingly active 
and noisy : in the course of about an hour they disperse, 
and it is not uncommon,, after they have flown away, 
to find one or two left dead on the spot. Another writer * 
says, that these meetings will sometimes continue for 
a day or two, before the object, whatever it may be, 
is completed. Crows continue to arrive from all quarters 
during the session. As soon as they have all arrived, 
a very general noise ensues, and, shortly after, the 
whole fall upon one or two individuals and put them to 
death : when this exe cution has been performed, they^ 

^quietly di sperse, j 

Another and nearly similar meeting was witnessed near 
Oggersheim, a small village on the banks of the Rhine ; 
where, in a large meadow, every autumn, the Storks 
assemble, to hold (as the country people call it) a council, 
just before their annual migration. 

2C8 



480 



spiders form a very considerable part of the £00X^1^ 
Swift, which flies higher in search of insects than any other 
insect-feeding bird. The fact is, the air is abundantly 
tenanted with small spiders, and to a height almost incre- 
dible. Of the quantity, we may form some idea, by the 
perfect carpeting of webs which are occasionally seen in an 
autumnal morning, glistening with moisture. These are 
the webs of the gossamer-spider, which, rendered heavier 

I by the dew collecting on their slender threads, fall to the^ 

/ground, and cover whole acres.J 

Ot the height to wmch these spiders rise, we have the 
evidence of a person, who, from the summit of York 
Minster, nearly two hundred feet above the ground, found 
himself surrounded by immense flights of little spiders, 
floating upwards on their airy webs, and could perceive 
them, in equal numbers, higher in the air, as far as the eye, 
aided by a good telescope, could reach. 

It is a common weather rule, that when Swallows fly 
low, there will be rain; but when high, it will be fair. 
The reason may be readily guessed. They feed entirely, 
as we have said, upon insects; and the flight of insects 
depends, in a great degree, on the state of the air ; if it 
is clear and dry, they rise; if moist, or likely to be so, 
they keep nearer the ground : and thus the Swallow, like 
the hand of the clock, moved by invisible wheels and 
springs, tells us when we may expect the weather to be 
moist or dry. 

THE PLOVER. 362 



But we have another story to tell of a certain species 
of Plover's meals, far more extraordinary, and which we 
should feel great hesitation in relating, had not the 
original observer of former days be en supp orted by eye- 
. witnesses of later tim es. I Herodotus, an old Grecian 
historian, asserted, that there was a certain small bird 
which, as often as the crocodiles came on shore from the 
river Nile, flew fearlessly within their jaws, and relieved 



them of a peculiar kind of leeches which infested their 
throats. This ancient historian added, that, although other 
birds invariably avoided the crocodile, it never did this 
bird any injury. So extraordinary a story was treated 
as fabulous by all naturalists. It is, notwithstanding, 
strictly true, — M. GeofFry Saint Ililaire, an eminent and 
accurate French naturalist, confirms the fact beyond a 
doubt. The bird alluded to is the Egyptian Plover (Cha- 
radrius JEgyptiacus), which sometimes enters the mouth 
of the crocodile, attracted thither, not, according to his 
account, by leeches, but by a small insect like a gnat, 

365 
which frequents the banks of the Nile in great quantities, 



t When the crocodile comes on shore to repose, he is assailed 
\ by swarms of these gnats, which get into his mouth in 
such numbers, that his palate, naturally of a bright yellow 
colour, appears covered with a blackish-brown crust. Then 
it is that this little Plover, which lives on these insects, 
comes to the aid of the half-choked crocodile, and relieves 
him of his tormentors ; and this without any risk, as the 
crocodile, before shutting his mouth, takes care, by a pre- 
paratory movement, to warn the bird to be off. This sin- 
gular process is, moreover, not confined to the crocodiles 
of Egypt; it has been noticed in those of the West 
Indies, where, when attacked in a similar manner by small 
lilies, called Maringouins, a little bird (Todus viridis), which 
Jlives chiefly on flies and insects, performs the same kind office., 




490 



THE LIFE 



OF 



SIJR CHARLES LINNAEUS, 



KNIGHT OF THE SWEDISH ORDER CF THE POLAR STAR, &c. &c. 



TO WHICH IS ADDED, 

A COPIOUS LIST OF HIS WORKS, AND A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 
OF THE LITE OF HIS SON: 



D. H. STOEVER, PH. D. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL GERMAN 

BY JOSEPH TRAPP, A. M. 



LONDON: 

Printtb fep £. Sjottfoit, 2?cTT--p.iir&, 
fOR K. AND J. WHITE, FLEET-STREET. 



J 79-l- 



18 

In the compassionate beneficence of his countrymen 

and fellow-students, he found, however, some temporary relief in bis in- 
digent state. lie picked up a meal here and there, and was glad to cover 
himself with their lcft-offclothcs. He had not even a sous to purchase a 
pair of shoes. Imperious necessity compelled him to have recourse to 



the trade which his father had once resolved to bind him to.j He put 
cards in the worn-out shoes which were given him by bis comrades, and 
stitched. and mended them with the bark of trees, to enable him at least^ 
I to go out'to collect plants. [ No great, or eminent man of our age, not' 
even Benjamin Franklin, the American printer, ever struggled 
with so many difficulties and adversities, while endeavouring to reach 
the towering height at which his genius made him aspire. Voltaire, 



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491 



maintained in the last century by an ingenious theory, that the earth 
was flat and pressed inwards about the poles. The great Italian astro- 
nomer Cassini, whom the liberality of Louis XIV. brought to 
Peris from Bologna, by several mensurations attempted to refute 
Newton's hypothesis. To decide this contest, this learned expedi- 
tion was undertaken at Paris, through the endeavours of Count 
M.\ u rep as, an expedition which will ever be memorable in the annals 
of literature. 

Co kd amine was dispatched from Paris to Peru with another so- 
ciety, to measure there the degrees beneath the equator, and Mau- 
pertius, Outhier, Ci.airaut, Camus, and Mounier, repaired I 
to Tornca in Lapland, whither they were accompanied from Up- J 
sal by Andrew Celsius , the Swedish astronomer. The result of_ / 

33 



both these voyages and observations, was a full confirmation of Nr.w. 
ton's opinion, that the earth is a spheroid, higher towards the equator 



and more dep ressed about the poles.) 

" Newton in the starry sky, 

*.' Newton saw them, and from the heaven}, 

" Bade them confirm his discovery 

<: To the astonish 'd world." 

137 

(The attacks of the whole phalanx of his foreign opponents could 
not induce him to accept a challenge. The method of his ven- 
geance was equally original and piquant. He sat enthroned above 
the whole reign of vegetation. With the plants he transmitted honour 
and disgrace to posterity. To beautiful plants he assigned the names 
of his friends, and to the pernicious and inferior ones- he gave the 
names of his enemies. As an instance of this particular, we only need 
quote here the Siegtsbeckia, Htisteria, Bufonia, Adansonia, and Ponte- 
dtria 



i_ 



160 
LINN/EUS PROFESSOR Al UPSAL. 



The usual number of students was 500, which proportion continued 
also alter his death. But during the septennial war in 1759, while Lin- 
n/t. us was rector for six months*, the number of students amounted 
to one thousand five hundred. To profit by his knowlege pupils came 
from Russia, Norway, Denmark, Great Britain, Holland, Germany, 
Switzerland, nay, even from America t. Thus he deserved well of 
foreigners, and became the benefactor of the muses at Upsal. He 
"made summer excursions at the head of his pupils, who frequently at- 
tended him to the number of upwards of two hundred. They then 
went in small parties to explore different districts of the country, 
j Whenever some rare or remarkable plant, or some other natural curio- 



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492 
month in that southern region ere he fell a viQiin to its climate. He 
died February nth, 1756, in the flower of youth, aged twenty-seven 
years,- and crowned with merit. Linn/eus was singularly affected at 
thelb'ss'of him. Among all his travelling disciples he was one of the 
most zealous and most learned botanists, and none bad a finer oppor- 
tunity' to enrich his science *. He left to bis great teacher at Upsal the 
the melancholy pleasure of publishing his voyage, and dedicating to bis 

memory a plant which he denominated Loejlingia t. 

^Linn^eus did not live to hear of the tragical exit of another of his] 
\ pupils, who, like Loetling, revered him as his promoter. This was 
.1 J. P. Falk.J He was bom in West Gothland in 1730, and came to 
Upsal in 175 1, to study natural history. His diligence and poverty were 
equally great. He was as much distressed as Linn ji us once had been. 
The latter did for Falk what Celsius and Rudbeck had formerly 
done for himself. He took him into his house and made him tutor to 
his son, afterwards professor Linnjkus. 

180 
To the above ill-fated persons may be added the celebrated J. J. 
Bjoernstahl. He certainly made the Belles Letlres his chief study, 
yet at the same time he had frequented the Linn^an le£lures upon na- 
tural history. After twelve years peregrination he ended his career on 
the 12th of July 1779, in the forty-ninth year of his age, at Solonichi in 
Macedonia. The patriotism of his countrymen honoured his memory 
by medals, and his tomb with a marble monument. 



1 These were the six pupils of Linn/eus, the six ambassadors of 
Flora, who were stopped in their mission by premature death. We 
Ishall now spe;;'. of those whose destinies proved more auspicious. / 



TRAVELLING PUPILS OF LINNAEUS. 



itfi 



Besides Loe fling, two other pupilsof Linnaeus made a voyage to 
America. The principal among these was Petek Kalm. A patriotic 
thought of Li n.n & us occasioned his voyage*. He well knew that 
a species of mulberry tree (moms rubra) grew wild in North America, 
and rose to a fine height in the open districts of Canada. . The situation 
and climate of that country are much analagous to* that of Szucden.. 
The importation of raw silk in this latter kingdom was reckoned at 
twenty thousand Swedish pounds, which consequently drew out.of 
the national coffer the sum 250,000 dollars per annum t.., Lin- 
naeus proposed to the royal academy of Stockholm a voyage to 
Canada, to learn, among other things, whether or not the American 
mulberry trees and the silk-worms which feed on them could be trans- 
planted in Sweden with advantage. Patriotism s oon executed this pro^ 
posahj The royal academy of sciences, the universities of Upsal and 
Abo, the magistrates of Stockholm, and the commercial college of the 



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I safely with their treasures to Sweden, and published their observations*. 
I The captain of the ship himself became conspicuous for his love of 
jnatural history and the zeal with which h e served Linn^us. His namc^ 

Was ECKEBERG 



;%] In 1765 jA. Sparrmann Jmade likewise a voya 
hina; he returned three years after, and from the ye 



year 



with him to China; ne returnca tnree y< 
1772 till 1776 made a voyage rjound the world with Capt. Cook and 
■foRsTF.R — also to the Cape of Good Hope, and into the interior parts of 
the South of Africa, by which his name became so celebrated*. Much 

183 
about, the same time "a voyage was made to this latter country and. the 
.South-Eastern p. rt of'As.ia t by one c the post distinguished pupils 
of the LiN'N-flEiAN school,, then a phy sician in the serv ice o f the D utch 
East-India Company. nThis was Do&or. Charles Peter Thunberc,\ 
that, celebrated naturalist and worthy successor of his great teacher at 
Upsali and of his friend Linnjeus junior. He has heen .created a 
knight of the order of Vasa, since the year 1785.*. 

Thus the spirit of Linnaus diffused itself from the North through 
all the zones of the earth, thus his name was spread by bis disciples over 
most parts of the world, even in the Southern Indies. Some of his 
pupils were among the first who entered and explored the new discovered 
countries. | One of them was Sparrmann — and before him Dr. So*} 
lander, who, after Linn/eus, travelled through the Alps of Lapland^ 
and accompanied, with Sir Joseph Banks, the great and immortal 
Captain Cook in his voyage of discovery. He remained at London, 
where he held an office in the British Museum till his death, which 
happened in the year 1782^ 

vels in Europe, Africa, and A}la, especially in I 
transla ted into English, in 3. vols, oftavo.) 
"he Chevalier Charles Thunberg commented Ins travels, which lasted nine years, in 
August 1770, through Norway and Denmark, reached France in November, remained almost 
a. twelvemonth at Paris, went fcom thence to Holland, embarked there for the Cape of Good 
Hope, and travelled three years through the interior pans of Africa ; in 1775- he went to 
Jja/aiiia and Japan, and after a rssidence of sixteen months returned to the Isl.ind of Java, 
explored its interior parts during six months, went to G*"V;, where he also remained 
six months, and returned afterwards to his country by the Cape of Good Hope, through Eng- 
land, Holland and Germany. His travels are the mo^t interesting ever made by a native of 
Sweden. See the letter which Linn^us wrote to him in the Colleclio Epiitolarum C. A. 
Likne, Hamb. 1792. 

+ See an account of the life and writings of Dr. Solander, by Sir Joseph Banks — 
also his Biography in the German literary journals of Halle, by Prof. G. Forster.— A 
medal was struck at Gothenburg in Sweden, by Baron At s 1 koemer representing the flower 
Stlandra, with this inscription; Josevho Banks Eflig.cm Mento D. D. D. CI. et Jo. 

Al.STROEMER. 184 

In all those parts of the world, whence the Muses are not entirely 
banished. Linna;us became the modern teacher of natural history. 
His system was equally as well received at Batavia * and Calcutta, as 
at New York and Philadelphia. - The friends of nature of all nations 
and-all reli gions, did homage to his system. \ His name and his doc- 
ftrine became even known among the Mahometans. Bjoernstahl un- 



it C. P. Thunberg, M. D. F. R. S.— Travel 
Japan during the years 1770 ,to 1779, are 



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to No, ay, England and France; Gieseke to Great Britain and 
France; Ehrhart through the territories of Brunswick, Hanover, Sec. 
Ferber through Italy and Hungary; besides many whose names would 
form too long a list to admit of being inserted here. 

The natural history of Sweden, however much Linn.cus himself 
had already done for its progress, was remarkably more advanced and 
enriched by the travels and observations of his pupils. Dr. Solander 
travelled th 
Falk. and 
Scc.&c.r 



irough Pithea Lapland; Montin in 1759 to Lulea Lapland ;\ 
Dr. Bercius in 1752 to Gothland; Kalm to West Gothland, I 



196 



(One of the most ingenious observations of Linnaeus in physical 
botany was his new theory of the origin of the blossoms. He con- 
sidered them as a sudden display, happening all at once, of the leaves 
and the gems of plants, (Prolepsis Plantarum), as the anticipation of a 



growth of five years. J The lateral or side-leaves, spring, according to 
this theory, froin" those parts which would have produced the or- 
dinary leaves in the following year, the calyx from the leaves of the 
third, the petals from the leaves of the fourth, the stamina from the 
leaves of the fifth, and the pistilla from the leaves of the sixth year. 
Thus this dcvclopement, according to the fabric of nature, would only 
be effected after a lapse of six years, were it not accelerated by the 
covers of the marrow of the plants, which contain too little of the ali- 
mentary juice to be able to follow its extension, and to prevent the 
thriving of the (lower or blossom. 

To these may wc add many other observations upon the distinct parts 



and properties of plants, j Thus LinnjEus, for instance, demonstrated, 
how accurately flowers perform the service of a time-piece, in which 
the hour of the day can be precisely ascertained; he composed a 
calendar for the period when the plants thrive their blossom, (Calen- 
darium Flora?) and pointed out from this calendar in what manner the 
time best calculated for certain labours of rural ceconomy may be 
chosen, he presented the different sorts of the natural emigrations ofy 
plants, (Colonia: Plantarum), &c 



All these, and many other remarks and subjects which he left to the 
discussion of his pupils in the academical disputations, were colleflcd 
and published by him under the title of Amoenitates Academics. The 
first part of this collection made its appearance in the year 1749, and 

197 

the seventh and last in 1769. Disputations were held under him till 

the year 1776. 

The Aulic Counsellor Schreeer of Erlangen, one of the greatest of 
his pupils, who blended the fame of his master with his own, arro- 
gated to himself the merit of collecting the scattered and unknown dis- 
sertations, treatises and speeches of Linn^us, with the writings of his 






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also .spoke in the highest terms of encomium of the prince of botany. 
Thus the son of a village preacher, <vhom persons jealous of his fame at 
Stockholm, — whom a Siegesbeck. and others wanted to turn into ridi- 
cule on account of his reforms, — thus was Linn.ius honoured and re- 
vered by the grea test sovereigns of the age.} 

A philosopher, though not' the most eminent, yet one of the. most 
extraordinary of this century, J. J. Roussf.au, of Geneva, worshipped 
LiNN.tus as his idol. Having already adduced an instance of his en- 
thusiasm for our luminary, we will communicate here by way of farther 
characteristic, the conversation which Bjoerns ah l had with him at 
■ Paris in the year 1770*. " When I was with Rousseau for the first 
** time," writes Bjoernstahl, " he asked me, if I studied botany? 

233 

<{ Having told him that Linn^us had given me lessons at different 

." times, he rose and exclaimed, " You know then my master and pro- 
i: fessor, the great Linnteus ? If you write to him, assure him of my 
veneration, and dirow mc prostrate before him — (Et mcltcz moi a genoux 
(i devant hi). — Tell him, that I know no greater man on earth; that I 
owe him my health, nay, even my life." Rousseau afterward shewed 
" me LiNNiEUs's PInlosophia Botanica, saying, "This book contains 



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496 



FIVE YEARS' RESIDENCE 



CANADAS 



1XCLUDING 



®L Eour tftroual) i^art 



THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 



IN THE YEAR 1823. 



BY EDWARD ALLEN TALBOT, ESQ., 

OF THE TALBOT SETTLEMENT, UfPERCANADA, 



Bold rise the mountains, rich the gardens glow, 
Bright lakes expand, and conquering rivers flow; 
Mind, mind alone, without whose quickening ray 
The world's a wilderness, and man but clay t — 
Mind, mind alone, in barren, still repose. 
Nor blooms, nor rises, nor expands, nor flows. 

Moore. 



IN TWO VOLUMES, 

VOL. ! 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, BROWN 
AND GREEN. 



1824. 



246 

The Shad-fly is most common about 

the towns and villages on the banks of the St. Law- 
rence, and is seldom observed in Upper Canada. 
I have seen them so numerous in the environs of 
Montreal, that at the distance of five yards I 
could not have distinguished an elephant from a 
mouse.' 



_)Snow-fleas are a species of insects of which I 
have not seen any notice taken either by French 
or English writers. Previous to a thaw, they are 
observed upon the snow in great multitudes. I 
once counted upwards of 1,296,000 upon a single 
square yard ; and I think it is probable, that every 
yard of woodland in the province would average 
at least an equal number. This calculation may 
appear singular, but it was very easily effected : I 



selected a square yard, every part of which appeared 
to be equally covered with these insects, and then 
out out with my penknife a square inch of the snow, 
which of course retained it3 due portion of fleas. 
Depositing the whole upon a plate, I allowed the 
snow to thaw, and the water thus produced to run 
off. The insects remained on the plate, deprived 
of life, which afforded me an opportunity for ascer^, 



THE flRE-FLV. 



247 



Ataining their number with accuracy : and I found^ 
it to be 1,000. I multiplied the number o"f insects 
found upon one square inch by the number of inches 
I in a square yard, and the result was the number of 
I insec ts contained on the surface of a square yard^ 
The Snow-flea is perfectly black, and about the 
size, of a grain of the finest gun-powder. But I 
had at the time no microscope, by which to examine 
its peculiar conformation. 

The Fire-fly, of all nocturnal insects, exhibits 
an appearance the most pleasing to the curious and 
contemplative mind. In the functions of this little 
being, we behold a wonderful example of creative 
skill. At one moment, its body is dark and opaque ; 
and, the next, it is brilliantly illuminated, as if by 
material fire, In the Summer nights they enlighten 
the whole country, and seem like a galaxy of sub- 
ordinate stars, intended to point out the path of 
safety 



to the luckless wight 

Whose lot is cast to travel in the night 

They are so numerous in every part of Lower and 
Upper Canada, that a person not aware of the unin- 
flammable nature of their blaze, would imagine the 
woods and fields to be in danger of immediate con- 
flagration. The Fire-fly belongs, if I mistake not, 
to the class of beetles ; it is of a very dark brown, 
with a straw-coloured abdomen, from which it 
emits the luminous appearance I have just described. 

248 
Beetles, in Canada, are very common, and per- 
fectly inoffensive; but there is an insect very simi- 
lar in appearance, called by the Canadians the 
Horn-bug, which is rather dangerous. He is fur- 
nished with a horn exceedingly sharp and hard, 
which projects horizontally from his head about 
a quarter of an inch. As he flies very swiftly, and 
without any apparent regard to the direction which 
he takes, he sometimes comes in contact with men, 
horses, and other animals ; on whose flesh, although 



497 



he seems to entertain no hostile intentions against 
them, he sometimes involuntarily tries the temper 
of his instrument. 

House-flies are an overwhelming plague in 
every part of the country. I think I may safely 
say, that a single Canadian cabin contains a 



THE BKE. 



2-19 



greater number of these insects than could be col- 
lected in a whole English parish. As well might 
a Canadian hope to prevent the clouds from ob- 
scuring the sun, as to preserve his goods and chat- 
tels, doors and windows, from the filth of these 
troublesome creatures. In city, town, and country, 
windows of every description are rendered so 
dirty by these pests, that a person, unacquainted 
with the cause, would not hesitate to pronounce 
the people shamefully inattentive to external ap- 
pearances; but this state of things is, in truth, 
unavoidable. I have known persons, who made a 
constant practice of washing their windows every 
morning ; and, on looking at those very windows 
in the evening, one would not suppose, that they 
had been touched by water since the day when 
Noah's ark rested on Mount Ararat. Fly-traps 
are as common in Canada, as rat-traps in St. He- 
lena : But, notwithstanding all the means.which are 
resorted to for reducing their numbers, they are 
still so abundant that a child can scarcely open its 
mouth, without running the risk of being suffo- 
cated by the quantity that eagerly try to descend 
down i ts throat. 

(Bees, which are now very plentiful Tn every 
'part of North America, were, it is said, never 
seen in the country before the arrival of Euro- 
peans. The Indians, who, have no name for 
them in their own language, call them " English 
.flies. 

.Honey is very cheap in all the old settlements; 



260 



THE BEE. 



and many of the farmers have from 20 to 30 hives; 
independently of which, trees are discovered in 
the forests from whose hollow trunks between 70 
and 150 lbs of honey are frequently extracted. 
These trees are found out in a very singular man- 
ner : Persons who are deputed to seek them, col- 
lect a number of bees from the flowers bordering 
on the forests, and confine them in a small box, in 



the bottom of which is a piece of honey-comb, 
and in the lid a square of glass, large enough to 
admit the light into every part. When the bees 
are supposed to have satisfied themselves with 
honey, two or three are allowed to escape, and the 
direction which they take in flying away is atten- 
tively observed, until they become lost in the dis- 
tance. The hunter, as the bee-catcher is called, 
then proceeds towards the spot where his view 
became obscured ; and, releasing one or two more 
of his prisoners, he marks their course as he 
did that of their precursors. This process is 
repeated until the bees which are let fly, instead 
of following in the same direction as their pre- 
decessors, fly in that which is directly opposite. 
When this occurs, the hunter is convinced that he 
must have passed the object of his pursuit. For it 
is a fact universally received, that if you take a bee 
from a flower situate at any given distance South 
of the tree to which that bee belongs, and carry it 
in the closest confinement to an equal distance on 
the North side of the tree, he will, when allowed 
to escape, after flying in a circle for a moment, 



THE BBE. 



261 



niake his course directly to his dulce domum, with- 
out inclining in the least to the right hand or the 



left.^J The hunter, who has patience, intelligence, 
and perseverance on his side, is therefore certain of 
ultimate success: For the direction which the first 
bee takes, is infallibly that in which the nest-tree 
lies ; so that when the bees which are subsequently 
released reverse their flight and seem to go back to 
the place from which the first flew, the sports- 
man knows that he has passed by the destined tree. 



His next great object is, to distinguish the tree 
which contains the bees, from others which stand 
in the same direction. This would of course be a 
difficult task to an uninitiated person ; but /the} 



ingenuity of the American hunter has supplied him 
with means, by which he can allure the bees from 
the tree where they have deposited their honey, 
when it is not remotely situated. This is effected 
by placing a piece of honey-comb upon a heated 
brick, the odour of which, while in the act of melt- 
ing, is so strong and alluring as to induce the whole 
tribe to come down from their citadel, in quest of 
honey, of which the fragr ant smell had been the 
herald./ Nothing then remains but. to cut down 
the tree ; and the quantity of honey found in its 
excavated trunk, seldom fails to compensate very 
amply the perseverance of the huntsman. 



498 



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499 
214 I ought, he said, either to remain 

near the Indians, or to take some other woman for a wife; as my 
children were young and unable to assist me, and my own health 
somewhat uncertain, he thought it would be very imprudent for 
me to attempt wintering alone. But I would not listen to his ad- 
vice. At present, I had no inclination, either to remain with the 
Indians, or to take another wife. I therefore began to make a 
road immediately to my wintering ground. First I took the 
goods I had purchased, and carried them forward, then returned 
and brought up my children. My daughter Martha was then 
three years old, and the other children were yet small. In two 
or three days I reached my hunting ground, but was soon after 
reduced to great distress, from which I was relieved by a medi- 
cine hunt. 

I had no pukkwi, or mats, for a lodge, and therefore had to 
build one of poles and long grass. I dressed moose skins, made 
my own moccasins and leggins, and those for my children ; cut 
wood and cooked for myself and my family, made my snow shoes, 
&c. <&c. All the attention and labour I had to bestow about 
home, sometimes kept me from hunting, and I was occasionally 
distressed for want of provisions. I busied myself about my 
lodge in the night time. When it was sufficiently light, I would 
bring wood, and attend to other things without ; at other times 1 
was repairing my snow shoes, or my own or my children's 
clothes. For nearly all the winter, I slept but a very small part 
of each night. 

I was still living in this way in the spring, when a young man 
called Se-bis-kuk-gu-un-na, (tough legs,) a son of Wau-zhe-gaw- 
maish-koon, who was now dead, came to me. He was in a 
starving condition, as were his friends, who were encamped at no 
great distance from me. My dogs were now so well trained, that 
they could draw half a moose. I put on a full load of meat, and 
told him to go with the team, meet his people, and bring them to 
live with me. In three days they arrived ; but though their hun- 
ger had been relieved by the supply 1 sent them, their appearance 

215 
was extremely miserable, and it is probable they must have pe- 
rished if they had not found me. 

As the spring was approaching, we returned to the Lake of the 
Woods. Ice was still in the lake when we arrived on the shore 
of it; and as I, with my companions, was stan ding on the shore, 
I saw an otter coming on the ice at a distance.! I had often heard 1 



the Indians say that the strongest man, without arms of some 
kind, cannot kill an otter. Pe-shau-ba, and other strong men 
and good hunters,"had told me this, but I still doubted it. I now, 
therefore, proposed to test the truth of this common opinion. I 
caught the otter, and for the space of an hour or more, exerted 
myself, to the extent of my power, to kill him. I beat him, and 
kicked him, and jumped upon him, but all to no purpose. I tried 
to strangle him with my hands ; but after lying still for a time, 
he would shorten his neck, and draw his head down between my 
hands, so that the breath would pass through, and I was at last 
compelled to acknowledge, that I was not able to kill him with- 
out arms. There are other small, and apparently not very strong 
animals, which an unarmed man cannot kill. Once while on a 




I 



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Kah-zhe-gainse, — Common house cat, (little glutton.) 
Pe-zhew — Wild cat 

Ke-tah-gah-pe-zhew — Lynx, (spotted wild cat.) 
Me-she-pe-zhew — Panther, (big wild cat.) 
Ah-meek — Beaver. Naub-ah-meek — Male beaver. Noazh- 
ah-meek- — Female beaver. Ah-meek-koanse — Young beaver. 
Kin-waw-no-wish-shug, Cree, > 

Muk-kud-da-waw-wash-gais, Ojib. J Black ta,,e * deer ' 
Waw-wash-gais — Red or Virginian deer. 

O-mush-koons-Ojib. ) Elk. On Red River, Mouse River, 
Me-9ha-way, Ottaw. > .• o 1 • a 

_ • ' _ I the Saskawjawun, &c. 

Waw-was-kesh, Cree, J 

Ah-dik— Reindeer. Ca-ri-bou, French. The feet very large 

and broad, fitting the animal to travel over smooth ice, or deep 

snow ; found on all the shores of Lake Superior, and sometimes 

303 
at the upper end of Lake Huron ; but most frequent farther 
north. 

Mooze, or Moonce, Ojib. ) Moose. The nasal sound, at the 

Moon-swah, Cree, ) end of this word, is common in 

these dialects ; but it is difficult to represent, by the letters of 
our alphabet. 

.Law-ba-mooze — Buck moose. No-zha-mooze — Deer moose. 
Moonze-aince — Little moose, &c. 

A-yance — Opossum, only in the south. The word a-yance, 
means crafty. 

Shin-goos — Weasel, two kinds. 

Shin-goo-sug — Weasels. 

Ne-gik — Otter. Ne-gik-wug — Otters. 

Kwaush-kwaush-ko-tah-be-ko-sheezh. 

Keen-waw-no-wa waw-waw-be-gun-o-je — Long tail leaping 
mouse. 

Waw-waw-be-gun-o-je — Mouse. 

Ah-mik- waw-waw-be-gun-o-je — Beaver, or diving mouse. 

Kah-ge-bin-gwaw-kwa— Shrew. Two species are common 
a bout St. Maries, in win ter. 
fKahg — Porcupine.*) Kahg-wug — Porcupines. 

Shong-gwa-she — Mink. 
' Wah-be-zha-she — Marten. Woapchees, Z. p. 18. 

A-se-bun — Raccoon. 

She-gahg— Skunk. 

O-zhusk — Muskrat 

Ah-puk-kwon-ah-je — Bat. 

O-jeeg — Fisher weasel, a very stupid animal, easy to kill. 

«J * The young of this animal, if taken out of the uterus with care immediately 6n\ 
killing the dam, and put upon a tree, will cling to it, and often live. The Indians 
relate, that the porcupines, in the prairie countries of the north, pass the winters 
on oak trees, where they oftentimes have no hole, or any other protection from 
the weather, than is afforded by the trunk of the tree. They strip all the bark off 
one tree, before they go to search for another, and one may pass the greater part of 
the winter on a single tree, if it happens to be a large one. They also pretend to 
fatten the porcupine in the summer, whenever they can find him in some hole, 
where he has constructed his nest, which is of bis own excrement This, they 
•ay, he eats, and never fails, when thus confined, to become very fat. The. por- 
cupine is not disposed to make any other resistance, when attacked by a man, than 
his spiny skin affords, and the Indians have a saying of this animal, and of the rab-j 
hit, that those whom they bite will live to a great age. | ' 



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Me-zhe-ka, Ottaw. 
Me-kin-nauk, Ojib. 
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? Large tortoise. 
Soft shelled tortoise. 



* From O-muJc-kuk-kc, (toed,) and Ah-koo-te-vrin, (sickness,) is probably Me- 
rited the -yord Ma-muk-ke-ze-vin, (the small pox.) 

305 
Boos-kuUa-wish — A tortoise with round deep shell*. 
Mis-kwaw-tais-sa — Terrapin. 
Sug-gus-kwaw-ge-ma — Leech. 



Be-nais-se-wuo — Birds. 

Ke-neu — War eagle ; the master of all birds. 

Me-giz-ze — White headed eagle. Me-giz-ze-wug, plural. 

Ka-kaik — Spotted hawk. 

Be-bo-ne-sa, Ottaw. 

Ke-bu-nuz-ze, Ojib. 

No-je-ke-na-beek-we-zis-se — Marsh hawk, (snake eating.) 

Wa-be-no-je Ke-na-beek-we-zis-se — White marsh hawk. 

Mis-ko-na-ne-sa — Red tail hawk. 

Pish-ke-neu — Black tail hawk. 

Muk-kud-da-ke-neu — Black hawk. 

Bub-be-nug-go — Spotted tail hawk. 



Winter hawk. 



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5. I-ah-ne-wah-ho go-mo-yaun, i-ah-ne-wah-ho go-mo-yaun? 
i-am-mik-gung-ga-nah ; i-ah-ne-wah-ho go-mo-yaun. 

Can any one remain longer under water than me ? I am bea- 
rer, and I can remain longer than any under water. 

This language, descriptive of the difficulties in taking beaver, 
is put into the mouth of the animal himself. 

6. I-an-we-be-ah-ne ne-hub-be-ah-na be-ah-na. [Many times- 
repeated.] 

I am well loaded ; I sit down to rest ; I am loaded. 

The hunter hears, but he regards not the boasting language of 
the beaver. The evidence of his skill and success is on his back, 
suspended by a strap passing round his forehead ; and to signify 
that his load is heavy, he sits down to rest. 

7. Mah-mo-ke-heahi-ah-maung-wug-e-he-a man-i-to-we-he-tah. 
He must come up, even, the loon, though he is Manito. 

This is another answer of the hunter to the boast of the beaver. 
Are you a greater diver than the l oon ! Yet even he must rise 
to the surface after a certain time. ] The country of the Ojibbe-( 
(ways abounding in small lakes, which sometimes lie very near] 



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INFORMATION 



KLAT1VE TO TAKIKO OP 



LAND IN NEW NETHEKLAND. 

37 



31 



Cornelis Van Tienhoven, 
••• 

Secretary of the Province. 



1650. 



Translated from the Dutch. 



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Of the building of houses at first. 

Before beginning to build, it will above all things be necessary 
to select a well located spot, either on some river or bay, suitable 
for the settlement of a village or hamlet. This is previously 
properly surveyed and divided into lots, with good streets accord- 
ing to the situation of the place. This hamlet can be fenced all 
round with high palisades or long boards and closed with gates, 
which is advantageous in case of attack by the natives who 
heretofore used to exhibit their insolence in new plantations. 

Outside the village or hamlet other land must be laid out which 
can in general be fenced and prepared at the most trifling 
expense. ; 

Thcfse in New Netherland and especially in New England, who 
have no means to build farm houses at first according to their 
wishes, dig a square pit in the ground, cellar fashion, 6 or 7 feet 
deep, as long and as broad as they think proper, case the earth 
inside with wood all round the wall, and line the wood with the 
bark of trees or something else to prevent the caving in of the 
earth ; floor this cellar with plank and wainscot it overhead for 
a ceiling, raise a roof of spars clear up and cover the spars with 
bark or green sods, so that they can live dry and warm in these 
houses with their entire families for two, three and four years, 
it being understood that partitions are run through those cellars 
which are adapted to the size of the family. The wealthy and 
principal men in New England, in the beginning of the Colonies, 
commenced their first dwelling houses in this fashion for two 




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such flocks that the Indians designedly remove to 
their breeding places, where th£ young birds, 

pushed by hundreds from their nests, serve for food during a 

Jong month'for the whole family. New Netherland hath, more- 
over, a wonderful little bird, scarcely an inch long, 
quite brilliant of plumage, and sucking flowers like 

the bee ; it is so delicate that a dash of water instantly kills it, 

and when dried it is preserved as a curiosity. 



Pigeons. 



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L'ESPRIT 



DES BETES 



Z00LOGIE PASSIONNELLfi 



MAMMIFERES DE FRANCE 



Pak a. toussenel 

Auteur des Juifs Rois de Vcpoque. 



DEIXIEME KXtlTIOA 

AUGMENTED l>E I>Il X CITAPITRLS. 



Si Ton ii'eut ecoutO que ce que Dicu 
dit n 1'bouiine, i.l n'y aurait jamais cu 
qu'uue religion sur la terre. 

J£AV*lJkCQt:ttS. 

Ceqa'il J a dc micux dans l'boinme 
e'est le cbien. 



PARIS 

L I B 11 A 1 11 1 E P II A L A N S T E 1U E N \ J ! 

29, QUAI \OLTAIItK. 

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94 

Les Alheiiieiis , peuple chasseur, sunt nalurellement possedos 
de l'amour eiilhousiaste de la vie cliampetre. Leur famcuse cite 
n'est doncqu'une triste bourgadc avanl lc rcgne de Pericles; iU 
reserveat tous les agremenls du r.onfort et du luxe pour leurs mai- 
sonsdes champs, et c'esl le Pirec seul , e'est a-dire le quartier do 
la Bourse et le port d'Alhenes qui s'embellit des depouillcs de I 
1'ennemi et des merveilles des arts. On peut juger du reste de la 
vivacite de la passion horlicole du peuple par 1'explosion du deses- 
poir universel consigne dans les comedits d'Aristophane, a l'epo- 
que funeste ou la guerre du Peloponese force tous les proprietaires 
de la banlieue a s'emprisonner dans la ville. Eh bicu ! ces horticul- 
teurs inconnus, inconnus comme la pluparl des serviteurs utiles 
de l'humanite, avaient transplante sur leur terriloire ingrat et cul- 
tivaient avec amour, de temps imm6morial, les myrtes et les oran- 
gers de la Medie et les rosiers a fleurs doubles de Rhodes. C'est a 
eux que remonte l'art de tailler, de peigner et de planter l'if, lebuis 



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OK 



THE STUDY OF WORDS 



RICHARD CHENEVIX TRENCH, B.D., 

ncAB or rrciiCNSTOKE, Hants : kxaminino chaplain to THS LOBD BISHOP 

OF OXroBD ; AND FBOrESSOB or DIVINITT, KINO'l COLLKOB, LONDON. 



FROM TUX 8KO0BD LONDON EDITION, REVTBXD A«T> rWLABOKB. 




[Second Edition.] 



R E D FI E LD, 

CLINTON HALL, NEW YORK. 
1852. 



14 
Language, then, is fossil poetry ; in other words, 
we are not to look for the poetry which a people may 
possess only in its poems, or its poetical customs, 
traditions, and beliefs. Many a single word also is 
itself a concentrated poem, having stores of poetical 
thought and imagery laid up in it. Examine it, 
and it will be found to rest on some deep analogy 
of things natural and things spiritual ; bringing 
those to illustrate and to give an abiding form and 
body to these. The image may have grown trite 
and ordinary now; perhaps through the help of 
this very word may have become so entirely the 
heritage of all, as to seem little better than a com- 
monplace ; yet not the less he who first discerned the 
relation, and devised the now word which should 
express it, or gave to an old, never before but liter- 
ally used, this new and figurative sense, this man 
was in his degree a poet — a maker, that is, of 
things which were not before, which would not have 
existed, but for him, or for some other gifted with 



equal powers. 

He who spake first of a " dilapidated" fortune, 
what an image must have risen up before his mind's 
eye of some falling house or palace, stone detaching 
itself from stone, till all had gradually sunk into des- 
olation and ruin. Or he who to that Greek word 
which signifies " that which will endure to be held 

15 
up to and judged by the sunlight," gave first its 
ethical signification of " sincere," " truthful," or as 
we sometimes say, " transparent, " can wo de ny to 
him the poet's feeling and eye? J Many a man had 



gazed, we may be sure, at the jagged and indented 
mountain ridges of Spain, before one called them 
" sierras" or " saws," the name by which now they 
are known, as Sierra Morena, Sierra Nevada; but 
that man coined his imagination into a word, whLh 
will endure as long as the everlasting hills which he 
named, f 



"Iliads without a Homer," some one has called, 
with a little exaggeration, the beautiful but anony- 
mous ballad poetry of Spain. One may be permit- 
ted, perhaps, to push the exaggeration a little fur- 
ther in the same direction, and to ap ply the phrase 
not merely to a ballad but to a word, f Let me illus-1 
trate that which I have been hero saying somewhat 
moro at length by the word " tribulation." Wo all 
know in a general way that this word, which occurs 
not seldom in scripture and in tho liturgy, means 
affliction, sorrow, anguish ; but it is quite worth our 
while to know how it means this, and to question the 
word a little closer. It is derived from the Latin 
" tribulum" — which was the thrashing instrument 
or roller, whereby the Roman husbandman separated 
| the corn from the husks; and " tribulatio" in its 
[primary significance was the act of this separation. 

As these words are a testimony to the sin of 
man, so there is a signal testimony to his infirmity, 
to tho limitation of human facilities and human 
knowledge, in the word "to retract." (To reti 



actj 
ore] 



^means properly, as its derivation declar es, no moi 
^ than to handle over again, to reconsider, j And yet, 
so certain are we to find in a subject which we recon- 
sider or handle a second time, that which was at the 
first rashly, inaccurately stated, that which needs 
therefore to be amended, modified, withdrawn; that 
" to retract" could not tarry long with its primary 
meaning of reconsidering; and has come to signify, 
as we commonly use it, " to withdraw." Thus a great 
writer of the Latin chnrch, at the close of his life 
wishing to amend whatever ha might now perceive 
in his various published works to have been incau- 
tiously or incorrectly stated, gave to the book in 



507 



■which ho curried out this intention (for they had 

then no such opportunities as second and third 

45 

editions afford now) this very name of "Retracta- 
tions," being strictly " Rehandlings," but in fact, as 
any one turning to the work will at once perceive, 
withdrawings of various statements, which he now 
considered to need thus to be withdrawn. What a 
seal does this word's acquisition of such a secondary 
use as this set to the proverb, humanum est errare. 

At the same time urging, as I have thus done, this 
degeneration of words, I should greatly err, if I failed 
to bring before you the fact that a parallel process of 
purifying and ennobling has also been going forward, 
especially, through the influences of Divine faith 
working in the world ; which, as it has turned men 
from evil to good, or lifted them from a lower earthly 
goodness to a higher heavenly, so has it in like man- 
ner elevated, purified, and ennobled a multitude of 
the words which they employ, until these which 
once expressed only an earthly good, express now a 
heavenly. The gospel of Christ, as it is the redemp- 
tion of man, so is it in a multitude of instances the 
redemption of his word, freeing it from the bondage 
of corruption, that it should no longer be subject to 
vanity, nor stand any more in the service of sin or 
of the world, but in the service of God and of his 



truth. 



[PAIN] 



48 



is the correlative 



of sin, that it is punishment ; and to this the word 



"pain," which there can be no reasonable doubt is| 
derived from "poena," bears continual witness. 
Pain is punishment ; so does the word itself, no less 
than the conscience of every one that is sufferin g it, , 
declare. J Just so, again, there are those who will 



not hear of great pestilences being God's scourges 
of men's sins ; who fain would find out natural 
causes for them, and account for them by the help 
of these. I remember it was thus with too many 
during both our fearful visitations from the cholera. 
They may do so, or imagine that they do so ; yet 
every time they use the word " plague," they im- 
plicitly own the fact which they are endeavoring to 
deny ; for " plague" means properly and according 
to its derivation, " blow," or " stroke ;" and was a 
title given to these terrible diseases, because the great 
universal conscience of men, which is never at fault, 
believed and confessed that these were "strokes" or 
" blows" inflicted by God on a guilty and rebellious 
world. With reference to such words so used we 
may truly say : Vox populi, vox Dei, The voice of 
the people is the voice of God — a proverb which 
shallowly interpreted may be made to contain a most 



mischievous falsehood ; but interpreted in the sense 
wherein no doubt it was spoken, holds a deepest 
truth. We must only remember that this " people" 
is not t\e populace either in high place or in low ; 

49 

and that this " voice of the people" is not any mo- 
mentary outcry, but the consenting testimony of the 
good and wise, of those neither brutalized by igno- 
rance, nor corrupted by a false cultivation, in all 
places and in all times. 

Every one who admits the truth which lies in this 
saying must, I think, acknowledge it as a remark- 
able fact, that men should have agreed to apply the 
word " miser," or miserable, to the man eminently 
addicted to the vice of covetousness, to him who loves 
his money with his whole heart and soul. Here, 
too, the moral instinct lying deep in all hearts has 
borne testimony to the tormenting nature of this 
vice, to the gnawing cares with which even here it 
punishes him that entertains it, to the enmity which 
there is between it and all joy ; and the man who en- 
slaves himself to his money is proclaimed in our very 
language to be a " miser," or a miserable man.* 

• We here in fact My in a word what the Roman moralist, when 
he wrote, " Nulla araritia sine poena est, qwtmvii Mti* lit ip*» pema- 
rum" took • sentence to gay. 

81 

Or, again, examine the words f" pagan" and " pa-\ 

[ganis m,^ and you will find tha't there is history in j 
them, j Many of us no donbt are aware that the 
word " pagani," derived from " pagus," a village, 
signifies properly the dwellers in hamlets and vil- 
lages, as distinguished from the inhabitants of towns 
and cities ; and the word was so used, and without 
any religious significance, in the earlier periods of 
the Latin language. "Pagani" did indeed then not 
unfrequontly designate all civilians, as contradistin- 
guished from tho military caste; and this fact may 
not have been without its influence, when the idea 
of tho faithful as soldiers of Christ was strongly re- 
alized in the minds of men. \ But how mainly was] 
fit that it came first to be employed as equivalent to 1 
[ " heathen," and applied to those yet alien from the I 
faith of Christ ? It was in this way : The Christian 
church fixed itself first in the seats and centres of 
intelligence, in the towns and cities of the Roman 
empire, and in them its first triumphs were won; 
while long after these had accepted tho truth, hea- 
then superstitions and idolatries languished and 
lingered on in the obscure hamlets and villages of 
the country; so that "pagans," or villagers, came 
to be applied to all the remaining votaries of the old 
and decaying superstitions, inasmuch as far the 






82 



508 



greater number of them were of this class. The 
first document in which the word appears in this its 
secondary sense is an edict of the emperor Valen- 
tinian, of date A. D. 368. The word " heathen" ac- 
quired its meaning from exactly the same fact, 
namely, that at the introduction of Christianity into 
Germany, the wild dwellers on the " heaths" longest J 
resisted the truth./ Here, then, are two instinctive 



notices for us — first, the historic fact that the church 
of Christ did thus plant itself first in the haunts of 
learning and intelligence ; and then the more impor- 
tant moral fact, that it shunned not discussion, that 
it feared not to grapple with the wit and wisdom of 
this world, or to expose its claims to the searching 
examination of educated men ; but, on the contrary, 
had its claims first recognised by them, and in the 
great cities of the world won first a complete triumph 
over all opposing powers.* 

• There is an interesting nml lonmcd note upon the word " pagan* 
In Gibbon's Decline and Fall, c. 21, at the end; and in Grimm'a 
Deuttckt Mytkol., p. 1198; and the history of the changes in the 
word's meaning is traced in another interest in Mill's Logie, v. 2, p. 
271. 

86 



J To the Crusades also, probably, and to the intense 
hatred which they roused throughout Christendom 
against the Mahometan infidels, we owe " miscreant," 
in its present sonse of one to whom wo would attri- 
bute the vilest principles and practice. It meant at 
the first simply a "misbeliever," and would have 
been used as freely and with as little sense of injus- 
tice, of the royal-hearted Saladin as of the most in- 
famous wretch that fought in his armies. By de- 
grees, however, those who employed it put more 
and more of their feeling and passion into it, and 
ever lost sight more of its etymology, until they 
would apply it to any whom they regarded with 
feelings of abhorrence res embling those which they 
^entertained for an infidel ;f jnst as "Samaritan" was 
often employed by the Jews purely as a term of re- 
proach, and with no thought whether the person on 
whom it was fastened was really sprung from that 
mongrel people or not; indeed where they were 
quite sure that he was not. The word "assassin," 
also, the explanation of which however we must be 
content to leave, belongs probably to a romantic 
chapter in the history of the Crusades.* 

• Gibbon's Dttlin* and Fall, «. 64 
87 

(Once more, the words " saunter" and "saunterer" 1 
are singular records of the same events. " Saunter- 
er," derived from "la Sainte Ter re," is one who i 
visits the Holy Land. J At first a deep and earnest 



enthusiasm drew men thither to visit — in the beau- 
tiful words which Shokcspere puts into the mouth 
of our Fourth Henry, and which explain so well the 
attractions that at one time made Palestine the mag- 
net of all Christendom — to visit, I say— 

11 those holy fields, 
Over whoso acres walked those blees6d feet, 
Which fourteen hundred years ago were nailed 
For our advantage on tho bitter cross." 

By degrees, however, as the enthusiasm spent itself, 
tho making of this pilgrimage degenerated into a 
mere worldly fashion, and every idler that liked 
strolling about better than performing the duties of 
his calling, assumed the pilgrim's staff, and pro- 
claimed himself bound for tho Holy Land ; to which 
very often he never in earnest set out And thus 
this word forfeited the more honorable meaning it 
may once have possessed, and the " saunterer" came 
to signify one idly and unprofitably wasting his time, 
loitering here and there, with no fixed purpose or 
aim. 

A curious piece of history is wrapped up in the 
word " poltroon," supposing it to be indeed derived, 
as many excellent etymologists have considered, 

88 
from tho Latin "pollice truncus ;" one, that is de- 
prived, or who has deprived himself, of his thumb. 
We know that in tho old timeB a self-mutilation of 
this description was not unfrcquent on the part of 
some cowardly shirking fellow, who wished to escapo 
his share in the defence of his country; he would 
cut off his right thumb, and at once become incapa- 
ble of drawing tho bow, and thus useless for the 
wars. It was not to be wondered at that English- 
men, the men of Crocy and Agincourt, who with 
those very bows which he had disabled himself from 
drawing, had quelled the mailed chivalry of Europe, 
should have looked with extromest disdain on one 
who had so basely exempted himself from service, 
nor that tho "pollice truncus," tho poltroon, first 
applied to a coward of this sort, should afterward 
become a name of scorn affixed to every base and 
cowardly evador of the duties and dangers of life.* 
Our use of tho word "caitiff," which is identical 
with " captive," only coming through the Norman 
French, has, in like manner, its rise out of the sense 
that he who lets himself be made prisoner in war is 
a worthless, good-for-nothing person — a feeling so 

* See The Divertlont of Purity, part iL, chap. 2. — In Bonaparte's 
wars exactly the same thing happened, and yonng men ent off not 
now the thumb, but the forefinger, that which should pull the trig- 
ger, so to escape being drawn for the eonscription ; and traveller* 
in Egypt tell us that under the horrible tyranny of Mehetnet All, a 
great part of the population in some of the Tillages had deprived 
themselves of the sight of the right eye, that in like manner they 
might be useless for war. 



89 

strong in eomo states of antiquity, that tinder no cir- 
cumstances would they consent to ransom those of 
their citizens who had fallen alive into the hands of 
the enemy. The captives wore acco unted " caitiffs," 
whom they could better do without. | The same fool-1 

(ing has given us " craven," a synonym for coward : i 
this is one who has craved or craven his life at the| 
enemies' hands, instead of resisting to the death. 

100 
Sometimes the assumed derivation has reacted 
upon and modified the spelling. Thus the name of 
the Caledonian tribe whom we call the "Picts," 
would probably have come down to us in a some- 
what different form, but for the assumption which 
early rose up, that they were so called from their 
custom of staining or painting their bodies, that in 
fact " Picts" meant " the painted." This, as is now 
acknowledged, is ah exceedingly improbable suppo- 
sition. It would be quite conceivable that the Bo- 
mans should have given this name to the first bar- 
barous tribe they encountered, who were in the habit 
of painting themselves thus ; such a custom, forcing 

101 

itself on the eye, and impressing itself on the imagi- 
nation is exactly that which gives birth to a name : 
but after they had been long familiar with the tribes 
in southern Britain, to whom this painting or tattoo- 
ing was equally familiar, it is quite inconceivable 
that they should have applied it to one of the nor- 
thern tribes in the island, with which they first 
came in contact at a far later day. The name is 
much more probably the original Celtic one belong- 
ing to the tribe, slightly altered in the mouths of the 
Romans. — It may have been the same with " hurri- 
cane ;" for many have imagined that this word, be- 
ing used especially to signify the West Indian tor- 
nado, must be derived from the tearing up and hur- 
rying away of the canes in the sugar plantations, 
just in the same way as the Latin " calamitas" has 
been drawn, but erroneously, from " calamus," the 
stalk of the com. In both cases the etymology is 
faulty ; " hurricane" is only a transplanting into our 
tongue of the Spanish " hurracan" or the French 
" ouragan."* v 

J * Ono or two words more I will mention here, in which * falsely 
imagined etymology has certainly gone so far at often, if not always, 
to influence the spelling. How could the h, for example, hare ever 
found its way into " posthumous," but for the erroneous assumption 
that it had something to d o with pott humum, instead of being the 
superlative of "posterns"! j "Surname," too, G spelled by many with 
an i, as if it were " sire"-name, the family na"me in contradistinction 
to the personal or Christian, when indeed it is the name over and 
•bore ("sor" for "super"^ m I shall have occasion to note in • later 
lecture. "Shume/aeed,* too, was onee "shame/ait," "shame/eo**. 
neas was "ahame/qrfnoV like "stead/asT and "stead/ajftma:" bat 



509 102 

It is a signal evidence of the conservative powers 
of language, that we may oftentimes trace in speech 
the records of customs and states of society which 
have now passed so entirely away as to s urvive no- 
where else but in these words alone^J For example, 



a "stipulation," or agreement, is so called, as many 
are strong to affirm, from " stipula," a straw, because 
it once was usual, when one person passed over 
landed property to another, that a straw from the 
land, as a pledge or representative of the property 
transferred, should be handed from the seller to the 
buyer, which afterward was comm only preserved^ 
with, or inserted in the title-deeds, j And we all 



uu 

he/ 

an 

on' 



know how important a fact of English history is laid 
up in "curfew" or " couvre-feu." Nor need I do 
more than remind you that in our common phrase 
of " signing our name," we preserve a record of a 
time when the first rudiments of education, such aa 
the power of writing, were the portion of so few, that 
it was not as now the exception, but the custom for 
most persons to make their mark or " sign," great 
barons and kings themselves not being ashamed to 
set this sign or cross to the weightiest documents. 

'the ordinary manifestations of shame being by the face, have brought! 

| it to ita present orthography; it was 'sliame/<u<ness" at 1 Tim. ii. 9, I 
in the first edition (1611) of the authorized version, and c ertainly/ 

I ought not to have been altered, j In latin me same has occurred 
with "oriehaleum," spelled often " auriobaloum," a* though it were 
• composite metal of mingled fold and brass. It it indeed the moun- 
tain braes. 4*a<x»X**f. 

103 

The more accurate language by which to express 
what now we do, would be to speak of " subscribing 
the name." Then, too, whenever we speak of arith- 
metic as the science of " calculation," we in fact 
allude to that rudimental period of the science of 
numbers, when pebbles (calculi) were used, as now 
among savages they often are, to facilitate the prac- 
tice of counting. In " library" we preserve a record 
of the fact that books were once written on the bark 
(liber) of trees, as in " paper," of a somewhat later 
period, when the Egyptian papyrus, " the paper 
reeds by the brooks," furnished the chief material 
employed in writing. 

104 
Other singular examples we have of the way h\ 
which the record of old errors, themselves explodert 
long ago, may yet survive in language — the word* 
that grow into use when those errors found credit, 
maintaining still their currency among us. Th« 
mythology, for example, which our ancestors brough* 
with them from the forests of Germany is as much 
extinct for us as are the Lares, Larva?, and Lemure* 
of heathen Rome ; yet the deposite it has permanent 
ly left in the language is not inconsiderable. " LuK 



510 



ber," « dwarf," "oaf," "droll," "bag," "nightmare,' 
suggest themselves at once, as belonging to the ol<* 
Teutonic demonology. Thus, too, no one now be 
lieves in astrology, that the planet under which a 
man may happen to be born will affect his tempera-' 
ment, will make him for life of a disposition grave 
or gay, lively or severe. Yet we seem to affirm a* 
much in language, for we speak of a person as "jovi- 
al," or "saturnine," or "mercurial" — "jovial," at 
being born under the planet Jupiter or Jove, whicl 

105 

was the joyfullcst star, and of the happiest angury 

of all : a gloomy, severe person is said to b e " staur- 



nine/Mas born under the planet Saturn, who was 
considered to make those that owned his influence, 
and were born when ho was in tho ascendant, grave 
and storn as himself; another we call " mercurial," 
that is light-hearted, as those bom under the planet 
Mercury wore accounted to be. The same faith in 
tho influence of tho stars survives, so far at least as 
words go, in "disaster," "disastrous," "ill-starred," 
"ascendant," "ascendency," and, ind eed, in the 
word " influence" itself, f "What curious legends be 



long to the explanation of the " sardonic laugh ;" 
to the "topaz," so called, as some said, because 
men were only able to conjecture (ro^i-) the place 
whence it was brought, and to innumerable other 
of the words employed by us still. 
146 



those interests meet in (the word " essay.^j If any 
one were asked what is tho most remarkable volume 
of essays which the world has seen, few, having suf- 
ficient oversight of the field of literature to bo capa- 
ble of replying, would fail to answer, Lord Bacon's. 



'But they were also the first which bore that name ; 
for we certainly gather from the following passage in 
the (intended) dedication of the volume to Prince 
Henry, that the word " essay" was altogether a very 
recent one in the English language, an d in the use; 
to which he put it, perfectly novel :) he says: "To 



write just treatises requireth leisure in the writer, and 
leisure in the reader ; . . . which is the cause which 
hath made mo choose to write certain brief notes set 
down rather significantly than curiously, which I 
have called Essays. The word is late, but the thing 
is ancient." From these words, and others which I 
have omitted in the quotation, we further gather that 
little as " essays" at the present day can be consid- 
ered a word of modesty, deprecating too large expec- 
tations on the part of the reader, it had, as " sketches" 
perhaps would have no w, such an ethical signifi c ance 
in this its earliest use. | In this last respect it resem- 1 
'bled the "philosopher" of Pythagoras. Before his | 
| time the founders of systems of philosophy had styled 



themselves, or been willing to be styled by others, 
"wise men." This appellation, "lover of wisd om,'^/ 
[§o modest and so beautiful, was of his devising. J ~ 

172 

(But these which I have named are not the onM 
desynonymizing processes which are going forward 
1 i n a language ; for we may observe in almost all lan-y 

173 



guagos, and not the least in our own, a tendency to ] 
the formation of now words out of what wore at tho J 
first no more than different pronunciations, or ovon 
slightly different spellings, of one and tho samo 
word ; which yet in tho end detach themselves from 
one another, not again to reunite ; just as accidental 
varieties in fruits or flowers, produced at hazard, havo 
yet permanently separated off and settled into dif- 
ferent kinds. Sometimes as tho accent is placed on 
one syllable of a word or another, it comes to havo 
different significations, and those so distinctly marked 
that it may be considered out of one word to have 
grown into two. Examples of this are the following ; 



" divers" and " diverse ;" " conjure" and " conjure ;" 
" antic" and " antique ;" " human" and " humane*;" 
" gdntle" and " genteel ;" " custom" and " custumo ;" 
" essay" and " assay ;" " property" and " propriety." 
Again a word is pronounced with a full sound of its 
syllables or more shortly: thus " spirit" and " spright ;" 
" blossom" and " bloom ;" " piety" and " pity ;" " cour- 
tesy" and " curtsey ;"" personality" and "personal- 
ty;" "fantasy" and "fancy;" "triumph" and 
" trump" (the winning card) ;* " happily" and " hap- 
ly ;" " eremite" and " hermit ;" " poesy" and " posy ;" 
or with the dropping of the first syllable : " history" 
and "Btory;" "etiquette" and "ticket;" "estate" 

* If titer* were any doubt about this matter, which indeed there 
If not, a reference to Latimer's famous Sermon on Card* would abun- 
dantly remove it, where "trinmph" and "trump" are interchange*? 

bIra " 4 174 

and "state;" — or without losing a syllable, with 
more or less stress laid on the close : " regiment" and 
" regimen ;" " corpse" and " corps ;" " bite" and 
"bit;" "sire" and "sir;" "stripe" and "strip;" 
" borne" and " born ;" " clothes" and " cloths." Or 
there has grown up some other slight distinction, as 
between "ghostly" and "ghastly;" "utter" and 
" outer ;" " mettle" and " metal ;" " par son" and 
" person ;" " in genious" and " ingenuous ;" |" prime"! 
)and " preen ;"] " mister" and " master ;" " villain" 
and "villein;" "cleft" and "clift," now written 
" cliff;" "cure" and "care ;" "travel" and "travail ;" 
u pennon" and " pinion ;" " can" and " ken ;" " oaf" 
and " elf;" " gambol" and " gamble ;" " truth" and 
".troth ;" " quay" and " key ;" " lose" and " loose ;" 



511 



" cant" and " chant ;" " price" and " prize ;" " errant" 
and " arrant ;" " benefit" and " benefice ;"* I do not 
know whether we ought to add to these, " news" and 
" noise," which some tell us to be the same word ; 

175 
at any rate the identifying of them is instructive, for 
how much news is but noise, and passes away like 
a noise before long. Or, it may bo, the difference 
which constitutes the two forms of the word into two 
words is one in the spelling, and so slight a one even 
there as to bo appreciable only by the eye, and to 
escape altogether the ear : thus is it with " draft" 
and " draught ;" " plain" and " plane ;" " flower" and 
"flour;" "check" and "cheque." 
178 
Or consider the following words ; " to hate," " to 
loathe," " to detest," and " to abhor." Each of them 
rests on an image entirely distinct from the others ; 
two, that is the first and second, being Anglo-Saxon, 
and the others Latin. " To hate" is properly to be 
inflamed with passionate dislike, the word being 
connected with " heat," " hot ;" just as we speak, 
nsing the same figure, of persons being " incensed" 
with anger, or of their anger " kindling :" " ira" and 
" uro" being perhaps related. "To loathe" is p-op- 
erly to feel nausea, the turning of the stomach at 
that which excites first natural, and then by a trans- 
fer, moral disgust. J "To detest" is to bear witness! 
f against, not to be able to keep silence in regard of 
I something, to feel ourselves obliged to lift np ourj 
[voice and testimony against it. J " To abhor" is to 
shrink shuddering back, as one would from an object 
of fear, a hissing serpent rising in one's path. Our 
blessed Lord " hated" to see his Father's house pro- 
faned, when, the zeal of that house consuming him, 

179 
he drove forth in anger the profaners from it : he 
"loathed" the lukewarmness of the Laodiceans, 
when he threatened to reject them out of his 
mouth ; he " detested" the hypocrisy of the Phar- 
isees and scribes, when he proclaimed their sin 
and uttered those eight woes against them (Matt. 
23). He " abhorred" the evil suggestions of Satan, 
when he bade the tempter to get behind him, seek- 
ing to put a distance between himself and him. 

1 on 

A man 
may be wholly different now from what once he was, 
yet not the less to know his antecedents is needful, 
before we can ever perfectly understand his present 

s elf; and the same holds good with a word. 

iThere is often a moral value in the possession of 1 
(synonyms, enabling us, as they do, to say exactly 
(what we intend, without exaggeration or the putting] 



of more into our words than we feel in onr hearts, j 
allowing us, as one has said, to be at once courteous 
and precise. Such moral advantage there is, for ex- 
ample, in the choice which we have between the 
words " to felicitate" and " to congratulate," for the 
expressing of our sentiments and wishes in regard 
of the good fortune that happens to others. "To 
felicitate" another is to wish him happiness, without 
affirming that his happiness is also ours. Thus out 
of that general good will with which we ought to re- 
gard all, we might " felicitate" one almost a stranger 
to us ; nay, more, I can honestly felicitate one on 
his appointment to a post, or attainment of an honor, 
even though I may not consider him the fittest to 
have obtained it, though I should have been glad if 
another had done bo ; I can desire and hope, that is,^ 



183 



/'that it may bring all joy and happiness to him. But 
I could not, without a violation of truth, " congratu- 
late" him, or that Btranger whose prosperity awoke 
no lively delight in my heart ; for when I " congrat- 
ulate" a person (con gratulor), I declare that I am 
sharer in his joy, that what has rejoiced him has re- 
joiced also me. We have all, I dare say, felt, even 
without having made any such analysis of the dis- 
tinction between the words, that " congratulate" is a 
far heartier word than " felicitate," and one with 
which it much better becomes us to welcome the 
good fortune of a friend ; and the analysis, as yon 
perceive, perfectly justifies the feeling. "Felicita- 
tions" are little better than compliments; "congrat- 
ulations" are the expression of a g enuine sympathy 



Let me illustrate the importance of synonymous 
distinctions by another example, by the words, " to 
invent" and "to discover;" "invention" and "dis- 
covery." How slight may seem to us the distinction 
between them, even if we see any at all. Yet try 
them a little closer, try them, which is true proof, 
by aid of examples, and you will perceive that by no 
means can they be indifferently used — that on the 
contrary a great principle lies at the root of their 
distinction. Thus we speak of the " invention" of 
printing, the " discovery" of America. 

202 Thus " heaven" is only the perfect 

of" to heave ;" and is so called because it is " heaved" 
or " heaven" up, being properly the sky as it is raised 
aloft; the "smith" has his name from the sturdy 
blows that he " smites" upon the anvil ; " wrong" is 
the perfect participle of " to wring," that which one 
has " wrung" or wrested from the right ; just as in 
French "tort," from "torqueo," is that which is 
twisted ; " guilt" of " to guile" or " beguile ;" to find 



512 



" guilt" in a man is to find that he has been " be- 
guiled," that is by the devil, "instigante diabolo," 
as it is inserted in all indictments for murder, the 
forms of which come down to us from a time when 
men were not ashamed of tracing evil to his inspira- 



ispira- 
ofthel 



tion. \ The " brunt" of the battle is the " he at" ofthe 
i battle, where it " burns" the most fiercely, [ " Haft," 
as of a knife, is properly only the participle perfect 
of " to have," that whereby you " have ". or hold it. 
Or take two or three nouns adjective ;| " strong" is 
the participle past of " to string ;" a " strong" man 
1 mean* no more than one whose sinews are firmly 

203 



/'strung." J The "loft" hand, as distinguished from 
the right, is the hand which wo " leave ;" inasmuch 
as for twenty times wo use the right hand, we do not 
once employ it; and it obtains its name from being 
" left" unused so often. " Odd" is, I believe, prop- 
erly " owed ;" an " odd" glove, or an " odd" shoe is 
one that is " owed" to another, or to which another 
is " owed," for the making of a pair — just as we 
speak of a man being " singular," wanting, th at is, 
his match. | " Wild" is the participle past of " to 
will ;" a " wild" horse is a " willed" or self-willed 
horse, one that has been never tamed or taught to 
submit its will to the will of another ; and so with a | 

v man.J 

This exercise of putting words in their true relation 
and connection with one another might be carried 
much further. We might take whole groups of 
words, which seem to us at first sight to acknowledge 
hardly any kinship, if indeed any, with one another, 
and yet with no great difficulty show that they had 
a common parentage and descent. For instance, 
here are "shire," "shore," "share," "sheers;" 
"shred," "sherd;" they all are derived from one 
Anglo-Saxon word, which signifies to separate or di- 
vide, and still exists with us in the shape of "to 
sheer," which made once the three perfects, " shore," 
" share," "shered." 206 



jOr take the word " stock ;" in what an almost in- 
finite number of senses it is employed ; we have live 
" stock," " stock" in trade, the village " stocks," the 
" stock" of a gun, the " stock" dove, the " stocks" on 
which ships are built, the "stock" which goes round 
the neck, the family "'stock," the " stocks," or public 
funds, in which money is invested, and other "stocks" 
very likely besides these. What point in common 
can we find between them all ? This, that they are 
all derived from, and were originally the past parti- 
ciple of " to stick," which as it now makes " stuck," 
jmade formerly " stock ;" and they cohere in t he idea 
\o{Jixedneae } which is common to every one./ Thus, 



the " stock" of a gun is that in which the barrel is 
fixed; the village "stocks" are those in which the 
feet are fastened ; the " stock" in trade it the fixed 
capital ; and so, too, the " stock" on the farm, al- 
though the fixed capital has there taken the shape 
of horses and cattle ; in the " stocks," or public funds, - 
money sticks fast, inasmuch as those who place it 
there can not withdraw or demand the capital, bnt 

207 
receive only the interest ; the " stock" of a tree 
is fast sot in the ground; and from this use of tho 
word it is transferred to a family ; tho " stock" or 
" stirps" is that from which it grows, and out of 
which it unfolds itself. And here we may bring in 
the " stock"-dove, as being the " stock" or stirps 
of the domestic kinds. I might group with these, 
" stake" in both its spellings ; a " stake" in the 
hedge is stuck and fixed there ; the " stakes" which 
mon wager against the issue of a race are paid down, 
and thus fixed or deposited to answer the event; a 
beef-" steak" is a piece of meat so small that it can 
be stuck on the point of a fork ; with much more of 
the same kind. «] n 

Thus we have " page," one side 
of a leaf, from " pagina," and " page," a youthful 
attendant, from quite another word; "league," a 
treaty, from "ligare," to bind, and "league," a 
measure of distance, thought to be a word of Gallic 
origin; we have "host," an army, from "hostis," 
and " host," in the- Roman catholic sacrifice of the 
mass, from " hostia j^Jso. too, " stories." which we \ 

[toll, and " stories" or " stayeries" of a house, which J 
we mount ; j " Mosaic," as the " Mosaic" law, derived 
from the name of the great lawgiver of Israel, " mosa- 
ic," as " mosaic work," which is " opus musivum /." 
with other words, such as " date," "mint," " ounce," 
"dole," "bull," "plain," not a few. In all these 
the identity is merely on tho surface, and it would 
of course be lost labor to seok for a point of contact 
between meanings which have not any closer con- 
nection really than apparently with one another. 
214 
But seek, I would further urge you, to attain a con- 
sciousness of the multitude of words which there are, 
that now use only in a figurative sense, did yet 
originally rest on some fact of the outward world, 
vividly presenting itself to the imagination ; a fact 
which the word has incorporated for ever, having 
become, as all words originally were, the indestruc- 
tible vesture of a thought. If I may judge from my 
own experience, I think there are few intelligent 

215 

boys in your schools, who would not feel that they 
had gotten something, when you had shown thorn 



513 



that " to insult" means properly to leap as on tho 
prostrate body of a foe ; " to affront," to strike him 
on the face; that "to succor" means to run and 
place oneself under one that is falling, and thus sup- 
port and sustain him ; " to relent" (connected with 
" lentus," not " lenis"), to slacken the swiftness of 
one's pursuit ; " to reprehend," to lay hold of ono 
with tho intention of forcibly pulling him back from 
the way of his error ; that " to be examined" means 
to be weighed. They would be pleased to learn that 
a man is called " supercilious," because haughtiness 
with contempt of others expresses itself by the rais- 
ing of the eyebrows or " supercilium ;" that " subtle" 
is literally " fine-spun ;"* that " imbecile," which we 
use for weak, and now always for weak in intellect, 
means strictly (unless indeed we must renounce this 
etymology), leaning upon a staff (in bacillo), as one 
aged or infirm might do ; that " chaste" is properly 
white, " castus" being the participle of " candeo," 
as is now generally allowed ; that " astonished" 
means struck with thunder ; that " sincere" may be, 
I will not say that it is, without wax •(«{»« cerd), as 
the best and finest honey should be ; that a " com- 
panion" is one wit h whom we share our bread, a 
messma tej j that " desultory," which perhaps they^ 
[have been warn ed they should not be in their J 

* Subtili*— rabtexilui 
216 



studies, but have never attached any very definite 
meaning to the warning, means properly leaping as 
a rider in tho circus does from the back of ono run 
ning horse to the back of another, this rider being 
technically called a " desultor ;" and the word being 
transferred from him to those who suddenly and 
abruptly change their courses of study.] 



217 



Who 



would not care, for instance, to know something about 
the names of our English birds ; that the " king-fish- 
er," which attracted all eyes as it darted swiftly by 



the river's edge, was so called from the royal beauty, 
the kingly splendor of its plumage ;[that the "hawk," 



if it be not the same word with " havoc" (and it was 
called " hafoc" in Anglo-Saxon), has at least a com- 
mon origin ; its very name announcing the " havoc" 
and destruction which it makes among tho smaller 
birds, just as in the " raven's" name is expressed its 
greedy , or as we say " ravenous," dispositionfj Or 
when they are listening of an evening to the harsh 

218 
shriokings of tho "owl," that tho namo of this disso- 
nant night-bird is in fact the past participle of " to 
yell," and differs from "howl" in nothing but its 



spoiling, as plainly comes out in the fact that the 
diminutive is'as often spelt with an h as without it — 
"howlote" as often as "owlets"? Even tho littlo 
"dabchick" which so haunts our waters here, diving 
and dipping when any one approaches, it may be as 
well to know why it has this name, that the first syl- 
lable would more correctly be spelt with &p than a 
J, this "dap" being the old perfect of "to dip," so 
that tho name is no idle unmeaning thing, but brings 
out the most salient characteristic of the bird which 
bears it, it swift diving and "dipping" under the 
water at every apprehension of danger: just as in 
Latin a certain water-fowl is called " mcrgus," from 
M mcrgo." 

Or taking their, into the corn-fields, you may point 
out how tho " cockle" which springs up only too lux- 
uriantly in somo of our Hampshire furrows, acquires 
its name from that which often it effectually does, 
name ly from its "choking" or strangling tho good seed. 
'And the word " field" itself is worth taking note of, 
for it throws us back upon a period when England 
was covered, as is a great part of America now, with 
forests ; " field" meaning properly a clearing where 
the trees have been " felled," or cnt down, as in all 
our early English writers it is spelt without the t, 
"feld" and not " field," even ns yon will find in them 
219 

jthat " wood" and " fold" are co ntinually set over,} 
land contrasted with, one another. J 

In such ways you may often improve, and without 
turning play-timo into le sson-tiinc, the hours of relax- 



/ 



ation and amusement, f But I must not here let es 
« " — — - . — » 

cape me these words, "relaxation" and "amusement," 
on which I have lighted as by chance. "Amuse- 
ment," or as with another striking image we call it, 
" recreation," what is it, and what does it affirm of 
itself? Why plainly this, that it must be first earned ; 
for let us only question the word a little closer, and 
see what it involves. It is plainly, " a musis," that 
is, a temporary suspension of, and turning away from, 
severer studies, which severer studies are represented 
here by the Muses, who, I may just remind you, 
wcro tho patronesses in old timo not of poetry alone, 
but of history, geometry, and all other studios as 
well. What shall we then say of them, who would 
fain have their lives to be all " amusement," or who 
claim it othorwiso than as this temporary withdrawal 
"a musis"? The very word condemns them : oven 



yas that other word " relaxation" does tho same.} How 



can the bow be relaxed or slackened, for this of course 
is the image, which has not ever been bent, whose 
string has nevor boon drawn tight f Let us draw it 
tight by earnest toil, and then we may look to have 
it from time to time relaxed. 



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:i:t«l Confess, I 1I0USE OF REPRESENTATIVES. C Ex. Doc. 

Lsl Session. \ } No. 121. 



THE 



U. S. NAVAL ASTRONOMICAL EXPEDITION 



THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE, 



TPIE YEARS 1849-'50-'51-'52. 

L^?ut. J. M. _GILLISS, Superintendent. 

Lieut. Archibald MacRae, ) 

Acting Master S. L. Phelps, > Assistants. 

Captain's Clerk E. R. Smith, ) 



VOLUME I . 

CHILE: 

ITS GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE, EARTHQUAKES, GOVERNMENT, SOCIAL CONDITION, MINERAL AND AGRICUL- 
TURAL RESOURCES, COMMERCE, &c, &c. 



BY LIEUT. J. M. GTLLISS, A. M., 

MRMIIKIl OK T1IK AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, THE ACADEMIES FOR PROMOTION OK THE NATURAL SCIENCES AT ' 

PHILADELPHIA, LEIPSH1, DANZIO, AND MARHURO (iN HESSE) ; HONORARY MF.MI1KR OF THE FACULTY OF 

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHILE AND THE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY OF MARYLAND; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL GEOORA- 

rillCAL SOCIETY, BERLIN, ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, LE1P8IO, 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY, NEW YORK, &C, ftC, &C. 



WASHINGTON: 

A. 0. P. NICHOLSON, PRINTER. 
MDCCCLV. 



519 

18 On his map of Atacama M. Gay introduces at the headwaters of the Rio dc los Naturalcs — 

one of the branches of the Huasco — two small lakes, and cateadores (professional mine-hunters) 
have brought crystals and concretions of salt from a lake in the vicinity of Ccrro de Azufre, 
besides vague information of salt hakes near the coast in the great desert to the north. None 
of them, however, can be of such considerable extent as would justify a journey of the geo- 
graphical student solely for their examination. 

Critical examination of their margins shows that the water-courses were once deep streams, 
susceptible of being navigated by vessels of the largest class. Indeed, the fact is demonstrable 
by geologists, that they were inlets or arms of the sea, into which melted snows and overflowing 
lakes in the mountains first discharged their waters. Then, as the continent rose higher and 
higher, winding brooks, accumulating in volume with each succeeding age, became the torrents 
that we now see them. From time to time sliding glaciers undermine rocks, and earthquakes 
dam up channels, until the heaped-up body of water bears everything before it, not unfre- 
quently, on its swollen tide, transporting boulders of many tons weight to localities far away 
from analogous rocks. At these epochs, fields are submerged by the destroying clement; the 
course of the river is changed ; and when an affrighted populace return to the sites of former 
homes, it is only to weep over garden spots irrecoverably buried beneath gravel and sand 
deposited by the deluge. One such scene occurred on the Cachapual only a few years since, 
painfully proving how rap idly beds of shingle may be formed , and fo rcibly exhibiting the 
abrading powers of water. | Even on ordinary occasions, the noise of stones striking together) 
{beneath the surface, as they are borne along by the current, comes most audibly to the ear/ 



19 



1 ab ove the rushing sound oftho stream over its rocky bed.? How fearful, then, the spectacle 
during such storms as constantly occur in winter,* when this vast sloping water-shed, saturated 
by continuous rains, pours all that descends upon it into the narrow ravines I Every one along 
which I have travelled — the Copiapo, Mapocho, Maypu, Cachapual, and Maule — has its high- 
bounding terraces, at irregular distances, in whose vertical cliffs the running streams have 
left unmistakable marks, sometimes more elevated than beds of fossil vegetation forming a part 
of them. That some of these changes have taken place recently, there seems little reason to 
doubt; for Molina tells us the Maule was navigable for half its length at his day (1787) by 
ships-of-the-line, and there still lived, in 1850, a native of Coquimbo, whose memory .extended 
to the time when the sea beat against the terrace on which Serena now stands. Now, the base 
of the terrace is 25 feet above the ocean, and quite a mile from it, and the Maule has not six 
feet of water at five miles from its mouth. 

In the narrative of Dr. Von Tschudi, (American translation,) Chapter XI, he says : "I have 
in my last chapter observed, that the Cordillera is the point of partition between the waters 
of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. All the waters of the eastern declivity of the Cordillera — 
all those which have their sources on the level heights and on the western declivity of the 
Andes — flow from them in the direction of the east, and work their way through the eastern 
mountain chain. Throughout the whole of South America there is not a single instance of the 
Cordillera being intersected by a river; a fact the more remarkable, because in southern Peru 
and Bolivia the coast-chain is lower than the Andes. This interesting phenomenon, though it 
has deeply engaged the attention of geologists, has not yet been satisfactorily explained. I 
concur in the view taken by Mr. Darwin, who observes that it would be too rash to assign to 
the eastern chain of Bolivia and central Chile a later origin than the western chain, (near the 
Pacific,) but that the circumstance of the rivers of a lower mountain chain having forced their 
way through a higher chain, seems, without this supposition, to be enigmatical. Mr. Darwin 
is of opinion that the phenomenon is assignable to a periodical and gradual elevation of the 
second mountain line (the Andes) ; for a chain of islets would at first appear, and as these 
were lifted up, the tides would be always wearing deeper and broader channels between them." 



520 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 



REPORT, BY LIEUTENANT K. G. BECKWITH, THIRD ARTILLERY, UPON THE ROUTE NEAR THE 

THIRTY-EIGHTH AND THIRTY-NINTH PARALLELS, EXPLORED B^ CAPTAIN J. W. GUNNISON, 

CORPS TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS. 
REPORT OF LIEUTENANT E. G. BECKWITH, THIRD ARTILLERY, UPON THE ROUTE NEAR THE FORTY- 
FIRST PARALLEL. 
'REPORT OF A RECONNAISSANCE FROM l'UGET SOUND, VIA SOUTH PASS, TO THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER, 

BY F. W. LANDER, CIVIL ENGINEER. 
REPORT OF BREVET CAE.TAlN_.TOHN POPE, CORPS TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS, UPON THE PORTION 

OF THE ROUTE NEAR THE~THTRTY-SECOND PARALLEL, LYING BETWEEN THE RED RIVER AND 

THE RIO GRANDE. 
REPORT OF LIEUTENAN T -TPHN G. PARKE, CORPS TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS, UPON THE PORTION 

OF THE ROUTE NEAR THE THIRTi -SECOND PARALLEL, LYING BETWEEN THE RIO GRANDE AND 

PIMAS VILLAGE, ON THE GILA. 
EXTRACT FROM REPORT OF A MILITARY RECONNAISSANCE MADE BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL W. H. . 

EVtORY, U . S. ARMY, OF THE PORTION OF THE ROUTE NEAR THK THIRTY-SECOND PARALLEL,' 

LYING BETWEEN THE MOUTHS OF THE SAN PEDRO AND GILA RIVERS. 



°This report was procured from Mr. Lander in compliance with a resolution of the House of Representatives of August 
3, lH5t. Dy a resolution of February 14, 1855, it was ordered to be printed, in connexion with the reports of the Pacific 
raihond explorations and surveys made under direction of the Secretary of War. 



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581 

EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS FOR A RAILROAD ROUTE FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 

WAR DEPARTMENT. 



REPORT 



OF 



EXPLORATIONS FOR A ROUTE FOR THE PACIFIC RAILROAD, 

BY 

CAPT. J. W. GUNNISON, TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS, 

NEAR 

THE 38TII AND 39TH PARALLELS OE NORTH LATITUDE, 

FROM 

THE MOUTH OF THE KANSAS RIVER, MO., TO THE SEVIER LAKE, IN THE GREAT BASIN. 



REPORT 
BY LIEUT. E. G. BECKWITH, 

THIRD ARTILLERY. 



28 

July 27. — A dense fog hanging over the valley until 10 o'clock, concealed the sterile hills of 
the opposite side of the river, and, leaving in view only the line of timber as we rode near it, 
awakened remembrances of the beautiful forests which sometimes skirt the western prairies. A 
mile from camp we passed two or three log-houses, occupied as a trading station by Mr. Wm. 
Bent, during the past winter, but now left vacant, and, as yet, undestroyed by the Indians. 
Here the blufF lands for a short distance come quite in to the river, and disclose sandstone in 
horizontal strata, of a reddish, argillaceous character, which we observed during the remainder 
of the day on both banks of the river. Thirteen miles brought us to the termination of the Big 
Timber, where the argillaceous sandstone hills again approach the river, and the road passes 
quite frequently over these small spurs. The bottom of the river at times quite disappeared, 
and was lightly covered with grass, or destitute of it entirely, after leaving the timber. Our 
camp is on a very coarse grass, under a sa ndstone escarpment, in a large meadow bottom — 
by far the poorest cam p we have yet made. ) Mr. Creutzfeldt found to-day th e skin of a snake) 
(seven feet in length, which it had cast, leaving the eye and every scale perfect. J 

July 28v— Three miles irom camp we passed opposite to the mouth of Purgatory creek, an 
affluent to the Arkansas, and timber appeared more abundant upon it than upon the river, which 



528 

it enters in quite a large bottom, which, from a distance, is apparently well wooded, and grass 
is abundant. We encamped, after a march of fifteen miles, three miles below Bent's Fort. Lati- 
tude by meridian observation to-day, 38° 03' 27". Mr. Homans, who has been suffering seriously 
from being poisoned with ivy, has very nearly recovered. He was too ill for many days to mount 
his horse, and could only ride in a carriage with the greatest difficulty. Deer, antelope and 
turkeys were seen along the river to-day, and near camp a cow was found which had been 
abandoned by its owners, her feet being too sore to travel. Our elevation at this camp is 3,071 
feet above the Gulf, and our average ascent for the last 105 miles, from our camp of the 22d, 
has been 1% feet to the mile. 

July 29. — Between camp and Bent's Fort, grass was very abundant. We spent an hour 
in examining the river at the fort for a practicable ford, but the excellent one which formerly 
existed here it was found impracticable to cross, in the present stage of the water. Mr. Bent 
abandoned his fort about four years ago, but not until he had destroyed it. Its adobe walls still 
stand in part only, with here and there a tower and chimney. Here, beyond all question, would 
be one of the most favorable points for a military post which is anywhere presented on the 
Plains. There is an abundance of pasturage, fuel, and building material in 'the neighborhood, 
for the use and building of the post. It is of easy access from its central position, from the east, 
from Santa Fe, from Taos through the Sangre de Cristo Pass, and from Fort Laramie. 

115 

EXPIRATIONS AND SURVEYS FOR A RAILROAD ROUTE FROM TIIE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 

WAR DEPARTMENT. 



REPORT 



ON TIIF, 



BOTANY OF TEE EXPEDITION: 



JOHN TORREY AND ASA GRAY. 



ROUTE ON THE FORTY-FIRST PARALLEL OF NORTH LATITUDE, UNDER THE COMMAND OF LIEUT. E. G. 

BECKWITH, THIRD ARTILLERY; 



AND 



TiOUTE NEAR THE THIRTY-EIGHTH AND THIRTY-NINTH PARALLELS OF NORTH LATITUDE, UNDER TIIE 
COMMAND OF CAPT. J. W. GUNNISON, CORPS OF TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS. 



523 
[119] 



BOTANICAL REPORT. 




botanical Report, by John Torrey and Asa Gray, upon the Collections made by Captain 
i Gunnison, Topographical Engineers, in 1853, and by Lieutenant E. G. Beckwitii, 
Third Artillery, in 1854J 

I. — Plants collected by Mr. James A. Snyder, under the direction of Lieutenant E. G. Bockwith, U. S. A., in an expedition 
made under his charge from Great Salt Lake, Utah Territory, directly west to the Sacramento vallev. in California, in the 
months of May, June, and July, 1854. 

II. — Plants collected by Mr. F. Creutzfeldt, under the direction of Captain J. W. Gunnison, U. S. A., in charge of explorations 
for a railroad from Fort Leavenworth, via the Kansas, Arkansas, and Huerfano rivers, the Sangro de Cristo Pass, San Luis 
valley, Coochetopa Pass, Grand and Green livers, and thence into the Great Basin, in the vicinity of the Sevier or Nicollet 
lake. Tho collection was made from early in Juno to late in Octobor, 1853. 

PART I. 

Plants collected by Mr. James A. Snyder, under the direction of Lieutenant E. G. Beckwitii, 
U. S. Army, in an expedition made under his charge from Great Salt lake, directly west, to 
the Sacramento valley, in California, in the months of May, June, and July, 1854. 

^JAquilegia Canadensis, Linn.; Torrey and Gray, Ft. 1, p. 29. In a canon cast of the Sierra 
Nevada; June 17. Few phanerogamous plants of tins country have so great a geographical 
range as has this species, (including the A. formosa, Fischer,) namely : from Hudson's Bay to 
Florid a and New Mexico, and from "Unalaschka to California. f~" 

Delphinium Menziesii, DC. Syst. 1, p. 355 ; Hooh. Fl. Bor.-Amcr. l,p. 25. Near Great Salt 
Lake. Also, in a valley of the Sierra Nevada ; with an incomplete specimen of what may be 
a white-flowered variety ; May and June. 

EscnscnoLTziA Californica, Cham, and Nees, Flor. Phys. Berol. p. 73, t. 15, non Lindl. 
Sierra Nevada ; June 25. 

Tdrritis retrofracta, Hooh. Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1, p. 41. Summit of a mountain in the Great 
Basin east of the Sierra Nevada. In flower only ; June 1. 

Erysimum asperum, DC. ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 95. Mountains near Great Salt Lake ; 
May. 

Spraguea umbellata, Torr. PI. Fremont, in Smithson. Contrib. p. 4, t. 1. Summit of Noble's 
Pass, Sie ra Nevada; July 3. The specimens of this interesting Portulacaccous genus accord 
with those of Col. Fremont, who alone has gathered the plant hitherto ; but beins vountrer, 
the corollas are more conspicuous, and the scarious sepals not so large. 

Lewisia rediviva, Pursh, Fl. I, p. 368; Hoolc. and Am. Bot. Beech, v. 334, t. 86. On the 
Sierra Nevada ; June 25. 

Sidalcea malyzeflora, Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 16. Mountains east of the Sierra Nevada: 
June 14. 

Viola Beckwithii, (n. sp.) : subcaulescent ; ascending stems abbreviated; cauline leaves bitcr- 
nately or pedately parted, decurrent on the margined petiole, the lobes or segments oblong- 
linear, hirsute-puberulent; stipules minute, scarious, entire ; sepals linear, obtuse, ciliolate; 
lower petal barely saccate at the base, purple, with yellow claws, the two upper shorter and 
deep violet. On the slope of a mountain between Great Salt Lake and the Sierra Nevada ; 



584 

BOTANY. 125 

as his plant was first discovered', and probably first described, tbe name must be retained for it. 
Resides, the name given to it by Mr. Nuttall is inappropriate, if, as we feel pretty confident, 
llio flower of his plant is white. 

I'iuodt.ea grandiflora, ./. E. Smith in Linn. Trans. 10, p. 3 ; Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 471. 
Scape glabrous ; umbel, fcw-(8-12-) flowered ; the rays usually 2-4 times longer than the flow- 
ers ; abortive stamens linear, emarginate, and often also mucronate ; cells of the ovary about 
10-ovulcd. Madelin Pass of the Sierra Nevada ; June 26. 

I{rodi;ea parviflora, n. sp. : scape roughish ; umbel, many-(15-20-) flowered ; pedicels shorter 
llin.ii the flower ; sterile stamens ovate-lanceolate, rather acute, entire ; cells of the ovary G-8- 
ovulcd. With the preceding ; June 26. Bulb ovate, sometimes more than an inch in diameter. 
Leaves all radical or nearly so, rather shorter than the scape, about two lines wide, smooth. 
Scape scarcely larger than a crow-quill, the upper part somewhat flexuous, terete, scabrous with 
very minute points. Umbel about an inch and a half in diameter ; pedicels unequal, most of 
tliem scarcely half the length of the flowers. Involucrate bracts, 4-8, colored, about as long 
as the pedicels, the outer ones ovate and acuminate. Flowers about half an inch long, pale 
purple, the tube somewhat inflated ; segments erect, ovate, rather acute. Fertile stamens 3, 
inserted at the upper part of the tube of the perianth, opposite the inner segments ; anthers 
linear-oblong, acute at each end. Stylo filiform ; stigma dilated, 3-lobed, the lobes fimbrillate- 
pupillose. We have long had specimens of this plant, collected by Colonel Fremont on 
Provost's Fork of the Utah ; and others brought from the valley of the Sacramento by Dr. 
S tillman. It is easily distinguish ed from B. grandiflora by the characters given ab ove. 
j Pteris Aquilina, Linn.; Torr. Fl. N. York, 2, p. 488. On the Sierra Neva daTj 

PAKT II. 

Plants collected by Mr. F. Creutzfeldt, under the direction of Captain J. W. Gunnison, U. S. 
Army, in charge of explorations for a railroad from Fort Leavenworth, by the way of the 
Kansas and Arkansas rivers, to Bent's Fort ; thence by the Huerfano river and Sangrs de 
Cristo Pass to the valley of San Luis ; thence west from that valley to Grand and Green rivers ; 
Ihcncc into the Great Basin, Utah, to the vicinity of the Sevier or Nicollet lake. The collection 
was commenced at Westport, in Missouri, in June, 1853, and finished late in October. 

[Tlio Rocky mountain ranges wore entered early in August. The Sierra Blanca, in which tho Sangre de Cristo and Roubi 
ilcau's passes are found, forms the eastern range of the Rocky mountains, and (at the head of San Luis valley, New Mexico) 
unites with the next western range, which is known as the Sierra San Juan or Sahwatch chain. This sierra, in turn, is joinod 
iiriiuud the head of Grand river to Elk mountain, and this again to the Roan mountains, the latter being only separated from tho 
former by Blue river, which breaks through in a canon; and the Roan mountains themselves are separated from the Wahsatch 
mountains only by the entirely similar canon passage of Green river, which also broaks through the great east and west connect- 
ing range known as the Uinta mountains. All of. those ranges, some more or less parallel, while othors form cross and connect- 
ing cliuins, constitute properly the great mountain formation of the continent, to which the name of Rocky mountains is applied; 
tho former names applying only to the subdivisions of this great feature.] 



[Anemone Virginiana, Linn. Prairies beyond Westport, in Kansas Territory.) 

Clematis Pitcheri, Torr. and Gray, Fl. \,p. 10. Prairies between Westport and Cotton- 
w ood Creek. ' 

[Thal ictrum Cornuti, Linn. Be yond Westport, in Kansas.] 

Ranunculus divaricatus, Schrank; Gray, PI. Wright, 2, p. 8. Kansas. 

Delphinium azureum, Michx. Beyond Westport. 

Mentspermum Canadense, Linn. With the preceding. 

Argemone Mexicana, Linn. var. alwflora, DC. Walnut Creek: 



525 

■I no 

Tiieiatodium INTEGRIFOLIUM, Endl. in Walp. JRcpcrt. l,p. 172. Pachypodium integri folium, 
Nutt. ; Hook, and Am. Bot. Beech, pp. 321 and 74. Coochetopa, Sierra San Juan. In flower. 
"Flowers reddish purple." 

Thelypodium Wrigiitii, Gray, PI. Wright, l,p. 7 and 2, p. 12. In the Rocky Mountains. 
The specimens rcsemhle Wright's No. 845. 

Cleome lutea, Hoolc. Fl. Bor.-Am. 1, p. 70, I. 25. C. aurca, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, 
Fl. 1, p. 122. Sand-banks of Green River, Utah. 

Parnassia parviflora, DO. Prodr. 1, p. 320 ; Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 1, p. 82, t. 27. Rocky 
Mountains, in the valley of the Grand River ; August. This accords with specimens from 
the northwest coast, and with Hooker's figure (which is not cited in Torr. and Gray, Fl.) hut 
is still more delicate and slender. The filiform scape is five or six inches long ; the petals 
three lines long ; the radical leaves less than half an inch long, hut abrupt at the base, shorter 
than their petiole. 

Silene stellata, Ait. Upper Arkansas. 

Arenaria Fendleri, Gray, PL Fcndl. p. 13. Rocky Mountains, near the head of the Rio 
Grande ; August. Resembling Fendlcr's plant, but not so tall. 

Paronychia Jamesii, Torr. and Gray, Fl. l,p. 170. Plains near Fort Atkinson. 

Callirriioe involucrata, Gray, PI. Fendl. p. 16. Prairies near Bluff Creek. 

Sidalcea malv^eflora, Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 16. Utah Greek; August. 

Sidalcea Candida, Gray, PI. Fendl. p. 24. In the Rocky Mountains, east of the Rio Grande ; 
August. In flower. 

Spileralcea angustifolia, Cav. var. S. stellata, Torr. and Gray, Fl. Sandy banks of the 

Arkansas, near the Rocky Mountains. 

[ Ceanqtiius Americanus, Linn. Beyond Westport, near the Arkansas Riv erTj 

Polygala alba, Nutt. Beyond Walnut Creek ; July. 

Psoralea obtusiloba, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p\ 300. Kansas; June. • 

Amorpiia canescens, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 92. Between Westport and Bent's Fort. 

Dalea laxiflora, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 741. Near Walnut Creek ; July. 

Petalostemon violaceum, Michx. Fl. 2, p. 50, t. 37. With the preceding. 

Petalostemon candidum, Michx. I. c. With the preceding species. 

Oxytropis Lamberti, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 740. Two varieties: one with pale, and the other 
with violet purple flowers. Rocky Mountains. 

Astragalus adsurgens, Pall.; Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 1, p. 149. Rocky Mountains; August. 

Baptisia leucantiia, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 385. Arkansas River ; June. 

Hoffmanseggia Jamesii, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 393. Near Fort Atkinson ; July. 

Sciirankia uncinata, Willd.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 400. Upper Arkansas. 

Rubus deliciosus, Torr. in Am. Lye. Nat. Hist. N York, 2, p. 196. Rocky Mountains. Leaves 
only. 

(Enotiiera speciosa, Nutt. in Journ. Acad. Philad. 2, p. 119. Beyond Westport. 

(Enothera serrulata, Nutt. var. Douglassii, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 502. Beyond Wal- 
nut Creek. 

Stenosipiion virgatus, Spach, Onagr. p. 64. 

Gaura sinuata, Nutt. Near Fort Atkinson. 

Gaura cqccinea, Nutt. Gen. 1, ?>. 24'.). W alnut Creek. 
[ Epilqbium, angustifolium, Linn. Common in the Rocky Mountains!) 

Lythrum alatum, Pursh; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 481. From Westport to Walnut Creek. 



626 

127 Mextzelta (Bartonia) nuda, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 534. Near Fort Atkinson ; July. 

Cryptot/f.xia Canadense, DC. Prodr. 4, p. 119. Beyond Wcstport ; June. 

Tiusi'iiM coiuwtum, Torr. and Gray, Fl. I, p. G15. Near Wcstport ; Juno. 

Coxioseltnum Canadensis, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 619. In the Rocky Mountains ; August. 
In {lower only. 

Galium concinnum, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 23. Beyond Wcstport, Arkansas River ; June. 

Galium boreale, Linn. In the Rocky Mountains; August. 

Oldenlandia axgustifolia , Gray, Fl. Wright. 2, p. 68. Beyond Wcstport ; June. 

Buickellia grandiflora, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 7, p. 287. Rocky Mount- 
ains ; August. 

Aster multiflorus, Ait. Utah Creek ; August. 

Mahler antkera tanacetifolia, Necs ; Gray, PI. Wright, 1, p. 90. Fort Atkinson. 

Ertgeron glabellum, Nutt". Gen. 2, p. 147; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 173. Utah Creek; 
August. 

Towxsexdia Fendlerii, Gray, PI. Fendl. p. 70. Valleys in the Rocky Mountains ; August. 

Coreopsis palmata, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 180. Arkansas River. 

Gaillardia pulciiella, Foug.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2,p. 36S. Beyond Walnut Creek ; July. 

Actixella lan ata, Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 7, p. 380. White River Mountains, Utah ; 
October. The leaves are nearly smooth, and strongly punctate ; awn of the pappus half as 
long as the scale. Seems about intermediate between this species and A. Torreyana, Nutt. 

Artemisia filifolia, Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 211. Sand-banks of Green River, 
Utah ; October. 

Artemisia discolor, JDougl.; Besser; DC. Prodr. Q,p. 109. Roubideau's Pass, Rocky Mount- 
ains; Sierra Blanca. 

Antennaria luzuloides, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 430. Higher parts of the Rocky Mount- 
ains ; August. 

Cacalia tuberosa, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 138. Beyond Westport ; June. 

Tetradymia inermis, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 1. c. p. 415. Rocky Mountains; Au- 
gust. 

Lobelia leptqstaciiys , Alph. DC . Prodr. 7, p. 376. Prairi e near Westport. 
I'Lysimaciiia ciliata, Ait. West from Westport, Arkansas River.) 

Asclepias purpurascens, Linn. With the preceding. 

Asclepias verticillata, J Linn. ; ft. Torr. in Nicollet's Report, p. 154. Fort Atkinson. This 
is a dwarf variety, being often not mo re than 3-6 inches high. 

Asclepias tuberosa, Linn. Beyond Westport, Arkansas River.|_ 



JAi'ocYxuM canxabinum, Linn. Beyond Westpor t and Walnut Creek ; June, July.) 
Eustoma Russelianum, Don ; Griseb. in DC. Prodr. 9, jp. 51. Near Fort Atkinson; July. 

Gentiana affixes, Grisebach, in Hook. Fl. Dor. -Am. 2, p. 56. In the mountains, near 
Utah Creek ; January. 

IpoM/Ea leptopiiylla, Torr. in Frem. 1st Report, p. 94, and in Emory's Rep. p. 148, t. 11. 
Walnut Creek; July. Dr. James was mistaken in supnosing this handsome species to be an 
annual. It has a large perennial root, which has indvueA. for four or five years in the Botanic 
Garden at Cambridge. 

Phlox aristata, Michx. 1, p. 144. West from Westport, Kansas ; June. 

Gilia pulciiella, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 2, p. 74. Rocky Mountains ; August. 



627 

128 Polemonium pulciierrtmum, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2979. Rocky Mountains ; August. 

Gilia pixxatifida, Nutt. in Herb. Acad. Philad.? In the Rocky Mountains, near the head 
of the Rio Grande ; August. If this he a variety of Nuttall's plant (which is Fendlcr's No. 
655) it is remarkahlc for its much less lohed leaves ; those of the hranches being mostly entire. 

GriLTA Guxxisoxi, (n. sp.) : annual; stem paniculately much branched from the base, nearly 
glabrous, as are the leaves; the latter alternate and scattered, subulate-filiform, all entire, 
mucronate; the crowded bracts viscid-puberulent (like the branchlets), subulate, with the di- 
lated lower portion viscidly villous-ciliate, mostly shorter than the flowers, which are capitate- 
clustered at the summit of the branchlets; teeth of the calyx pungently pointed, a little shorter 
than the tube of the salver-shaped white corolla; stamens inserted in the sinuses of the corolla, 
rather shorter than its obovate lobes ; ovules 2 or 3 in each cell. Sand-banks of Green River, 
Utah; October. Root slender, evidently annual ; the stems or branches 6 or 8 inches high. 
Leaves all alternate, slender ; the cauline and rameal scattered, filiform ; the lower nearly an 
inch long; the upper gradually -reduced to small subulate bracts. Calyx somewhat pubescent. 
Corolla 3 to 4 lines long, the limb rather shorter than the tube; style pubescent below. 

Martyxia troboscidea, Glox. Near Walnut Creek ; July. 

Dipteracantiius ciliosus, N. ab E. in DO. Prodr. 11, p. 122. Beyond Westport; June. 

Diaxtjiera peduxculosa, Linn. (Rhytiglossa pedunculosa, JV. ab F.) Kansas, beyond West- 
port ; June. 

Pextstemon Coiwea, Nutt. ; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3465. Prairie between Westport and Bluff 
Creek; June. 

Pextstemox Digitalis, Nutt.; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2587. With the foregoing. 

Ortiiocarpus luteus, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 57. Utah Creek; August. 

Casti lleja purpurea, Don. Valleys of the Rocky Mounta ins ; August. 

IMoxarda jj'istulosa, Linn.; Bent h. in DC. Prodr. 12, p. 361. Damp valleys of the Rocky^ 

|__Mountains.( 

Moxarda aristata, Nuti. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 186; Benth. I. c. Rou- 
bideau's Pass ; August. The specimens are evidently annual. 

EritriciiiUxM glomeratum, DC. Prodr. 10, p. 131. Myosotis glornerata, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 112; 
Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 2, p. 80, t. 162. Declivities of the Rocky Mountains; August. A very 
rough form of the plant ; flowers white, conspicuous. 

Solaxum triflorum, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 128; Dunal in DO. Prodr. 13, part l,p. 45. Near 
the Rocky Mountains ; August. Leaves narrower and with fewer teeth on the lobes than usual. 
Stem branching from the base, and prostrate. Flowers pale blue. 

Abroxia fragraxs, Nutt. in Herb. Hook.; Hook. Keio. Jour. Bot. 5, p. 261. Rocky Mount- 
ains; August. This is in Wright's (1711) and several other collections, as well as in Geyer's; 
but no character of it has yet been published. It is distinguished from A. mellifera by its pure 
white "porcelain-colored" flowers, scarcely winged fruit, and especially by the involucre, com- 
posed of very large, broadly ovate, scarious and white leaflets. 

Oxybapuus augustleolius, Torr. in Ann. Lye. New York, 2, p. 237; Sweet; Ohoisy in DO. 
Prodr. 13, pars 1, p. 433; var. linearis. Port Atkinson, Arkansas river, and Roubideau's 
Pass, Sierra Blanca, Rocky Mountains. 

Eupiiorbia margixata, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 607. New Fort Massachusetts, San Luis Valley ; 
August. 

Polygonum lapathlfolium, .; leaves narrowly lanceolate, roughly pubescent on the 

veins underneath and on the margin ; sheaths slightly hairy, ciliate with short hairs ; 
peduncles glandularly pubescent and hispid. Between Westport and the Rocky Mountains ; 
July. 



130 



528 

Eriogoxum umbkllatum, Torr. in Annul. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 241 ; and in Silgreaves's Rep. 
t. 12; not of Bcnth. Near the Rocky Mountains. 

Quercus IMBRICABIA, Willd. Spec. 4, p. 428 ; Michx.f. Sylv. 1, p. 69, t. 15. Upper Arkansas. 
A handsome tree from 35 to 45 feet high, with a trunk sometimes 18 inches in diameter. 

Quercus alba, Linn.; Michx.f. Sylv. I, p. 17, t. 1. /?? Gunnisoxii: shrubby; leaves oblong, 
somewhat coriaceous, smooth above, minutely pubescent underneath, pinnatifidly lobed, the 
lobes nearly equal, entire, semi-ovate, obtuse ; fruit on a long peduncle ; cup hemispherical ; 
scales oblong, flattish, with a short, abrupt, discolored acumination ; gland ovate. On declivi- 
ties of mountains. Coochetopa Pass, Sierra San Juan. A shrub 6-10 feet high. Acorns less 
than half as large as in Q. alba. 

Abies_taxifolia, Lamb. Pin. 2, t. 47. Roubideau's Pass. A handsome tree growing from 
35 to 40 feet high, and 12 to 16 inches in diameter. The specimens are without cones. The 
leaves are from an inch and a quarter to nearly two inches long, very slender and glaucous on 
both sides. 

Pixus (undetermined) ; apparently between P. fiexilis of James and P. Strobus. Highest 
places in the Coochetopa. Leaves in fives, about an inch and a half long, besmeared with a 
clear colorless balsam. This is the same pine that Col. Fremont collected on his first expedition, 
and is noticed in the Botanical Appendix to his Report, 1843, p. 97. For want of the cones, 
it cannot be satisfactorily determined. Perhaps it belongs to that section of the genus which 
includes P. edulis, Engchn. and P. monophylla, Torr. 

Pixus Sabiniana, Dougl. Mssc. ; Lamb. Pin. (ed. 2), 2, p. 146, t. 80; Endl. Syn. Conif. p. 
159. Valley of the Sacramento. One of the cones brought home by Lieut. Beckwith measured 
9 inches in height, by 21 inches in circumference. 

Juxiperus Virgixiana, Linn.; Michx. f. Syl. 2, p. 354, t. 155 ; Endl. Synops. Conif. p. 27. 
Coochetopa. A small tree, not exceeding 15 feet in height. 

- Juxiperus communis, Linn.; Endl. I. c. Prostrate under and around trees. Roubideau's 
Pass. 

Tradescantia Virginica, Linn.; Bot. Mag. t. 105 ; Eunth., Enum. 4, p. 81. Prairies, Upper 
Arkansas ; June. 

Platantiiera leucopilea, Gray, Bot. N. States, p. 472. Orchis leucophaja, Nutt. in Trans. 
Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 161. Prairies near Westport. 

Melantiiium Virginicum, Linn.; Torr. El. N. York, 2, p. 116. Zygadenus Virginicus, 
Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 195. Prairies, Upper Arkansas ; July. 

Zygadenus glaucus, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Phil. *l,p. 56. Z. chloranthus. Richards. Append. 
to Frankl. Narr. p. 12 ; Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 2, p. 177. Anticlea glauca, Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 

192. Roubideau's Pass, Sierra Blanca. 

,_ TSagittaria variabilis, Engelm. in Gray's Bot . N. St ates , p. 461. S. sagittifolia of most) 
I American botanists. In water, Upper Arkansas. P ~ 

Heteranthera limosa, Vahl, Enum. 2, p. 44; Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 122. Leptanthus ovalis, 
Michx. Fl. I, p. 25, t. 5,/. 1. Wet places, Westport, &c, Arkansas river. Corolla usually 
blue, but a white-flowered variety was found with the common form. 

Calociiortus venustus, Benth. in Sort. Trans, (n. s.) 1, p. 412, t. 15,/. 2, var?: sepals 
erect; petals obovate, bearded and without a spot below the middle, purple at the base. 
Grows under trees on high mountains. Utah. Stem 2-3-flowered. Leaves grass-like, about 
two lines wide. Flowers nearly 3 inches in diameter. Sepals lanceolate, striate with purple 
veins externally. Petals nearly twice as long as the sepals, the upper half white, pale yellow- 
ish-green lower down, where the inside is bearded with longish gland-tipped hairs, which are 
dark purple at the base. Near the base the hairs are more numerous, and form a transverse 



529 

131 tuft; at the very bottom the claw is dark purple. Differs from C. venustus in its much nar- 
rower and less bearded petals, and in wanting the red spot above the middle. 

Ai-uum cernuum, Roth; Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 435. Roubideau's Pass. Differs from the 
description of A. cernuum, in the ovary being 6-toothed, or rather with 3 short processes, each 
of which is 2-lobed. 

Carex vuli'INoidea, Michx. Fl. 2, p. 69 ; Torr. Fl.N. York 2, p. 376. C. multifiora, Mull, 
in Willd. Spec. 4, p. 233-; Schk. Car. t. Ltt.f. 154. Between Westport and Bent's Fort. 

Scirpus lineatus, Miclix. Fl. 1, p. 32 ; Torr. Cyp. p. 332. In thickets, Up per Arkansas. 
f S. lacustris, Linn.; Mulil. Gram. p. 32 ; Torr. Cyp. p. 22 1. Bluff Creek.) 

Cypkrus filiculmis, Void, Enum. 2, p. 328 ; Torr. Cyp. p. 267. C. mariscoides, Elliott, Sk. 
\,p. 67. Prairies near Fort Atkinson. 

Bouteloua curtipendula, Torr. in Emory's Report, p. 153. B. racemosa, Torr. Fl. N. York 
2, p. 449; not of Lag. Chloris curtipendula, Miclix. Fl. 1, p. 59. Atheropogon apludoides, 
■ Muld. Gram. p. 287. Prairies, Upper Arkansas. 

Ciioxdrosium oligostaciiyum, Torr. in Marcy's Report, p. 300. Atheropogon oligostachyum, 
Nutt. Gen. I, p. 78. Eutriana? oligostachya, Kunth, Enum. I, p. 96, and 2, p. 282. On the 
Upper Arkansas. 

Sesleria dactyloides, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 65 ; Kuntli, Enum. 1, p. 323 ; Torr. in Emory's 
Report, p. 323, t. 10. With the last. The flowers are all male in the specimens of this collec- 
tion. There are thrown out from the root, besides the upright flowering culms, long prostrate 
runners which produce short verticillate branches and tufts of leaves at the joints, where they 
also frequently strike root. 

Axdropogon Torreyanum, Steud. Syn. Gram. p. 302. 

A. Jamesii, Torr. in Marcy's Report, p. 302. A. glaucum, Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York 1, 
p. 153 ; not of Muld. Sources of the Arkansas. 

Spartina cynosuroides, Willd. Enum. 1, p. 80; Torr. Fl. N. York 2, p. 448, t. 153. Low- 
lands of the headwaters of the Arkansas. 

Tripsacum dactyloides, Linn.; Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 469; Steud. Gram. p. 362. Plains of 
the Arkansas. 

Elyjius Canadensis, Linn.; Kunth, Enum. 1. 451 ; Torr. I. c. 476. Between Westport and 
Bent's Fort. 

Panicum capillare, Linn.; Kunth, Enum. \,p. 114 ; Torr. I. c.p. 426. With the preceding. 

Panicum Crus-galli, Linn.; Torr. Fl. N. York, 2, p. 424. Damp places. Upper Arkansas. 
The flowers are hispid and mostly awnless. 



KEPORT 



EXPLORATION OF A ROUTE FOR THE PACIFIC RAILROAD, 



THIRTY-SECOND PARALLEL OF NORTH LATITUDE, 



530 

rnon 



THE RED RIVER TO THE RIO GRANDE, 



BY 



BREVET CAPTAIN JOHN POPE, 

CORPS OF TOPOGRAPHICAL. ENGINEERS. 

1854. 



CHAPTER I. 

Pago. 
Methods pursued in determining the data upou which are based the maps and report of the survey 1 

CHAPTER II. 
General description of the country along the route „ 5 

CHAPTER III. 
Of the Indian tribes , 13 

CHAPTER IV. 
Military character of the route.............. 18 

CHAPTER V. 
Agricultural and mineral resources of the route 25 

CHAPTER VI. 
Of boring or digging for water on the Llano Estacado 35 

CHAPTER VII. 
Construction of a railroad along the route, and its estimated cost 39 

CHAPTER VIII. 
General summary, business of the road, &o 47 



APPENDIX. 

A.— Diary of the expedition, by J. H. Byrne, assistant computer: 

CHAPTER I. 
From the Rio Grande, at El Paso, to the Pecos, at the thirty-second parallel 51 

CHAPTER II. 
From the valley of the Pecos to the Sulphur Springs of the Rio Colorado of Texas 59 

CHAPTER III. 
From the Sulphur Springs of the Colorado to the Clear Fork of the Brazos 73 

CHAPTER IV. 
From the Clear Fork of the Brazos to the valley of the Red river 80 



5S1 

B.— Preliminary report on the natural history, by Spencer F. Baird - .. 01 

Q.— Report on the specimens of soils aud mineral waters, by Jas. C. Booth 05 

D. — Note, on the geological report. 03 

E. — Table of camping places along the direct lino of survey — • fJ3 

F. — Tables of motcorological observations 100 

G. — Table of latitudes, longitudes, and magnetic declinations 10 1 

II. — Table showing the altitudes of stations above the sea-lovol - -. .... 305 

I. — Observations for determining profile from El Paso to Preston, on Red river . 103 

J. — Observations for determining tho profile from tho Emigrant Crossing of the Pecos to tho Big Springs of tho Colorado. Ill 

K. — Observations for determining the profile through San Augustine Pass of the Organ mountains Ill 

L. — Tables of astronomical observations 112 



BOTANY. 

Report on the botanical collection, by Dr. John Torrey and Prof. Asa Gray, 




EEPOET 



ON THE 



BOTANY OF THE EXPEDITION: 



BY 



JOHN TORREY AND ASA GRAY. 



ROUTE NEAR THE THIRTY-SECOND PARALLEL OF NORTH LATITUDE, UNDER THE COMMAND OF BREVET 
CAPTAIN JOHN POPE, CORPS OF TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS. 



160 



532 

Vesicarta Fendleri, Gray, PL Fendl. p. 9; V. stenophylla, Gray, PL Lindh. 2, p. 149. 
Everywhere on Delaware creek, the Pecos, Llano Estacado, &c. ; March, April. To this, it is 
now evident, belongs the V. stenophylla; and the species exhibits great diversities in its mode 
of growth and foliage, as also in the size and even the shape of its pods. The name V. Fund- 
Ion is the older one; that of V. stenophylla is applicable only to some of the forms which the 
species assumes. 

Vesicaria Ludoviciana, DC. Syst. 2, p. 297. On the Pecos; March. Not in flower. 

Draba cuxeifolia, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, FL 1, p. 108. Delaware creek to the Colorado. 

Selexia dissecta, (n. sp., Plate I.) Leaves bipinnately divided, the segments linear; style 
not longer than the ovary; valves of the pod imperfectly one-nerved; seeds on short and thick 
funiculi. — In sandy or gravelly soil, from Delaware springs to the Llano Estacado; March and 
April. In flower, and with some mature fruit. This second species of Nuttall's genus Selenia 
is perhaps the most interesting plant of the present collection. It is a sort of biennial, (like so 
many of this region,) the plant having grown from the seed the preceding autumn, and begun 
to flower early in the following spring. The earliest flowers, borne on slender peduncles, spring- 
directly from the crown, among the tnfted radical leaves. Later, an ascending and sparsely 
leafy stem rises to the height of from three to six inches, and bears a raceme of leafy-bracted 
flowers, in the manner of L. aurea. The blossoms appear to be considerably larger than in 
that species, at least the earlier ones, the petals being fully half an inch long ; but their form, 
and apparently their color, is the same. The leaves are all pinnately divided, with their 
primary divisions pinnately 3-9-parted. The anthers are linear, rather than oblong. The 
style, although slender, is hardly as long as the ovary: stigma rather large, depressed. The 
silicle is elliptical, slightly inclined to obovate, very flat, seven to eight lines long, scarcely 
stipitate, rounded at the summit, and abruptly tipped with the comparatively short style; 
valves minutely reticulate-veiny; a mid-nerve is usually evident from the base to the middle, 
or sometimes even to the summit. Septum complete in the specimens examined, obscurely 
two-nerved in the middle; the areola? large, and nearly as in L. aurea. The seeds resemble 
those of that species, but are borne on short and thick funiculi, the base of which is somewhat 
adnate to the margin of the septum ; and the ccecal pouch at the hilum is small, or indistinct. 
Cotyledons orbicular, accumbent against the ascending radicle, which is on the side remote 
from the placenta. As already shown, (in Gen. III. 1, p. 158,) the genus belongs to the Alys- 
sinea3. 

Lepidum Alyssoides, Gray, PL Fendl. p. 10. Llano Estacado; April. 
Lepidum Wrightii, Gray, PL Wright. 2, p. 15. On the Pecos, Colorado, &c. 
Lepidum intermedium, Gray, L c. Near Fort Washita; April. 

CISTACE2E. 



ILeciiea minor, Lam.; Torr. and Gray, FL 1, p. 153. On the Llano Estacado; Marchj 
"Without flowers or fruit. ( 

CAEYOPHYLLACE^]. 

Silene Axtirriiina, Linn. On the upper Colorado, Texas; April. 

Paronychia Jamesii, Torr. and Gray, FL 1, p. 170. Guadalupe mountains, New Mexico. 
Without flowers. 

MALVACEAE. 

Callirrhoe digitata, Nutt.; Gray, PL Fendl. p. 17. On the upper Colorado, Texas; 
April. 

Callirrhoe involucrata, Gray, I. c. A smQll variety. On the upper Colorado; April. 



533 

162 late filaments from a broad base, and oblong 2-celled anthers. Opposite the shorter or interior 
stamens, (and alternating with the exterior ones,) were five ovate scales or petals. The char- 
acters of the calyx were not satisfactorily determined. There was no disk perceptible in the 
bud, and it is very inconspicuous in the flowers that had not matured their fruit. There arc 
five one-celled oblong ovaries, which slightly cohere towards the base, each produced into a short 
incurved beak or horn. The styles are distinct, and arise from near the middle of the carpels 
on the inside; but the stigmas are united into an oblong 5-grooved head. Ovules two in each 
cell, collateral, inserted at the origin of the style. Only two of the carpels ripen. They are 
sessile, slightly united at the base, broadly ovate, compressed, dotted with small brown glanchs, 
and mucronate with the persistent base of the style ; but the beak, which in the ovary was at 
the summit of the cell, has now become a dorsal tooth. At an early period the capsule opens 
nearly the whole length of the ventral suture, and down the back as far as the tooth. The 
endocarp also separates almost entirely from the epicarp. The seeds are usually solitary in 
each cell. They are ovate-globose, black and shining. The embryo is broadly oval, slightly 
curved, flattish, with a very short radicle ; and there is little or no albumen. 

ANACARDIACEiE. 

[Knus glabra, Linn. Near Fort Washita ; April.} 
Ehus trilobata, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, Fl. l,p. 219. On the upper Colorado, Texas; 
April. 
Kims microphylla, Engelm. in PI. Wright. 1, p. 31. With the preceding species. 

VITACE.E. 
Vitia rupestris, Scheele, in Linnoza, 21, p. 591. Western Texas; April 21. In flower. 

KHAMNACE.E. 

Ceanothus ovatus, Desf. (C. ovalis, Bigelow.) Near Fort Chadbourne; also a downy variety 
on the Colorado, Texas. 

Zizyphus lyctodes, Gray, PI. Lindh. 2, p. 168. Western Texas; April. 

Microrhamxus ericoides, Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 34. Near Delaware Springs, &c; March. 

SAPINDACEiE. 

Sapixdus marginatum, Willd.; Gay, Gen. III. 2, t. 180. Pecos and Llano Estacado. Called 
Wild China in Texas and Arkansas. 

Ungnadia speciosa, Endl.; Gray, Gen. III. 2, t. 178, 179. Big Springs of the Colorado and 
elsewhere; April. 

POLYGALACEiE. 

Polygala alba, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 87. Llano Estacado, Colorado, &c. 
Polygala macradenia, Gray, PI. Wright. I, p. 38. On the Pecos; March. 
Krameria lanceolata, Torr.; Gray, Gen. III. t. 187, 188. Western Texas; April. 

LEGUMINOS,E. 

Vicia Leavenworthlt, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 271. On the upper Colorado, Texas; April. 
Vicia exigua, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, I. c; Gray, PI. Wright. 2, p. 32. Llano Estacado; 

March, April. , ■ 

[Tephrqsia Virgixiana, Pers. Syn. 2, p. 328. Western Texa s; May./ 
Amorpha fruticosa, Linn. var. On the upper Colorado; April. 



634 

1G3 Fsoralea esculenta, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 475, t. 22. On the Colorado, Western Texas; April. 

Psoralea obtusiloba, Torr. and Gray, Fl. l,p. 300. Western Texas; May. 

Psoralea floribuxda, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, Fl. I. c. Western Texas; May. 

Psoralea cuspidata, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 741. Western Texas; April. 

Psoralea digitata, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, I. e. Western Texas; April. 

Dalea eormosa, Torr. in Am. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 78; and in Emory's Rep. t. 1. Every- 
where hetween the Rio Grande and Western Texas. 

Petalostemox violaceum, Michx. Near Fort Washita. 

Petalostemox caxdidum, Michx. Near Fort Washita. 

Astragalus mollissimus, Torr. in Am. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 178; Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 53. 
On the Llano Estacado, in sandy soil ; March, April. Plant sometimes considerably caules- 
cent, and a foot high. 

Astragalus succumbens, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 1, p. 151. On the Pecos, Llano 
Estacado, &c. ; March, April. The specimens are only in flower; in which state they very 
well accord with Douglas' plant. Mr. Gordon also gathered it in flower on the Raton mount- 
ains. 

Astragalus pauciflorus, Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 1, p. 129. High grounds at the head-waters 
of the Colorado, Texas; April. 

Astragalus Missouriexsis, JSutt. Gen. 2, p. 99. Guadalupe mountains to the Colorado; 
March, April. 

Astragalus cyaxeus, Gray, PL Fendl. p. 34. Between the Pecos and Llano Estacado. 
Probably too near the preceding species. 

Astragalus Nuttallianus, DC., var. trichocarpus and canescens, Gray, PI. Wright. From 
the Pecos to the Colorado; March, April. 

Astragalus Lindheimeri, Gray, PI. Wright. l,p. 52. On the upper Colorado; April. 

Astragalus Candensis, Linn. Near Fort Washita ; April. 

Astragalus, n. sp. ? In flower only. High ground, on the eastern border of the Llano 
Estacado ; April. 

Oxytropis Lamberti, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 740. Western Texas; May. 

Stylosaxthes elatior, Swartz.; DC. Prodr. 2, p. 381. Western Texas; May. 

Desmqdium caxescexs, DC. Prodr. 2, p. 238. Near Fort Washita. 



Lespedeza Stuvei, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 107. Near Fort Washita, 



Sophora sericea, Nutt. Gen. l,p. 280. Western Texas ; April. 

Cercts occtdextalis, Torr. in PI. Lindh. 2, p. 177. Near Fort Chadbourne; May. 

Hoffmaxseggia stricta, var. demissa, Benth. in PI. Wright. l,p. 56. Llano Estacado to the 
Colorado; April. , In flower. 

Hoffmaxseggia drepaxocarpa, Gray, PI. Wright. l,p. 58. On the Pecos. 

Hoffmaxseggia brachycarpa, Gray, I. c. On the Pecos. 

Hoffmaxseggia Jamesii, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 393; Torr. in Marcy's Pep. t. 4. Llano 
Estacado. 

Cassia Pumilio, Gray, PI. Lindh. 2, p. 180; and PI. Wright. 1, p. 59. Llano Estacado, &c. ; 
April. 

Cassia Bauiiixioides, Gray, I. c. Llano Estacado ; April. 

Cassia Rcemeriaxa, Scheele; Gray, PI. Lindh. 2, p. 179. Western Texas; April. 
Strombocarpa pubescexs, Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 60; (Prosopis, Benth.) Near Dona Ana. 
The fruit only ; called Tornio, or Screw-tree ; in some districts Screw-bean. 



535 

164 Algarobia glandulosa, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 399. Head-waters of the Colorado, Texas; 

April. This is the celebrated Mezquit of New Mexico. 

Desmaktiius Jamesii, Torr. and Gray, Fl. l,p. 402. Llano Estacado, &c. Foliage only. 

Sciirankia tlatycarpa, Gray, PL Lindh. 2, p. 183. Western Texas; April. 

Mimosa borealis, Gray, Fl. Fendl. p. 39. On the upper Colorado, and near Fort Chad- 
bourne; April, May. 

Acacia iiirta, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, Fl. \,p. 404. Western Texas; April. 

Acacia Texensis, Torr. and Gray, I. c. (Probably the A. cuspidata, Schlecht.) Near Fort 
Washita. 

ROSACEA. 

Prunus Americana, Marsh.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 407. Big Springs of the Colorado ; 
April. 

Prunus Chicasa, Michx. ; Torr. and Gray, I. c. On the Colorado; April. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, Nutt, in Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 427. Dona Ana, New Mexico; 
February. Foliage only. 

Fallugia paradoxa, Torr. in Emory's Rep. t. 2. Guadalupe mountains, New Mexico. Foliage 

°S : > 

Geum Virginianum, Linn. Western Tex as; May.j 

Eosa setigera, Michx.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. l,p. 457. Fort Washita; April. 

Rubus trivialis, Michx. ; Fl. 1, p. 296. Near Fort Washita. 

ONAGRACE^h 

Oenothera lavenduuefolia, Torr. and Gray, Fl. l,p. 501. Llano Estacado; April. 

(Exothera Hartwegi, Benth. PI. Hartio. p. 1 ; the var. answering to (E. Fendleri ; Gray, 
PI. Fendl. On the Pecos, Llano Estacado, and Colorado. 

Oenothera tubicula, Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 71. On the Pecos and Llano Estacado. 

Oenothera albicaulis, Nutt. Gen. l,p. 245; Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 59. On the Pecos. 

(Enothera triloba, Nutt. Gen. I. c. On the Pecos. 

Oenothera serrulata, Nutt. I. c. Big Springs of the Colorado to Fort Washita, &c ; April. 

CEnothera sinnata, Linn. Near Fort Washita ; April. Western Texas ; May. 

(Enothera Wrightii, Gray, PI. Wright. 2, p, 57. On the Llano Estacado; April. In 
flower. 

(Enothera Missouriensis, Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 1592. Western Texas; May. 

Oenothera speciosa, Nutt. ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 496. Western Texas; April. 

(Exotuera Spachiana, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 498. Western Texas; May. 

Gaura parviflora, Dougl.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 519. Llano Estacado and Western 
Texas. 

Gaura suffulta, Engelm. in PI. Lindh. 2, p. 190. Western Texas. 

Gaura coccinea, Nutt.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. I, p. 518. Llano Estacado. 

Gaura sinuata, Nutt.; Torr. and Gray, I. c. Western Texas; April. 

CUCURBITACE.E. 

Sicydium Lindheimeri, Gray, PI. Lindl. 2, p. 196. On the Pecos, also Western Texas ; 
March, April. 

Cucurbita perennjs, Gray, I, c. Western Texas; April. Foliage only. 



166 



636 

RUBIACEiE. 

Oldenlandia (Houstokia) iiumifusa, Gray, PI. Wright. 2, p. 68. On the Llano Estacado and 
Pecos; March. A vernal state. 



Oldexl axdia angust ifqlia, Gray, I. c. Fort Washit a and Western Texas; April, May. 
Galium Aparixe, Linn. On the Colorado; April. Nolfin flower.] 



VALERIANACEiE. 

Fedia amareixa, Lindh. in Gray, PI. Lindh. 2, p. 217. On the Colorado, &c, Texas; April, 
May. 

COMPOSITE. 

Mactlerantiiera taxacetifolta, Nees ; Gray, PI. Wright. 1,p. 90. On the Llano Estacado 
and Western Texas; March to May. 

Erigerox strtgosum, Muhl.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 176. Near Fort Washita; April. 

Erigerox divergexs, Torr. and Gray, I. c; Gray, PI. Wright. I, p. 91. From the Pecos to 
the Colorado, Texas. Various forms. N 

Diplopappus ericoides, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 182. New Mexico to the Colorado; March, 
April. Various forms. 

Towxsexdia sericea, Hook, Fl. Bor.-Am. 2, p. 16, t. 119. Guadalupe mountains, New Mex- 
ico; March. 

Ciletopappa asteroides, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 301. Western Texas; April, May. 

Apuaxostephus ramosissimus, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 310 ; Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 93 ; Torr. in 
Marcy's Pep. t. 9. Big Springs of the Colorado; April. 

Apuaxostephus Arkaxsaxus, Gray, I. c. Western Texas; May. 

Bellis ixtegrifolia, Michx. Fl. 1, p. 131. Western Texas; May. 

Aplopappus spixulosus, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 348. From the Pecos to the Colorado, Texas. 

Xaxtiiisma Texanuai, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 94; Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 98; Torr. in Marcy's 
Pep, t. 10. Western Texas, May. 



f Solidago Caxadexsis, Linn. Near Fort Washita; April. Not in flower, 



Calymmaxdra caxdida, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 262. (Plate II.) Western Texas, on the 
upper Colorado ; April. This has scarcely heen collected since it was gathered hy Drummond. 

Filagixopsis iMULTiCAULis, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 263. (Plate III.) On the Pecos and Llano 
Estacado; March. Western Texas; April. Sterile corollas, naked at the summit, but hearing 
a few long wooly hairs near the hase. 

Partiiexium Hysteropiiorus, Linn. Pecos and Llano Estacado. 

Melampodium cixereum, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 518. Banks of the Pecos to the Colorado; March 
to M iy. 

Bprlaxdiera lyrata, Benth. ; Gray, PL Fendl. p. 78. Llano Estacado, March. 
Exgelmaxxia pixxatifida, Torr. and Gray, in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. and Fl. 2, p. 2S3 ; 
Torr. in Marcy's Pep. t. 11. Western Texas to the head of the Colorado; April, May. 
Lixdhelmeria Texaxa, Gray and Engclm. PI. Lindh. 2 p. 225. Western Texas; April. 
Zixxia multiflora, Linn. Near Fort Chadhourne, Texas. 
Eciiixacea axgustifolia, DC. Prodr. b,p. 554. Var. Western Texas; April. 
Simsia (Barrattia) calva, Gray, PI. Lindh. 2, p. 228. On the upper Colorado; April. 
Dracopis amplexicaulis, Cass.; DC. Prodr. 5, p. 558. Near Fort Washita; April. 



637 

168 Pinaropappus roseus, Less.; DC. Prodr. *J,p. 99. Western Texas; April. 

Lygodesmia aphylla, DC. var. Texana, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 484. Western Texas ; 
April. 

Pyrriiopappus grandiflorus, Nutt.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 495. Big Springs of the 
Colorado, &c; April. 

CAMPANULACEJE. 

Dysmicodon ovatum, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 8, p. 256. Specularias sp. 
Torr. 3Iss. Western Texas ; April to May. 

Dysmicodon perfoliatum, Nutt. I. c. Campanula perfoliata, Linn. Specularia perfoliata, 
Alph. DC. Prodr. 7, pars 2, p. 490, (in part.) With the preceding. 

PLANTAGINACE2E. 

Plantago Virgixica, Linn. Llano Estacado, and on the Colorado ; March, April. 
Plantago gnaphalioides, Nutt.. Gen. I,j5. 100. On the Pecos; March. 

PRIMULACEiE. 
Dodecatiieon Meadia, Linn. Western Texas ; May. 

ACANTHACE^E. 

Stenandrium barbatum, (n. sp.; Plate IV) : dwarf, multicipital, hearded all over with long 
and shaggy white hairs; scape at first shorter than the ohlanceolate, or narrowly spatulate, 
entire, and scarcely petioled radical leaves ; bracts oblong-lanceolate, acute, entire, nearly 
equalling the corolla ; anthers hearded on the hack and tip ; stigma funnel-form, its oblong 
margin not ciliate ; capsule oblong, 4-seeded. On the Pecos ; March. First collected by Mr. 
Wright on a lower part of the same river. It is No. 1423 of his distributed collection. 

Dipteracaxthus strepexs, Nees in DC. Prodr. W,p. 121. Western Texas; April, May. 

Calophaxes oblongifolius, Don; Nees in DC. Prodr. 11, p. 107, and var. Texensis, Nees. 
Western Texas ; April, May. 

SCROPHULARIACE^S. 

( Lixaria Canade nsis, Don. On the Pecos, Llano Estacado, and Western Texas; March, MayJ 

Veroxica peregrina, Linn. Llano Estacado, &c. ; March. 

Pextstemox Cob/Ea, Nutt.; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 326. Western Texas ; April, May. 

Pentstemon grandiflorus, Nutt. in Fra&Cat.; Benth. in DC. I. c. Near Fort Chadbourne ; 
May. 

Pextstemox albidus, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 53. Upper Colorado, Texas ; April. 

Pextstemox Fendleri, (n. sp.; Plate V) : erect, glabrous throughout, glaucous; leaves cori- 
aceous, entire, the radical ones ovate or obovate, and tapering into a short petiole, the cauline 
ovate or oblong, and closely sessile ; flowers cymulose, or sometimes subsolitary in the axils of 
the upper leaves and obovate bracts, forming a strict interrupted panicle or series of apparent 
verticils ; segments of the calyx ovate, with scarious margins ; corolla (blue or purple) funnel- 
form, scarcely bilabiate, sparsely bearded or smooth in the throat ; sterile filament dilated and 
densely (yellow) bearded at the summit. On the Pecos and Llano Estacado ; March, April. A 
species which occurs in all the collections made in this region, and is considerably variable in 
size, foliage, the number of the flowers, (which are handsome, and eight or ten lines long,) the 
size of the bracts, &c. It is most nearly related to P. acuminatus and P. nitidus, especially to 
the latter. 



538 

]73 Physalis lobata, Torr. in Ann. Lye. New York, 1, p. 220. On the Pecos find Llano Esta- 
cado; March, April. Several forms, including, perhaps, more than one species. They arc 
not true species of Physalis. Wo know not what Dunal has done witli them ; but lie must have 
seen specimens in Berlandier's and other collections. There is also a genuine Physalis from 
Upper Texas, hut not in a condition to name. 

Nicottana rustica, Linn. ? Upper Colorado, Texas ; April. 

GENTIANACEvE. 

Sarbatia campestris, Null, in Trans. Amcr. Phil. Soc.; DO. Prodr. 9. p. 50. Near Fort 
Washita ; April. 

JASMINACEiE. 

Mexodora iieteropjiylla, Moricand, in DO. Prodr. 8, p. 316 ; Gray, in Sill. Jour. 14, 1S52. 
Western Texas ; April. This is, doubtless, the Boliviara Grisebachii, Scheele in Linncea. 25, 
p. 254. 

APOCYNACEiE. 

Amsoxia ciliata, Walt. Fl. Oar. p. 98. On the upper Colorado ; April. 
Amsoxia salicifolia, Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 184. On the Pecos. Only the broad-leaved form was 
in the collection. 

ASCLEPIADACEiE. 

[Asclepias tuberqsa , Linn.; Miclix. Fl. 1, p. 117 ; var. angus tifolia. Wester n T exas; May 10.] 

Acerates paniculata, Decaisne, in DO. Prodr. 8, p. 521. Anantherix paniculatus, Nutt. 
Sandy soil, head-waters of the Colorado; April. This is the snake-weed of the Camanche 
Indians. 

Acerates vtridiflora, Ell. Sic. 1, p. 317. Var. 1. Leaves broadly ovate, mucronatc, some- 
what fleshy, smoothish. Var. 2. Leaves narrowly ovate, acute, somewhat hoary- pubescent. 
Llano Estacado. 

Acerates longifolta, Ell. I. c; Decaisne, I. c. Big Springs of the Colorado and Llano Esta- 
cado, in gravelly o»il J April. 

Goxolocus biflorus, Nutt. in herb. DC. Chthamalia biflora, DO. 1. c. p. 605. With the 
preceding. 

CHENOPODIACE.E. 

Obioxe caxescexs, Moq. Chenop. p. 74. Atriplcx canescens, Null. Gen. 1, p. 197. Mesilla 
valley, and from Delaware creek to Sacramento river ; March. 

Obioxe coxfertiflora, Torr. and Frem. in Frem. 2d Report, p. 318. Gravelly soil, head- 
waters of the Colorado. 

Obioxe argextea, Moq. Chenop. p. 76. Atriplex argentea, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 198. Llano 
Estacado. 

Axtiirocxemum fruticosum, Moq. Chenop. p. Ill, and in DC. Prodr. 13, p. 181?; Torr. in 
Stansb. Rep. p. 394. In a saline, decomposed, gypseous soil, also on the borders of a salt lake 
on the Guadaloupe mountains. 

Ciikxopouixa maritima, Moq. in DC. Prodr. 13, (pars. 2,) p. 164. Sueda maritima, Dumort. 
Chenopodium maritimum, Linn. Saline soils between the Pecos and Llano Estacado. Not in 
flower. 



174 



Phytolacca decandra, Linn. Near Fort Washita; Ap 



539 

PHYTOLACCACEjE. 



P0LYGQNACE2E. 

Polygonum lapatiiifolum, Linn.? Willd. Sp. pi. 2, p. 442. Near Fort Washita. Perhaps 
not distinct from P. Persicaria. 

Eiuogoxuji loxgifouium, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5,^>. 164. E. Texanuin, 
Schcele. Gravelly soil, on the Pecos; April. 

Eriogoxium 'ckrxuum, Nutt. in PI. Gambel.? Llano Estacado, sandy soil. It differs in the 
pubescence of the leaves being rougher and more persistent. 

Kumkx venqsus, Pursh, Fl. swpp. 2, p . 733. Delaware creek, and along the Pecos; M arch. 
[ PtUMiox Acetqsell a, Linn. ; Pursh, Fl. 1,p. 249. Western Texas. Probably introdu ced.) 

Rumjsx Britaxnica, Linn.; Torr. Fl. New York, 2, p. 155. Western Texas. 

NYCTAGINACEiE. 

Abroxia cycloptera, Gray, in Sill. Jour. (n. ser.) 15; Torr. in Marcy's Pep. t. 18. Llano 
Estacado to Fort Chadbourne ; April, May. In flower only. 

Oxybaphus angustifolius, Torr. in Amer. Lye. New York, 2, p. 237. On the upper Colorado; 
April. 

Oxybaphus iiirsutus, Sweet; Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 2, p. 124. On the Colorado; April. 

Acleisaxthes Berlandieri, Gray, in Sill. Jour. I. c. On the Pecos; March, Foliage only. 

EUPHORBIA CE^. 

Tragia ramosa, Torr. in Ann. Lye. New York, 2, p. 245. Gravelly soils ; March. 

Cxidoscolus STIMULOSUS, Engehn. and Gray, PI. Lindl., part 1, p. 26. Sand-hills of Llano 
Estacado and Western Texas; March to May. Flowers larger than in the eastern plant. 

Stillixgia lanceolata, Nutt. in Trans. Phil. Soc, (n. ser.) 5, p- 176. Sandy soil, Western 
Texas ; April to May. 

Hexdecaxdra crotonoibes, Hook, and Am. Pot. Beech, p. 388. This is the same as No. 
1S00, PI. Wright. It was found also by Fremont on the Gila. It is quite a distinct species 
from H. procumbens. The Mexicans call it Yerba del Gato, and use it as a purgative. 

Euphorbia Arkaxsana, Fngelm. and Gray, I. c. no. 303. Intermediate between E. platy- 
phylla and E. Helioscopia. Sandy soil. Collected in a journey to Fort Chadbourne, and on the 
head-waters of the Colorado. 

Euphorbia Geyeri, Engelm. and Gray, PI. Lindh. I, p. 52. Western Texas ; May. 

Euphorbia Wrightii, (n. sp.) : stem herbaceous from a somewhat ligneous base, erect, much 
branched; leaves opposite, sessile, narrowly lanceolate-linear, entire; involucres solitary, pe- 
dunculate, mostly terminal or in the uppermost forks of the stem, pubescent; glands trans- 
versely oblong, entire, with a large petaloid broadly obovate denticulate appendage; capsule 
very minutely papillose-pubescent; seeds glabrous. Head-waters of the Colorado; April. This 
is the same as No. 182*7 of Mr. Wright's New Mexican collection, (1851-52). It is about a 
foot high, branching from the base; the branches green and angular. Leaves an inch or more 
in length, and 2-3 lines wide. Peduncles variable in length, occasionally 2-3 times longer than 
the hemispherical involucre, but usually shorter. Petaloid appendages conspicuous. Styles 
very short, spreading, 2-cleft about half-way down. Capsule coriaceous. Seeds subglobosc. 

Euphorbia albomargixata, (n. sp.): perennial, slender, much branched, smooth; leaves stipu- 
late, opposite, suborbicular, 6ubcordate, entire, distinctly petiolate; involucre solitary, shorter 



540 

175 than t.lio peduncles; glands transversely oval, with an entire or slightly crenate petaloid border, 
which is twice as broad as the gland itself; seeds obovate, somewhat rugose transversely, dull, 
gelatinous when moistened. In red sand and clay: with tho preceding. Resombles the follow- 
ing, but more slender and of a more diffuse habit. It is readily distinguished by the broad 
petaloid appendages of the involucral glands. 

Euphorbia dilatata, (n. sp.): whole plant clothed with a soft pubescense; stem much brandl- 
ing from a somewhat woody base, diffuse; leaves without stipules, opposite, ovate, sessile, 
dilated and somewhat unequal at the base, rather obtuse, entire, (often purplish underneath) 
thiclcish; involucres mostly solitary, axillary and terminal, nearly sessile, ovate; glands trans- 
versely linear-oblong, with a narrow petaloid crenate margin; capsule somewhat hairy; seeds 
oblong, even, gelatinous when moistened. Western Texas. Not uncommon in New Mexico. 
Resembles No. 1S40 of Mr. Wright's New Mexican collection, (1851-52); but that is hairy, 
the leaves are lanceolate, tapering to a mucronate tip, and the petaloid appendages of the invo- 
lucral glands arc much broader. 

Euphorbia Fendleri, (n. sp.): branching and diffuse from a somewhat woody candex, smooth; 
leaves stipulate, opposite, broadly ovate or orbicular-ovate, on very short petioles, subcordate 
and oblique at the base; involucres solitary, on short peduncles; gland transversely oval, with 
a narrow entire somewhat 2-lobed border ; capsule smooth ; seeds obovate, a little rugose trans- 
versely, gelatinous when moistened. Big Springs of the Colorado; April. This species is No. 
800 of Fendler's New Mexican collection. It is a small plant, throwing off many branches that 
spread on the ground, forming a little patch from three to six inches in diameter. The leaves 
are 3-4 lines long, and are often of a purplish tinge, especially underneath. 

SANTALACEJL 

Comaxdra umbellata, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 157. Gravelly soil. Big Springs of the Colorado, 
&c, Texas ; April. 

SALICACE^l. 
Salix. Two undetermined species were found in the sand-hills of Llano Estacado. 

CUPULIFERiE. 

Quercus undulata, Torr. in Ann. Lye. New York, 2, p. 248, t. 4. Head-waters of the Colo- 
rado and Llano Estacado ; in sandy soik In flower April 12. 
Quercus palustris, Du Roi. Near Fort Chadbourne, Texas. 

URTICACEiE. 



Parietaria Pennsylvania, Willd? Delaware creek to the Pecos ; March. 



Celtis reticulata, Torr. in Ann. Lye. Neio York, 2, p. 247. Upper Colorado, Texas; April. 
Planera Richardi, Michx. Fl. 2, p. 24 8. Western Texas; April. 
\Mor us rubra, Linn.? Near Fort Washita; April.j 

CONIFERiE. 

Ephedra antisipiiilitica, Berland.; Endl. Conif. p. 2G3. High rocky and sandy places ; Llano 
Estacado and on the Pecos. The fertile aments are 1-2-flowexed ; but usually perfect only one 
seed, which in that case is triangular. When two seeds ripen they are less angular, and the 
opposite faces are flat. The scales of the ament become fleshy at maturity. 

^JJuxiperus.Virginiana, Linn.; Michx. f.Sylv. 2, p. 253, t. 155. Head-waters of the Colorado,] 

i and in various parts of Western Texas, j 



541 

17G SMILACEiE. 

Smilax nASTATA, Willd. Sp.p. 782; Ell. Sic. 2, p. 090. High plains, Llano Estacado. 

COMMELYNACEiE. 

Tradescantia Virginiasta, Linn.; Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 81. Head-waters of the Colorado and 
on the Pecos ; March and April. Very variable as to size, pubescence, and breadth of the 
leaves. 

Commelyna angustifolia, Miclix. Fl. 1, p. 24. Near Fort Washita. 

IRIDACEJE. 



177 



[ SisYMNcniUM Bermudiana, Linn.; var. anceps. S. anceps, Cav. Dry soils, Llano Estacado.) 

LILIACEiE. 

Camassia Fraseri, Ton', in Whipple s Report, ined. Scilla csculcnta, Gaiol. in Lot. Mag., t. 
1574; (excl. syn. Pursh.) /9. angusta. S. angusta, Engelm. and Gray, PI. Lindheim. , part 
1, No. 198. Western Texas. 

Allium mutabile, Miclix. Fl. 1, p. 195. On the Pecos and the head-waters of the Colorado ; 
March to April. Flowers varying from deep rose red to nearly white. 

Pseudoscordum striatum, Herb. Nothoscordum striatum, Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 458. Allium 
striatum, Jacq. With the preceding. 

Yucca angustifolia, Pursh, Fl. I, p. 227. On the Pecos; April. Flowers in a long, narrow 
raceme, as large as in Y. filamentosa, greenish yellow mixed with purple. 

JUNACEiE. 
J uncus tenius, Willd.; Torr. Fl. New York, 2, p. 329. Low grounds. Hueco Tanks. 

NAPJADACEiE. 

Potamogeton PR2ELONGUS, Wulf.; Gray, Lot. North. States, p. 456. Western Texas. 

CYPERACEiE. 

VScirpus lacustris, Linn.; Torr. Cyp.,p. 321. In water; Llano Estacado ; March.] 
Eleociiaris obtusa, Schultes; Torr. I. c.,p. 302. With the preceding. 

GR AMINE JE. 



FI LICES. 

JAdiaktum Capillus-Veneris, Linn. Big Springs of t he Colorado. We follow Hooker in) 
(uniting this and several other allied forms of Adiantum.J 

NoTiiociiLyEXA sixuata, Kaulf. Between the Bio Grande and Llano Estacado. 
Gymnogramma tartarea, Desv. With the preceding. 

Cheilantues Lindiieimeri, Boole. Spec. Fil. 2, p. 101, t. 107. Llano Estacado. This is the 
same as No. 2126 of Wright's New Mexican collection. 

Pteris (Platyloma) ANDROMEDiEFOLiA, Kaulf, Enum. Fil. p. 188. Hueco Swamps, Texas. 
This is a common fern in California. 



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MAMMALS: 



BY SPENCER F. BAIRD. 



ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



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RODENTIA — ARVICOLINAE — FIBER ZIBETHICU8. 



563 



Measurements. 



Nose to occiput 

eye 

car ." 

rout of tail 

naked part of tail 

end of outstretched hind legs. 

Tail from root to end of vertebra 

hairs 

Uncovered portion of tail 

Ears, height posteriorly 

anteriorly 

internally above skull.... 

above notch 

width 



No. 851. 



Inches. 

2.83 

1.30 

2.75 

11.50 

13.50 

17.50 

11.00 

11.17 

9.50 

.92 



.70 
.83 
.80 



Arm , from elbow to end of c laws 

fore foot.... i 

longest claw 

Leg, from knee joint to end of claws. . . , 

tibia 

hind foot from heel to end of claws. 

longest claw '. , 

Skull, 1 length 

width ..., 



No. 851. 



Inches. 
3.50 
1.33 
.40 
5.50 
2.93 
3.17 
.48 
2.62 
1.63 



1 The largest skull I have seen is No. 2300 from Washington ; this measures 2.85 inches by 1.75. 

Specimens vary from the preceding description in a more fuscous character of the tips of the 
under fur, the reddish here sometimes nearly replaced by grayish brown, giving a much darker 
impression to the animal. This is more particularly the case in winter killed skins. The size 
i s sometimes considerably greater than that d escribed. [ 

The well known musk rat of the United States appears to have as witie a range throughout 
North America as the beaver, and, unlike this species, maintains its foothold successfully 
I against the destructiveness of mankind. It extends at the present day from the Atlantic to the 
Paci fic, and from the Rio Grande to the barren grounds of arctic America^) The species is 
quite abundant in Washington Territory, and appears to extend almost to the extreme north- 
western point of America. It was at one time supposed, indeed, that the musk rat was found 
on the Asiatic side of Behring's Straits ; but it appears now to be ascertained that the skins 
obtained from the Tschucktchis, of Kamschatka, are procured from the tribes on the American 
shore. 

I have seen no specimens of muskrat from California ; but there is every probability of its 
occurring there. 

Brandt mentions a dealer in St. Petersburg who possesses the art of so dressing the mask rat 
as to impart to it the appearance of the fur seal, both as to color and quality. 



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[134] 



568 



PARA. 



135 



CHATTER XII. 

Excursion down tho Stream.— Novel mode of ** raising Cattle." 

The Kingfisher. — Singular Advenluro with a Troop of 

Monkeys.— Serious Conflict.— Parrots.— Conversation about 
them. — Marvellous Stories. 

Our next excursion was down the streamlet, to the spot 
where the schooner was moored, and was undertaken 
principally for the purpose of witnessing a " novel mode 
of raisins cattle." At seven o'clock we got under weigh. 
Tho current was strong, and the tide had Just begun to 
flow. Our canoe, therefore, glided down the stream 
with great velocity, while all our paddling skill was 
called in requisition, in order to keep the boat free of the 
numerous snags with which the stream was bountifully 
supplied. 

Acting in the capacity of pilot, the writer was seated 
in the stern, provided with a paddle of huge dimensions. 
J. was snugly ensconced in the forward part of the canoe, 
and with his faithful gun in his hand, was looking eagerly 
ahead for the appearance of game. 

During our brief voyage my companion shot a couple 
of bright humming-birds, and several small kingfishers 
of shining plumage. The latter were continually flitting 



with meteor-like quickness, up and down tho sudden 
turnings and windings of the streams, or sitting upon 
little dry twigs jutting out over tho water, watching 
patiently to pounce upon any of the finny tribe who 
should be so unfortunate in their innocence as to swim 
below. 

Of the kingfishers there are many species, some of 
which are but little larger than a good sized humming- 
bird, while tho largest of the genus is above twelve 
inches in length. Their plumage in general is extremely 
fine ; of a rich emerald hue, variegated in some species 
w ith purple f yellow, and white. 

[Among tho ancients the kingfisher was an object of 
much respect and admiration. With the poets he was 
an especial favorite, doubtless because like love-lorn swains 
he lived amid the shadows of romantic groves, and was 
always found in the vicinity of rippling streams and mur- 
muring cascades. [ By some it was superstitiously sup- \ 



posed that this bird exercised a controlling influence over 
the winds and waves — hence the origin of its antique 
name of " Halcyon," and of those days of unusual still- 
ness, which were poetically termed " Halcyon days." On 
these days the kingfishers are particularly industrious, 
for the reason probably that the purity of the atmosphere 
and the slightness of evaporation from the surface of the., 
water, promise extraordinary success in their pisc atory i 
(operations. J 

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THE 



NATURAL HISTORY 



SELBORNE: 



OBSERVATIONS ON VARIOUS PARTS OF NATURE; 



THE NATURALIST'S CALENDAR. 



BY THE LATE 

REV. GILBERT WHITE, A.M. 

Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 



WITH ADDITIONS AND SUPPLE HENTABY NOTES BT 

SIR WILLIAM JARDINE, BART. F.R.S.E.. F.L.S.. M.W.S: 



SDITXD, WITH FUBTHEB ILLUSTRATIONS, A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OP THE AUTHOR, 
AND A COMPLETE INDEX, BT 

EDWARD JESSE, ESQ. 

Author of " Gleaning! in Natural Hiitory," 4c. &c 



WITH FOKTY ENGRAVINGS. 



LONDON : 

HENRY G. BOHN, YOEK STREET, CO VENT GARDEN. 

1854. 



68 



FROGS. — TOADS. 



is notorious to everybody; because we see them sticking 
upon each other's backs for a month together in the spring ; 
and yet I never saw or read of toads being observed in the 
same situation.* It is strange that the matter with regard 
to the venom of toads has not been yet settled.f That they 
are not noxious to some animals is plain ; for ducks, buzzards, 
owls, stone curlews, and snakes eat them, to my knowledge, 
with impunity. And I well remember the time, but was not 
an eye-witness to the fact (though numbers of persons were), 
when a quack at this village ate a toad, to make the country 
people stare ; afterwards he drank oil.J 



J • The copulation of frogs and toads is performed in the same manner. The I 
(pelmatic fluid is passed upon the ova at the time they are expelled from the 1 
female. The ova of the frog are laid in coDglutinated masses ; those off 
the toad, in long chain-like strings. The ova of the latter ore also much I 

waller —W. J. f ■ ~ r 

T Blumenbacb, whose authority may generally be depended on, asserts that 
there is no truth in the supposition that the urine of toads is poisonous. 
I Tecollect, however, the case of a gardener who, while cutting gooseberry 



hushes, scratched his hand. Afterwards, in taking up a toad which lie found 
under the bush, the animal discharged some of its urine on his hand, which 
became much inflamed and prevented his working for some time after- 
wards. — Kd. 

J I have had a toad so tamo that, when it was held in one hand, it would 
take its food from tho other held near it. The manner in which this animal 
takes its prey is very interesting. The tongue, when at rest, is doubled bock 
upon itself in tho mouth, and the apes, which is broad, is imbued with a most 
tenacious mucus. On seeing an insect, the animal fixes its beautiful eyes 
upon it, leans or creeps forward, and when within reach, the tongue is projected 
upon the insect, and a;ain returned into the mouth with the captive p'ey, by a 
motion »o rapid, that without the most careful observation the action cannot be 
followed. An insect is never taken unless when in motion ; and I have often 
seen a toad remain motionless for some minutes, with its eyes fixed upon an 
insect, and tho instant it moved it disappeared with the quickness of lightning. 
The insect is swallowed whole, and alive ; and I have often seen the reptilo 
much incommoded by the struggles of its imprisoned prey, particularly if it 
consist of large and hard insects, as full growu cockroaches, for instance, when 
the twitching of its sides, from the irritation produced by the movements of the 
inserts in the stomach, is sufficiently ludicrous. — T. B. 

105 
LETTER XXIX. 

TO THE HON. DAINES BARRINGTON. 

Selborne, Jan. 15, 1770. 
Dear Sir, — It was no small matter of satisfaction to me 
to find that you were not displeased with my little methodus, 
or systematic table of birds. If there was any merit in the 
sketch, it must be owing to its punctuality. For many 
months I carried a list in my pocket of the birds that were 
to be remarked, and as I rode or walked about my business, 
I noted each day the continuance or omission of each bird's 
song, so that I am as sure of the certainty of my facts as a 
man can be of any transaction whatsoever. 

I shall now proceed to answer the several queries which 
you put in your two obliging letters, in the best manner 
that I am able. Perhaps Eastwick, and its environs, where 
you heard so very few birds, is not a woodland country, and, 
therefore, not stocked with such songsters. If you will cast 

ioe 

your eye on my last letter, you will find that many species 
continued to warble after the beginning of July. 

The titlark and yellow-hammer breed late, the latter very 
late; and, therefore, it is no wonder that they protract their 
song fl for I lay it down as a maxim in ornithology, thatagj 
{long as there is any incubation going on, there is music. j As 
to the red-bWaSt and wren, it is well known to the most 
incurious observer that they whistle the year round, hard 
frost excepted ; especially the latter. 

It was not in my power to procure you a black-cap, or a 
less reed-sparrow, or sedge-bird, aLive. As the first is 
undoubtedly, and the last, as far as I can yet see, a summer 
bird of passage, they would require more nice and curious 
management in a cage than I should be able to give them : 
they are both distinguished songsters. The note of the 
former has such a wild sweetness that it always brings to my 
mind those lines in a song in " As You Like It :" — 

And tune Lis merry note 
Unto tho wild bird's throat. 

The latter has a surprising variety of notes, resembling the 
song of several other birds ; but then it has also a hurrying 
manner, not at all to its advantage. It is, notwithstanding, 
a delicate polyglot. 

It is new to me that titlarks in cages sing in the night ; 
perhaps only caged birds do so. I once knew a tame red- 
breast in a cage that always sang as long as candles were in 
the room ; but in their wild state no one supposes they sing 
in the night. 



556 



294 



wthteb or 1776. 



evening the frost became very intense. At South Lambeth, 
for the four following nights, the t hermometer fell to 11, 7, 
6, 6_; and at Selborne to 7, 6, 10 ^ and on the 31st of Ja- 
nuary, just before sunrise, with rjme on the trees, and on 
the tube of the glass, the quicksilver sunk exactly to zero, 
being 32 degrees below the freezing point ; but by eleven in 
the morning, though in the shade, it sprung up to 16|* — a 
most unusual degree of cold this for the south of England! 
iKtnng these lour nights, the cold was so penetrating, that 
it occasioned ice in warm chambers, and under beds ; and in 
the day the wind was so keen, that persons of robust consti- 
tutions could scarcely endure to face it. The Thames was 
at once so frozen over, both above and below the bridge, 
that crowds ran about on the ice. The streets were now 
strangely encumbered with snow, which' crumbled and trode 
dusty ; and, turning gray, resembled bay-salt ; what had 
fallen on the roofs was so perfectly dry, that from first to 
last it lay twenty-six days on the houses in the city ; a 
longer time than had been remembered by the oldest house- 
keepers living. According to all appearances, we might now 
have expected the continuance of this rigorous weather for 
weeks to come, since every night increased in severity ; but 
behold, without any apparent cause, on the first of February, 
a thaw took place, and some rain followed before night; 
making good the observation above, that frosts often go off, 
as it were at once, without any gradual declension of cold. 
On the second of February, the thaw persisted ; and on the 
third, swarms of little insects were frisking and sporting in 
a court-yard at South Lambeth, as if they had felt no 
frost. • Why the juices in the small bodies and smaller limbs 
of such minute beings are not frozen, is a matter of curious 
inquiry .f 

• At Selborne, the cold was greater than at any other place that the author 
could hear of with certainty ; though iomo reported at the time, that, at a 
Tillage at Kent, the thermometer fell two degrees below zero, viz. thirty-four 
degrees below the freezing point. 

The thermometer used at Selborne was graduated by Benjamin Martin. 

t We have the best evidence to prove that both fish and molluscous animals 
may be frozen without destroying their vitality. A gentleman at Camberwell 
had an inflamed eye during the winter of 1829, and kept a leech which waa 
applied to the temple several times. It was put into water in a vial placed 
near the fireplace of the parlour. The cold at that time was very severe; and 



WDTTEB or 1784. 



295 



Severe frosts seem to be partial, or to run in currents ; for 
at the same juncture, as the author was informed by accurate 
correspondents, at Lyndon, in the county of Rutland, the 
thermometer stood at 19 ; at Blackburn, in Lancashire, at 
19 ; and at Manchester at 21, 20, and 18. Thus doe3 some 
unknown circumstance strangely overbalance latitude, and 
render the cold sometimes much greater in the southern than 
the northern jparts of this kingdom. 

The consequences of this severity were, that in Hampshire, 
at the melting of the snow, the wheat looked well, and the 
turnips came forth little injured. The laurels and laurus- 
tines were somewhat damaged, but only in hot aspects. No 
evergreens were quite destroyed ; and not half the damage 
sustained that befell in January, 1768. Those laurels that 
were a little scorched on the south sides, were perfectly un- 
touched on their north sides. The care taken to shake the 
snow, day by day, from the branches, seemed greatly to avail 
the author's evergreens. A neighbour's laurel hedge, in a 
high situation, and facing to the north, was perfectly green 
and vigorous ; and,the Portugal laurels remained unhurt. 



As to the birds, the thrushes and blackbirds were mostly 
destroyed : and the partridges, by the weather and poachers, 
were so thinned, that few remained to breed the following 



year. 



LETTER CVII. 



TO THE SAME. 



As the frost in December, 1784, was very extraordinary, 
you, I trust, will not be displeased to hear the particulars ; 
and especially when I promise to say no more about the 
severities of winter after I have finished this letter. 

ererr night the leech was frozen, and thawed the following day. It was 
observed by CapL Franklin that during the severe winter he experienced 
near the Coppermine River, the fish froze as they were taken out of the nets. 
In a short time they became a solid mass of ice, and by a blow or two of the 
hatchet, they were easily split open. If, however, in the completely frozen 
state, they were thawed before the fire, they recovered their animation. — En. 



296 



WXNTEB O? 1784. 



The first week in December was very wet, with the baro- 
meter very low. On the 7th, with the barometer at 285 
came on a vast snow, which continued . all that day and the 
next, and most part of the following night; so that, by the 
morning of the 9th, the works of men were quite overwhelmed, 
the lanes filled so as to be impassable, and the ground covered 
twelve or fifteen inches without any drifting. In the evening 
of the 9th, the air began to be so very sharp that we thought 
it would be curious to attend to the motions of a thermo- 
meter ; we therefore hung out two, one made by Martin and 
one by Dollond, which soon began to show us what we were 
to expect ; for, by ten o'cloc k, they fell to 21, and, at eleven, 
to 4, when we went to bed. \ Un the lUth, in the morning, 
'the quicksilver of Dollond's glass was down to half a degree 
below zero, and that of Martin's, which was absurdly gradu- 
ated only to four degrees below zero, sunk quite into the I 
braes guard of the ball, so that, when the weather became 
most interesting, this was useless. On the 10th, at eleven 
at night, though the air was perfectl y still, Dollond's glass 
twent down to one degree below zero !j This strange severity 
or the weathe*r made me very desirous to know what degree 
of cold there might bo in such an exalted and near situation 
as Newton. "We had, therefore, on the morning of the 10th, 
written to Mr. , and entreated him to hang out his ther- 
mometer, made by Adams, and to pay some attention to it 
morning and evening, expecting wonderful phenomena in so 
elevated a region, at two hundred feet, or more, above my 
house ; but, behold ! on the 10th, at eleven at night, it was 
down only to 17, and the next morning at 22, when mine 
was at 10 ! We were so disturbed at this unexpected reverse 
of comparative local cold, that we,sent one of my glasses up, 
thinking that of Mr. must, somehow, be wrongly con- 
structed. But when the instruments came to be confronted, 
they went exactly together, so that, for one night at least, the 
cold at Newton was eighteen degrees less than at Selborne, 
and, through the whole frost, ten or twelve degrees ; and, 
indeed, when we came to observe consequences, we could 
readily credit this, for all my laurustines, bays, ilexes, arbu- 
tuses, cypresses, and even my Portugal laurels,* and, which 



•wdjteb or 1784. 



297 



occasions more regret, my fine sloping laurel-hedge, were 
scorched up, while, at Newton, the Bame trees have not lost 
a leaf! 

"We had steady frost on the 25th, when the thermometer. 



in the morning, was down to 10 with U9, and at Newton 
only to 21. Strong frost continued till the 31st, when some 
tendency to thaw was observed, and by January 3rd, 1785, 
the thaw was confirmed, and some rain fell.* 

A circumstance that I must not omit, because it was new 
to us, is, that on Friday, December the 10th, being bright 
sunshine, the air was full of icy spicules, floating in all direc- 
tions, like atoms in a sunbeam, let into a dark room. We 
thought them, at first, particles of the rime falling from my 
tall hedges, but were soon convinced to the contrary, by 
making our observations in open places, where no rime could 
reach us. "Were they watery particles of the air frozen as 
they floated, or were they evaporations from the snow frozen 
as they mounted ?_ 



557 



cm 



e were much obliged to the thermometers for the early 
information they gave us, and hurried our apples, pears, 
onions, potatoes, &c, into the cellar and warm closets ; while 
those who had not, or neglected such warnings, lost all their 
stores o f roots and fruits, and had t heir very bread and cheese 
frozen. J "" ----- 



* If a frost happens, even when the ground is tolerably dry, it has been 
observed that when a thaw comes, the paths and fields are all in a batter. 
Country people say that the frost draws moisture, but the reason is that the 
vapours continually ascending from the earth, are bound in by the frost and 
not suffered to escape till released by the thaw. No wonder, then, that the 
surface is all in a float, since the quantity of moisture by evaporation that 
arises daily from every acre of ground, is astonishing. Dr. Watson, by expe- 
riment, found it to be 1600 to 1900 gallons in 12 hours, according to the 
degree of heat in the earth, and the quantity of rain newly fallen. — 
Ma. Whiti, from his unpublished MSS. 



826 



OBSERVATIONS OX BIB1J8. 



Swallows, Congbegating and Disappearance of.*— 
During the severe winds that often prevail late in the spring, 
it is not easy to say how the hirundines subsist ; for they 
withdraw themselves, and are hardly ever seen, nor do any 
insects appear for their support. That they can retire to 
rest, and sleep away these uncomfortable periods,' as bats do, 
is a matter rather to be suspected than proved : or do they 
not rather spend their time m deep and sheltered vales near 
waters, where insects are more likely to be found ? Certain 
it is, that hardly any individuals of this genus have, at such 
times, been seen for several days together. 

September 13, 1791. — The congregating flocks of Jiirun- 
dines on the church and tower are very beautiful and amusing! 
When they fly ofF together from the roof, on any alarm, they 
quite swarm in the air. But they soon settle in heaps, and, 
preening their feathers, and lifting up their wings to admit 
the sun, seem highly to enjoy the warm situation. Thus 
they spend the heat of the day, preparing for their emigra- 
tion, and, as it were, consulting when and where they are to 
fo. The flight about the church seems to consist chiefly of 
ouse-martins, about four hundred in number: but there 
are other places of rendezvous about the village frequented 
at the same time. 

It is remarkable, that though most of them sit on the bat- 
tlements and roof, yet many hang or cling for some time by 
their claws against the surface of I fie walls, in a manner not 
practised by them at any other time of their remaining 
with us. 

The swallows seem to delight more in holding their 
assemblies on trees. t 

November 3, 1789. — Two swallows were seen this morning 
at Newton Vicarage House, hovering and settling on the 
roofs and out-buildings. None have been observed at Sel- 
borne since October 11. It is very remarkable, that after 



* A correspondent informs mo that he has observed that when a large 
number of swallows have congregated in the neighbourhood of Liverpool, they 
bave suddenly disappeared, but, upon a strong gale of wind arising, they have 
as suddenly reassembled till the gnle was over Ed. 

T On the 2nd and 3rd of December, 1842, several swallows were seen 
flying about some of the towers of Windsor Castle ; the thermometer then was 
48, and the wind S.S.W — Ed. 



OBSERVATIONS OK BIBBS. 



327 



the hirundines have disappeared for some weeks, a few are 
occasionally seen again ; sometimes, in the first week in 
November, and that only for one day. Do they not with- 
draw and slumber in some hiding-place during the interval ? 
for we cannot suppose they had migrated to warmer climes, 
and so returned again for one day. Is it not more probable 
that they are awakened from sleep, and, like the bats, 
are come forth to collect a little food ? * Bats appear at al 1 

* Concerning swallows, the reader will see, that Mr. White appears to 
incline more and more in favour of their torpidity, and against their migration. 
Mr. D. Harrington is still move positive on the same side of the question. See 
his Miscellanies, p. 225. The ancients generally mention this bird as winter- 
ing in Africa. See Anacreon, \y. ed. Brunk. p. 38. The Rhodians had a 
festival called x'^oVia, when the bo}S brought about young swallows: 
the song which they sang mr.y be seen in the works of Meursiua, r. iii. 
p. 974. foL 

T H\8f , *H\fl«, x«A<5<l>»"faAa$ 

'Clpas iyovaa, Kal koKovs 'Euiairrovs 
'Eirl yaoripa \tuica k titi vura fiiKawa. 

•* He come3 ! He comes ! who loves to bear 
Soft sunny hours and seasons fair ; 
The swallow hither comes to rest 
His sable wing3 and snowy breast." 

And, alluding to this custom, Avienus (who may be considered only as ■ 
very bad translator uf an excellent poem, the Periegexii of Diouysiua,) thus 
says, v. 705, 

* Nam eum vere novo, tellus se dura relaxat, 
Culminibusque cavis, blandum strepit ales hirundo, 
Gens devota choros agitat ! " 
When the hard earth grows soft in early spring, 
And on our roofs the noisy swallows sing. 

/ From a passage in the Birds of Aristophanes, we learn, that among the Greeks, j 
1 the crane pointed out the time of sowing ; the arrival of the kite, th e time of / 
I sheet 



the crane pointed out the time of sowing; the arrival of the kite, th e 
Bheep-shearing ; and the swallow the time to put on summer clothes. ^ Accord- 



ing "to Ihe UreeJc Udlihdar of PloYH, kept" by I'heop'hraKbs it Athens, the 
Ornithian winds blow, and the swallow comes, between the 28th of February 
and the 12th of March ; the kite and nightingale appear between the 11th 
and 26th of March ; the cuckoo appears at the same time the young figs come 
out ; tnence his name. See Stillino«.ekt'« Tracts on Natural Hil- 
lary, p. 324. 



338 



OBSEBVATIONS ON INSECTS AND VEBMES. 



Clmei Linearis.* — August 12, 1775. — Cimices Imeares 
are now in high copulation on ponds and pools. The females, 
who vastly exceed the males in bulk, dart and shoot along on 
the surface of the water with the males on their backs. When 
a female chooses to be disengaged,. she rears, and jumps, and 
plunges like an unruly colt ; the lover, thus dismounted, soon 
finds a new mate. The females, as fast as their curiosities 
are satisfied, retire to another part of the lake, perhaps to 
deposit their foetus in quiet ; hence the sexes are found 



The egg at the long water-bug, Mr. Bennett informs us, has been lufB- 
eiently known for many years. It is armed at one end with two bristles, and 
b inserted into the stem of an aquatic plant, generally of a club-rush, in which 
it is so deeply immersed by the aid of the lengthened ovipositor of the insect, 
to be entirely hidden from view ; the bristles alone project from the place of , 
concealment. The object of this curious arrangement is among the mottj 
beautiful and beneficent of the provisions of Nitoro. / 



658 



OBSIBVATIONS OK INSECTS AND VEBMES. 



339 



separate, except where generation is going on. From the 
multitude of minute young of all gradations of sizes, these 
insects seem without doubt to be viviparous. White. 



850 



OBSERVATIONS ON VEGETABLES. 



The circumference of trees planted by myself, at one foot 
from the ground (1790) :— 







Feet Inches 


Oakin . 


. 1730 . 


. 4 5 


Ash . 


. . 1730 . 


. 4 61 


Great fir 


. 1751 . 


. 5 


Greatest beech 


. . 1751 . 


. 4 


Elm 


. . 1750 . 


. 6 3 


Lime . . ~ 


. . 1756 : 


. 5 5 



IThe great oak in the Holt, which is deemed by Mr.Marsham 
to be the biggest in this island, at 7 feet from the ground, 



measures, in circumference, 34 feet. \ 1c has, In old, tunes, 
lost several ol' its boughs, and is tending to decay. Mr. 
Marsham computes that, at 14 feet length, this oak contains 
1000 feet o£ timber. 

It has been the received opinion that trees grow in height 
only by their annual upper shoot. But my neighbour over 
the way, whose occupation confines him to one spot, assures 
me that trees are expanded and raised in the lower parts 
also. The reason that he gives is this : the point of one of 
my firs began, for the first time, to peer over an opposite 
roof at the beginning of summer ; but, before the growing 
season was over, the whole shoot of the year, and three or 
four joints of the body beside, became visible to him as he 
sits on his form in his shop. According to this supposition, 
a tree may -advance in height considerably, though the 
summer shoot should be destroyed every year. White. 

356 

METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



Babometeb. — November 22, 1768.— A remarkable fall of 
the barometer all over the kingdom. At Selborne, we had 
no wind, and not much rain ; only vast, swagging, rock-like 
clouds appeared at a distance. White. 

Pabtial Fbost. — The country people, who are abroad in 
winter mornings long before sun-rise, talk much of hard 
frost in some spots, and none in others. The reason of these 
partial frosts is obvious, for there are at such times partial 
logs about : where the fog obtains, little or no frost appears ; 
but where the air is clear, there it freezes hard. So the 
frost takes place either on hill or in dale, wherever the air 
happens to be clearest and freest from vapour. White. 

.Thaw.— Thaws are sometimes surprisingly quick, consi- 
dering the small quantity of rain. Does not the warmth at 
such times come from below ? The cold in still, severe sea- 
sons, seems to come down from above : for the coming over 
of a cloud in severe nights raises the thermometer abroad at 
once full ten degrees. The first notices of thaws often seem 
to appear in vaults, cellars, &c. 

II a frost happens, even when the ground is considerably 
dry, as soon as a thaw takes place the paths and fields are ail 
in a batter. Country people say that the frost draws mois- 
ture. But the true philosophy is, that the steam and vapours 
continually ascending from the earth, are bound in by the 
frost, and not suffered to escape, till released by the thaw. 



No wonder, then, that the surface is all in a float ; since the 
quantity of moisture by evaporation that arises daily from 
every acre of ground is astonishing. White. 

Fbozen Sleet. — January 20. — Mr. H.'s man says, that 
he caught this day, in a lane near Hackwood-park, many 
rooks, which, attempting to fly, fell from the trees with their 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSEBVATIONS. 



357 



wings frozen together by the sleet that froze as it fell. 
There were, he affirms, many dozen so disabled. White. 



, called London Smoke. — This is a blue mist, 
which has somewhat the smell of coal-smoke, and as it 
always comes to us with a north-east wind, is supposed to 
I come from London. It has a strong smell, and is supposed 
occasion blights. When su ch mists appear, they are 
„ usually followed by dry weather. / White. 

Reflection on Fog.* — When people walk in deep white 
fog by night with a lantern, if they will turn their backs to 
the light, they will see their shades impressed on the fog in 
rude gigantic proportions. This phenomenon seems not to 
have been attended to, but implies the great density of the 
meteor at that juncture. White. 

Honey DEW.f — June 4, 1783. — Vast honey dews this 
week. The reason of these seems to be, that in hot days the 
effluvia of flowers are drawn up by brisk evaporation, and 
then in the night fall down with the dews, with which they 
are entangled.^ 

This clammy substance is very grateful to bees, who gather 
it with great assiduity ; but it is injurious, to the trees on 
which it happens to fall, by stopping the pores of the leaves. 
The . greatest quantity falls in still, close weather ; because 
winds disperse it, and copious dews dilute it, and prevent its 
ill effects. It falls mostly in hazy, warm weather. White. 

• The country people look with a kind of superstitious awe at the red 
lowering aspect of the snn through a fog. " Cum caput obscura nitidum 
f errugine texit." — Mr. White's M8S. — Ep 

_J T Money-dew is ttie exuviae of insectc. They are little green aphides and 
I liarbour under the leaves of trees, from whence their dew is dropped on tho 
I leaves below. This is collected by bees and ants fl the latter are very careim 
not to injure the insect, as l nave irequentiy observed. It seems extra- 
ordinary that so observant a naturalist as Mr. White should have been ignorant 
of this cirenmstance. He mentions in one of his MSS. that one of his trees 
was covered witli aphides and viscous honey-dews. — Ed. 

J It will hardly be deemed a discredit to an observer so patient, so 
accurate, and so faithful, as Mr. White, to mention, that his conjecture con- 
cerning the origin of honey-dew it erroneous ; the subject has been elucidated 
by the observations of Mr. William Curtis, who has discovered it to he tho 
•" excrement of the aphides." See Transact, of the Linnaan Society, voL vi. 

No. 4. MlTFOBD. *A« 

403 

Toads. — Letter XVII., page 67, text and note f. 

To this note we would only add, that toads deposit their spawn, or ova u 
in long strings, instead of in a mass as the common frog does ; andj 
rbeautit'ul spotted chains that are olten seen in pools in spring, as 
[looped oyer each other, is their ova ntwly deposited^! The " venom of 
Toads " has been discarded as a table; still, the excretion from the 
skin possesses some properties. . perhaps fitted for protection. 



408 

The Nuthatch, pages 65 and 278. 






pj The nuthatch hides nuts as crows do acorns. Magpies, ravens, 
and other such birds, among many other t hings, are prone to hide food 

_\»hich they cannot consume at the time. \ Acorns are thus hidden in 
the ground, and by sucli means tne growth of oaks would necessarily 
be much extended were it not for the operations of agriculture. Those 
who have lived in wooded districts, as in Kent, can hardly have failed to 
observe how seedling oaks will spring up on arable land, even under 
circumstances which forbid the supposition that they could have found 
their way there by any other means. 



559 



THE HUMAN BODY 



CONNECTION WITH MAN, 



ILLUSTRATED BY THE PRINCIPAL ORGANS. 



BY 

JAMES JOHN GARTH WILKINSON, 

MKXSIR Of THE BOTAL COLLEGE OF StTBOBONS 07 ENGLAND. 



"He cried with a loud voice, Lazaru3, come forth. And he that was dead came 
forth, bound hand and foot with grave-clothes : and his face was bound about with 
• napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go." 



PHILADELPHIA: 
LIPPINCOTT, GRAMBO AND CO., 

SUCCESSORS TO QRIOQ, ELLIOT AND CO. 

1851. 



TO 

HENRY JAMES, Esq., of New York. 

My Dear James — 

This book is indebted to you for its appearance; for, 
without you, it would neither have been conceived nor exe- 
cuted. I dedicate it to you as a feeble tribute of friendship 
and gratitude that would gladly seek a better. mode of 
expressing themselves. It may remind you of happy hours 
that we have spent together, and seem to continue some of 
the tones of our long correspondence. Valeat quantum I 
It could not lay its head upon the shelf without a last 
thought of affection directed to its foster parent. That 
prosperity may live with you and yours, and your great 
Commonwealth, is the prayer of, 






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a dramatic mask, involving no wisdom beyond that of supreme mim- 
icry: and in the same way, if it stopped with the animal brain, it 
would still involve no wisdom beyond the perfect adaptation of sen- 
sual means to sensual ends. It does not however stop here; but 
even its theatricism and animality become instinct with reason and 
will. And the like process which impregnates sense and motion, 
as we know them, with reasonable thought and voluntary ac- 
tion, strikes the same through the secrctest parts of the organization, 
and makes the blood rational, and the bile rational, and in short 
makes the whole body human by the radiation of that which alone 
is human, from above its summit. 

But now, in the human being, these upper states are not only 
fitful, but also intermitting or regularly periodical. Sleep comes to 
all, and takes away impression, sense and understanding, as well as 
motion, impulse and will. And in this respect waking too is full 
of somnolency, or abrogation of our superior powers. If then there 
were not some provision, sleepless and permanent, to keep us up to 
the human level, the answcrablencss of the body to the soul, and 
consequently the animation of the former, would perish many times 



70 



THE HUMAN BRAIN. 



every day, and certainly with the first slumber. For if all that is 
animal really died down to the surface of the earth in the seasons 
of sleep, the body, heavy mass as it is, and belonging of right to 
the ground, would be in the clutches of the grave, irrecallable from 
its congenial gravitation. To prevent this, there are two brains, a 
constant and an inconstant, but each corresponding to the other. 
The cerebellum does unconsciously and permanently whatever the 
cerebrum performs rationally and by fits. The cerebellum follows 
and adopts the states induced by the cerebrum on the organization, 
and holds the notes of the ruling mind. Thus immediately after 
sleep, the motions of thought may begin at once, for they have not 
been organically, but only consciously suspended. We see this in 
an image in the lungs. If the latter were voluntary organs, the 
man would cease breathing so soon as he fell asleep. But they are 
both voluntary and involuntary, the latter when not the former ; and 
the movement is always proceeding, night and day, so that it has 
not to be created, but what is an easy matter, merely directed into 
the voluntary channels. Similarly so with the organic motions of 
thought and will : these are always going on, and merely require 
direction, not creation, by the cerebrum. Concordantly with this 
we can explain sleep, and much that occurs in sleep: e.g., the fact 
that our thoughts and judgments are marvellously cleared and ar- 
ranged during that state; as though a reason more perfect than 
reason, and uninfluen ced by its partialities, had been at work w hen 
we were in our bed3. \ This also — that our first waking thoughts are 'I 
often our finest and truest; and that dreams are sometimes eminent j 
and wise; which phenomena are incompatible with the idea that we 
die down like grass into our organic roots at night, and are resusci- 
tated as from a winter in the morning. And it must again be ad- 
verted to, that this would not suit the Grand Economist; for after 
nature has ascended to one plateau of life, represented by a day, she 
will surely not tumble down into the valley because rest is needed, 
but will pitch her tent, and make her couch upon that elevation. 
We conclude then that the cerebrum is the brain of the mind, and 
the cerebellum the corresponding-brain of the body; and as during 
sleep the cerebrum is a body , the cerebellum a t such time is the 
brain of the cerebrum also.1 It may be added that the cerebellum, 



FUNCTION OF THE CEREBELLUM. 



71 



in adopting the mental states as her standards, is also a .register of 




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provision for the sensual ganglia, to preserve the level of sense when 
our senses are annulled; and what the organ is? And the question 
may bo repeated for the spinal cord also, with the insinuation, 
whether the sympathetic nerve be not its cerebellum? For we 
regard it as certain that the naturalness and economy of force, and 
the accumulation, are secured everywhere in the bodily system. 

The above function of the cerebellum has its analogues in every 
sphere. "We see it in thought, which has two elements, viz., that 
of consciousness and personal energy, and that of natural growth, 
the first corresponding to cerebrum, the latter to cerebellum. And 
these are often disparted in individuals. In some there is a prepon- 
derance of cerebral mind; their thoughts move quickly, but flightily ; 
as we say, there is a want of balance; a want of body or nature in 
their minds; a defect of organic or cerebellar faculty. Their mental 
movements are random and inharmonious; they do not retain or ac- 
cumulate wisdom; even repetition does them no good; but they 
strike out afresh in the vagueness of discourse, with no nature to 
back them. They have all the senses but common sense, which is 
the spring, incarnation and harmony of them all. In philosophy 
or collective thought the same division is visible. Philosophies are 
made, and also they grow; they are both cerebral and cerebellar. 
Universal tradition, the largest pressure of common sense, is the 
philosophical cerebellum. And here we see what complete experi- 
ments of vivisection have been performed ; and what the result has 
been in philosophies that cut away the nature, accumulation, force 
and body of preceding thought; which extirpate the fixed organon 
of human growth, or the traditionary cerebellum. Dr. Carpenter, 
speaking of smaller things, describes to the letter the effects which 
follow: "It docs not seem," says he, "that the animal has in any 
degree lost the voluntary power over its individual muscles : but it 

cannot combine their actions for any general movement The 

reflex movements, such as those of respiration, remain unimpaired. 
When an animal thus mutilated is laid on its back, it cannot recover 
its former posture; but it moves its limbs, or flutters its wings, and 
evidently is not in a state of stupor. When placed in the erect 
position, it staggers and /alls like a drunken man; not, however, 



661 



USAGK OF THE BRAIN. 



73 



witJumt making efforts to maintain its balance."* Such is the want 
of health or wholeness that comes from rescinding the natural brain 
that lies behind us, and beginning the intellect afresh with each 
passing day : for where there is no vis a tergo, there is no direction 
either in physics or metaphysics. And the sphere may be changed 
again with the same result. Law-making, which is the political 
cerebrum, stands in a similar ratio to the public morality, which is 
the political cerebellum; and where the latter is ignored, political 
vivisection ia performed, and constitution-makers repeat Dr. Car- 
penter's phenomena on the scale of nations. And even in the high- 
est sphere, where the cerebrum is termed prudence, and sometimes 
wisdom, and the cerebellum is providence, we see the same thing. 
Here the vivisection is frequent, and the results very confirmatory. 
We see the quirks of men whose actions, vigorous enough, are all 
tumbling to pieces; spiritual staggering and drunkenness; a positive 




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118 



THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 



Chap. II. 



tional three were introduced by Amphion, who seems to have 
borrowed liis knowledge of music froi Lydia ; and was, as 
usual, reputed to have been taught by Mercury. Terpander 
(670 n.c.) added several more notes ; and the lyres represented 
at Hcrculancum have 3, 4, o, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 chords. 

Numerous other instruments, resembling harps or lyres in 
principle, were common in Egypt, which varied so much in 
form, compass, and sound, that they were considered quite dis- 
tinct from them, and had each its own name. They have been 
found in the tombs, or are represented in the paintings of Thebes 
and other places. Those of a triangular shape were held under 
the arm while played, and, like the rest, were used as an accom- 





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358 



Fig. 1 found at Thebes in 1823. 



THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 



Cii, 



f 



werealso skilful with the sling, as the Achacans and A 



cai'iiaiuaiij 



but tlie pcoijlo most renowned for it were the natives of the 
Balearic Islands, who considered the sling of so much importance j 
that the principal care of a parent was to instruct a boy in its use ; 
and he was not permit ted to have his breakfast, until he had dis- , 
lodged it from a beam with the sling. } This unpleasant alterna- 
tive does not appear to have been imposed on the more fortunate 
sons of an Egyptian family, nor was the same consequence 
attached to the sling as to the bow and many other weapons. 

Most Greeks, who used the sling, threw leaden plummets of 
an elongated spherical shape, or, rather, like an olive pointed 
at each end; — proving that the principle of " the pointed ball" 
was not unknown to them ; and, indeed, all boys have long since 
found that an oval-shaped stone goes farther than a round one. 



Some had a thunderbolt represented upon them ; and others bore] 

t hey belonged, or a word, as) 
Take thai."} 



the name of the person to whom they belonged, or 



(ArQNI^or AESAI 



The Achaeans, like the Egyptians, loaded their sling with a round 
pebble ; and a bagful of these hung from a belt over the shoulder.* 

The Egyptian sword was straight and short, from two and a 
half to three feet in length, having generally a double edge, and 
tapering to a sharp point. 



Chap. V. 



THE IIOj:: 



381 



On grand occasions the Egyptian horses Mere decked with 
fancy ornaments : a rich striped or checkered housing, trimmed 
with a broad border and large pendent tassels, covered the 
whole body ; and two or more feathers inserted in lions' heads, 
or some other device of gold, formed a crest upon the summit of 
the head-stall. But this display was confined to the chariots of 
the monarch, or the military chiefs ; and it was thought suffi- 
cient, in the harness of other cars, and in the town curricle, to 
adorn the bridles with rosettes, which resemble those used in Eng- 
land at the present day.* * Woodcuts 85 and 326. 




Stabbing an enemy. 



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G8 



T11K ANC1KNT EGYPTIANS. 



Ol.W. VII 



564 




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1 2 3 

379. Fig. 1 lias Apparently leather sewed over tlte glass. 

2 glass tlamagan enclosed in wiokcrwork. 

3 small glass bottte covered with papyrus rush, like the Florence oil flasks. 

4 a piece of cloth with a border of a blue colour. 

to have been partly cased in leather, sewed over them, much in 
the same manner as some now made for carrying liquids on a 
journey. (Figs. 1, 3, a?id 2.) 



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/Among the many bottles found in the tombs of Thebes, and J 

/other places, none have excited greater curiosity and surprise \ 

I than those of Chinese manufacture, presenting inscriptions in/ 

[that la nguagej Their number is considerable, and I have seen 

more than twenty from Thebes and other places. But though 

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The quality of these bottles is very inferior, and of a time, 
- Sir .1. Davis thought, " when the Chinese had not yet arrived 
' the same perfection in making porcelain as at present. 
15:. y appear to have been only prized for their contents ; and 
':•]'• tliev were exhausted, the valueless bottle was applied to thi 



565 



70 



THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 



Chap. YE. 



ordinary purpose of holding the Kohl, or Collyrium, used l.j 
women for starung their eyelids.* 



J * Since flio abow was written, a paper lias been presented by Mr. Medhurst to 
the Royal Asiatic Society, which would establish the fact of their having boon 
brought by the Arab trailers, if, as there stated, the style of the characters did not 
come into use till the 3rd century of our era: and the poems, from which the sen- 
tences were taken, were not written till the 8th and 11th centuries. The carliei! 
mention of porcelain in China i~ also limited to the '2nd ce ntury i:.c. A siindar 
bottle was found by Mr. Lay.ud at Arban, on the Khaboor. ) ~ 




fig. 3. 



fig. A. 



Chinese bottles fouiul in the Egyptian tombs. 
Fig. 1, in the Museum of Alnwick Castle. 

2, one of two presented by me to the British Museum. 

3, belonging to Mr. W. Hamilton. 

4, in my possession. From Thebes. 



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iwtcr and by the air. 

J. And, finally, darkness is favorable, because it is through the influence of 
|i;lit, as will hereafter be shown, that plants absorb carbonic acid from the air, 
ilccomposc it, retain the carbon itself, and give back the oxygen only. Light 
ttiiukl therefore tend to increase the quantity of carbon, rather than diminish it. 
Ilcncc the seed should be buried in the soil. 

134. The ripened seeds of most plants have the power of retaining their vitality 
fur many years, if they are placed in circumstances which will neither cause them 
to germinate nor decay, such as a low or moderate temperature, with the absence 
of moisture. Thus the seeds of maize have been known to grow when 30 years 
old, rye 40 years, kidney beans 100 years, and the raspberry and beach plum after 
many centuries.* 

5 4. THE DISSEMINATION OF SEEDS 

135. Is a subject highly curious and interesting; and when attentively consid- 
ered, serves, like a thousand other cases in the works of Nature, to illustrate the 
wisdom and design of its great Author. By means of the coma, or pappus, 
already described, the seeds of the thistle, dandelion, and numerous other plants, 
lire wafted by winds to considerable distances, across rivers, mountains, and even 
[lie ocean itself. The Erigeron Canadense, a weed now common on both sides the 
Atlantic, was supposed by Linnaeus to have been transported to Europe from 
Canada, of which country it is native. 

a. Seeds are also furnished with wings for the same purpose. Others are pro- 
vided with hooks, or beards, by which they lay hold of men or animals, and are . 
ilnis scattered far and wide. 

i. Some seeds, as the Impatiens, which are destitute of all such appendages, are 
thrown to some distance by the bursting of the elastic pericarp. Rivers, streams, 
anil the currents of the ocean, are all means of transporting seeds from country to 



•* * Xo instance of the longevity of_seeds is more remarkable tlian that related by Dr. 
I.indlcy. 'I have before me,' says he, 'three plants of raspberries, raised from seeds whikh 
were taken from the stomach of a man whose skeleton was found 30 feet below the surface 
of the earth. He had been buried with some coins of the emperor Hadrian, and it 13 therefore 
probable that the seeds were 160" or 1700 years old.' 

Several years ago, in the Stale of Maine, about 40 miles from the sea, some men, in dig- 
ging a well, threw up some sand from a remarkable layer, about 20 feet 'below the surface, 
and placed it by itself. A year or two afterwards several shrubs sprung up from this sand, 
C'«w, produced fruit, and proved to be the beach-plum, {*""*■ — ' 



96 



THE LEAF. 



but sometimes, as in the Corntis, it is colored like petals. Situ- 
ated at the base of a compound umbel (305, a) it is called a 
general involucre, at the base of a partial umbel a partial invo- 
lucre, or involuccl, both of which are seen in the Umbelliferse. 

255. In the Composita: the involucre consists of imbricated bracts, often in 
several whorls surrounding the base of the heads (compound flowers), as the 
calyx surrounds a simple flower. 

256. In the grasses, the bracts subsist under the common name of husk or 
chaff, to which is attached the awn or beard. The bracts situated at the base of a 
spikclet of flowers, are called the glume, corresponding to the involucre. Those 
situated at the base of each separate flower are paletz, answering to the calyx, oz 
corolla. The pieces, of which each glume or palca is composed (generally two) 
are called valves. 

§10. DURATION 

257. Leaves, although so universal an accompaniment of vegetation, are only 
temporary appendages. They rapidly attain their growth, and in a great ma- 
jority of cases flourish but a single season, at the end of which they perish, 
although the plant on which they grew may continue to flourish for ages. To 
mark their duration mor e accifratcly , leaves are sa id to be 

1. fugacious, when they fall off early, before the end of summer. 

2. Deciduous, when they endure for a singl e season and fall in autumn 



1 



3. Persistent, or evergreen, when they remain through all seasons, retaining their J 




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^_^363. Species, like genera, are nho sometimes named in commemoration of dis- ' 
tinguislicd persons. The rules given by Lindley, for the construction of such 
names, are, 1st, If the person is the discoverer, the specific name is a substantivo 
in the genitive case, singular number ; as, Lobelia Kalmii, Kalm's Lobelia ; Pinus 
Fraseri, Frascr's pine. 2d, If the name is merely conferred in honor of the per- 
son to whom it is dedicated, it is an adjective ending in mis, na, num; as Erica 
Linneana, Linna?us's heath; Rosa Lawrcnciana, Miss Lawrence's rose. In these 
cases, and in all others where the specific name is derived from proper names, or 
©here it is substantive, as it often is, it should begin with a capital letter. 



668 



310 
Order LXXV. COMPOSITE.— Asterworts. ■ 

plants herbaceous or shrubby. 

tvs. alternate or opposite, without stipules, simple though often much divided. 

Fis. collected into a dens<4 head (capitulum), upon a common receptacle, surrounded by an involucre of 

many bracts (scales). 
Cal. closely adherent to the ovary, the limo wanting, or membranaceous and divided into bristles, hairs, 

&.c, called pappus. 
Cor. superior, consisting of 5 united petals:, either ligulate or tubular. 
Sta. 6, alternate with the lobes of the corolla Anth. cohering into a cylinder. 

Oca. interior. 1 -celled, 1-oyuled. Style 2-cleft, the inner margins of tlie branches occupied by the stigmas. 
Fr. an achenia. dry, indnhiscent. l -seeded, crowned with the pappus, 



•This is the mo?t extensive and most natural of all the orders ol the vegetable kingdom, always distin- 
uished at sight by the capitate flowers and the united anthers. It comprehends IGus genera (at present 
mown, IS16), and about 9<j<ju species ; being nearly one-ninth of oil the species of flowering plants. The 
general inflorescence is centrifugal, that is, the central o; terminal heads are first developed, while the 
Inflorescence of the heads is centripetal, the outer flowers first expanding. !n color the flowers are vari- 
sometirnes those of the disk and ray are ofdirlerent colors, again they are all of the same, but in the 
former case the disk florets arc almost always yellow. 

This immense order is diffused throughout all countries of the globe, but in very different proportions. 
According to Humboldt, they constitute ubout one-seventh of the Pha-uogamous Flora of Germany, one- 
eighth, of France, onc-hfteenth, of Lapland, one-sixth, of North America (north of Mexico), and one-half, 



Suked, when smoothish, 



destitute of chaff, alveoli, bristles, <tc. 



311 



Thtf.o-tccn are moreover said to be 

Of the d'8'< t where they stai.d i:i or near the centre of the head; 
Oftht Tv.y. when thev stand in the outer circle or circumference of the head^ 
S.'.L'u'.cU (s!rat'**i.jpJd». when the limb is split on one side and spread open in the form of a strap. 
Till a V i is ;■• ;: i ; vy are monopetalous with a regular limb. The heads arc termed 
If'/tM-'aitiviis/whvTe they consist wholly of perfect flowers; 

litter >-c,nou*, where the flowers of the disk are perlect or stnminate, while those of the ray or margin 
■re pi-tliiialc or neutral : 
;;<• ' .v.', n!n re the flowers arc all ligulate, as in the dandelion; 

;,•.'.'•'."-:. \\ here iho-c of the ray or margin only are ligulate, the rest being tubular, as m Aster; 
J> ?-_'•/:..', *w here all the flowers arc tubular, ns in the thorousrhwort i 
M-sncLCiau-v, where the same head has bmh stnminate and pistillate flowers ; 

ere the same individual plant has some of its heads wholly of sbminate, and others 



lltfCTOrf.phcJr/U$, w 

wholly of pistillate llo.... 

Diacoiii, where the same-species has some of its individuals with stnminate heads only, and others 
with pistillate heads only. The anthers are usually appcndiculate, that is, prolonged at the summit into 
ft membranous appendage. The achenia are termed 

Rostrate, u hen they are prolonged at the summit into a slender neck supporting the pappus, as in the 
dandelion; 

Compressed, when they are flattened parallel with the diameter of the head ; 

Obcom pressed, when flattened parallel with the circumference of the head. 




ish comparatively few useful products. A bitter principle per- 
vades the whole, which, when combined with resin and astringent mucilage, becomes tonic andjebnfu- 
gal, as in the camomile, colt's-foot, thoroughwort, goldcnrod, &c. Some are anthelmintics from the 
prevalence ol the resinous principle, as tansey, Artemisia, Vernon ia. Others are aromatic and extremely 
bitter, ns wormwood and all the species of Artemisja. Other species arc very acrid, as mayweed. The 
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus), the vegetable oyster (Tragopogon), the true artichoke 
(Cynaru), lettuce, dandelion and a few others, are the ordy species useftd tor toon. The order abounds in 
ornamental plants of the highest interest to the florist, and of easy culture. Among these are the splen- 
did Dahlias and Chinese Chrysanthema, with the numerous progeny of Aster/Heliunthus, Xeranlhemum, 
Coreopsis and multitudes of others, constituting the richest ornaments of the autumnal flower garden. 

The inflorescence of the Compos ita; is peculiar, and its real nature often complex and obscure. The 
following definitions .of terms are given with reference to this order only, and if understood, will remove 
many difficulties that lie in the student's way in the investigation of this subject. 

Capitulum or head {compound flower of the earlier botanists) ; a collection of flowers {floret*) on a 
common receptacle (rachis), as in Aster. Helianthus, Arc 

Involucre {calyx by analogy) is the lower and outer envelope of the head. 

Scales ; the modified leaves or bracts composing the involucre. 

Monrrphyllovs involucre ; where the scales ure united by their edges. 

Polyphytlous involucre ; where, the scales are distinct. 

Simple involucre ; where the scales are equal and arranged in a single row. [short ones. 

Cat yen late involucre; where a single row of scales is surrounded at base by an outer row of very 

Imbricated involucre ; where the scales are in several rows, the outer/ones becoming gradually shorter. 

The Receptacle or rcchis is the dilated extremity of the peduncle, inclosed by the involucre, and upon 
Which the flowers stand. It u 

Colwnnar,jlat, conical or depr fused, according to its form ; 

Paleaceous or cJrajTy, w here the flowers are subtended by chaffy scales which are analogous to bracts ; 

Alveolate, where it presents the appearance of a honey -comb, each flower having been surrounded by a. 
membranous rim or involucel ; 

Areolate, where the alveoli are reduced to a mere line; 

Fimbriltate, where the alveoli are split into teeth or bristles 





FIG. 47. —l. Helianthus strumosus— head radiate. 2. Vertical section of the head, showing the Hcales 
•rthc involucre, and a single disk-flower remaining upon the convex receptacle. 3 A perfect di«k-flowex 
ma-nihcd, showing the achenium. the *2 awn* of the pappus the 5-to^thed tuhuhr corolla, the 5 stamens 
united around the branched style, and trie chafl scale at base. 4. Head (radiate) of Stolif1a~» ceJia 
6 A pistillate, h-ulate flower of the ray. 6. A perfect disk fl. 7. A (radiant) head of Tanvm-iim Hum- 
[eonis. 8. A perfect, ligulate il. 9. Achenium, with its Ions beak and phmin e pappus io A (radiant) 
he.dof Nabalns "I.i-imus. II. A flower. M. Lapna major, head dwoid. 13. A flower. 14. One of 
the hooked scales. I ». A (discoid) head of Kiipatnrnim piimureuiii. 16. A flower. 17. Ambrosi 
misialoln. i ; suimin&fc head enlarged. 1&. I'iMilIute involucre enlarged io. The fcilik 



Howe 



i arte- 



Consj- : ''cflh^ G n-i'a. 



K Loaves alternate. . . . *j 1 

J CoroITas cyanic. \ Leaves opposite or verticillatc. % 1 

'discoid. / CoroUns yellow . t :: 

■al. 

:al. In 

H»:aiLi I. radiant { 8 



\ i.cnvo-.. •.;•!■ . ' 
( Kayo rellnv. . > '.caves ojitio-!' ■■• 

idiale. ( Rays cyanic . ( Leaver ultcnialu. . 



569 



THE 



ILLUSTRATED 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



REV. J. G. WOOD, M.A. 



WITH FOUR HUNDRED AND FIFTY ORIGINAL DESIGNS, 
BY WILLIAM HARVEY. 



NEW YORK: 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 
FKANKL1N SQUARE. 

1854. 



114 

Family HI. Leporidse. — (Lat. Leput, a Hare. Hare kind) 







Timldus (Lat timid), the Hare. 



The Hare is> one of our most common quadrupeds. It is 
constantly hunted both for the sport and for its desh. When 
hunted with greyhounds, the amusement is called coursing. 



Beagles are also used, but they do not catch the Hare by speed, 
but by patiently following its track, until the wearied animal is 
no longer capable of escaping. It comes under the denomina- 
tion of game, and is protected by the Game Laws, as are pheas- 
ants and partridges. 

It is exceedingly like the rabbit, but its colour is slightly 
different, and the black spot on th e extremity of its ears is a 
simple method of distinguishing it. J The Hare does not burrow 
(like the ra bbit, but makes a kind of nest of grass and other 
1 materials^ / in this nest, called a " form," the Hare lies, and 
trusting to its concealment will often remain quiet until the 
foot of an intruder almost touches it. Many people can distin- 
guish it by the sparkle of its eye. 

115 

Innumerable foes besides man surround this animal. — 
Foxes, ferrets, stoats, and all their tribe are unmerciful ene- 
mies, and sometimes a large hawk will destroy a leveret, as 
the young Hare is called. Although destitute of all means 
of defence, it is often enabled to escape by the quickness of 
its hearing and sight, which give it timely warning of the 
approach of an enemy, and enable it to escape to a place of 
safety. 

In cold countries, the Hare changes its fur during winter, 
and becomes white, like the Arctic fox and the ermine. The 
Alpine Hare, inhabiting the northern parts of Scotland, is a 
good example of this change. 




CunicOlns (Lat a little Rabbit). 

The well known Rabbit is rather smaller than the hare, 
but closely resembles it in form. It lives in deep holes, which 
it digs in the ground. When a number of these holes or 
burrows occur near each other, the place is called a warren. 
A loose dry soil, such as the soft red sandstone, is the delight 
of these animals, who may be seen frisking about in great 
numbers outside their holes, but diving in on the slightest 
alarm. Poachers often take them in great numbers by 
spreading nets over the mouth of the holes, and sending a 
ferret carefully muzzled down one of the burrows. The 
terrified rabbits rush out at the sight of their dreaded enemy, 
and are caught in the nets. If the ferret were not muzzled, 

234 




Gotfldii (Lat of Gould), Gould" t Hummingbird, 

Sappho (Gr. proper name), the Bar tailed Humming-bird 

Cora (proper name), the Cora Humming-bird 

Chrytolopha (Gr. Xpvaoe, gold ; AoQoc, a crest), the Double-eretted 

Humming- bird 

a hamming or buzzing sound is produced, from which pecu- 
liarity the name of Humming-bird has been given them in al- 
most every language. Waterton's description of the appear- 
ance of the Humming-bird in the sun is very characteristic. 

" Though least in size, the glittering mantle of the Hum- 
ming-bird entitles it to the first place in the list of the birds 
of the New World. It may truly be called the Bird of Para- 
dise ; and had it existed in the Old World, it would have 
claimed the title instead of the bird which has now the honour 
to bear it See it darting through the air almost as quick as 
thought ! now it is within a yard of your fare — in an instant 

235 

gone — now it flutters from flower to flower to sip the silver 
dew — it is now a ruby — now a topaz — now an emerald — now 
all burnished gold." 

It is a singular fact that a common insect called the Hum- 
ming-bird Moth is formed on precisely the same principle, 
and flies in just the same manner. This moth is furnished, 
like the Humming-bird, with rigid sharp wings ; instead of 
the long slender bill and longer tongue of the Humming-bird, 
the moth is furnished with an exceedingly long and flexible 
proboscis, which it uses in the same manner, i. e. in thrusting 
into the interior of flowers while the creature is hovering 
above them. The moth also possesses a kind of moveable 
tail wherewith to direct its course. The description of a 
Humming-bird hovering over a flower will exactly serve for 
the moth, save that the moth lacks the brilliant plumage of 
the bird. Gardens are a great attraction to this moth, and if 
the observer is very quiet, while looking at a flower, he sud- 
denly sees an insect apparently suspended over it exploring 
the flower with ita proboscis. It moves from flower to flower, 
always balancing itself over them by its wings. Let the ob- 
server move but his hand, and it is gone — has vanished as 
mysteriously as it came. 

In the same way, the Humming-bird hovers over flowers, 
not only to extract the honey and dew, but to search for the 
lit tle insects that are always to be found in such places. 
/Speaking of the Ruby-throated Humming-bird, Waterton ob-1 

I serves : — __ : ^ 

" It seems to be an erroneous opinion that the Humming- 
bird lives entirely on honey-dew. Almost every flower of 
the tropical climates contains insects of one kind or other ; 
now, the Humming-bird is most busy about the flowers an 
hour or two after sunrise, and after a shower of rain, and it 
is just at this time that the insects come out to the edge of 
the flower in order that the sun's rays may dry the nocturnal 
dew and rain which they have received. { On opening the \ 

(stomach of th e Hummin g-bi rd, dead insects are almost always | 
found there."/ " 

Tne tongue is formed much like that of "the woodpecker, 
being curled round the head, under the skin, and thus capable 
of being darted to a considerable distance. 

467 

Order.. CONCHIFeRA.—(Gr. Ko m , a Mussel-shell ; f?po, I bear.) 
Family. Pectinidas.— (Lat Pecten a Scallop.) 



JacobaMU (Lat from a proper name), the Scallop. 

We now arrive at the Bivalve Molluscs. It has been 
already stated that the Bivalves are all aquatic. These crea- 
tures are enabled to keep their shells firmly closed by means 
of a powerful muscle. Those who have attempted for the first 
time to open an oyster, must be convinced of the strength of 
this muscle. The two shells are united by a powerful and 



570 




468 

extremely elastic hinge, which after the death of the animal 
opens the shells widely. 



The Biv alves _do not enjoy such powers of locomotion as the 
nival ves, yet some, as the ir 



Univalves, (y et some, as the lresb.-wa.ter mussel, can urge them- 
selves along by means of a fleshy organ called the foot ; and so 
powerful in some is this organ, that by means of it the animal 
can not_ finly burrow in the sand, but actually leap out of 'ay 
boat. j ~The rapid opening and shutting of the valves is used by 
some, as the scallop, as a means of progression. It is believed 
that the Bivalves have no visual organs. 

The common Scallop is found along our southern coasts, 
and in the seas of Europe.* This shell was formerly used as 
the badge of a pilgrim to the Holy Land. 

" ■ Hli pilgrim's staff he bore. 
And flx'd tbe Scallop in bis bat before." 



Ostkea. — (Gr. 'Oarpeov, an Oyster.) 




Edtllis (Lat edible), the Oytier. 

The Common Oyster has been for many ages considered as 
delicacy for the table. In the times of the ancient Romans, 

* It is a singular (act, that in the stomach of tbe common Scallop Is found an 
earthy deposit, which, when boiled in nitric acid in order to dissolve the animal and 
other portions, exhibits under a powerful microscope animalcules precisely similar 
to those which, in a fossil state, form the earth on which the town of Richmond in 
America is built. . _ — 

469 

we find that our " Native Oysters" were exported to Rome, and 
there placed in the Lucrine Lake, where they were fattened. 

On our coasts the oysters breed in large beds, to which vast 
quantities of young oysters are conveyed by the fishermen, and 
suffered to increase without molestation. Newly-formed beds 
are untouched for two or three years. During the months of 
May, June, and July,* the oysters breed, and are considered 
unfit for food. At this time the young, called " spat," are 
deposited in enormous numbers. They instantly adhere to the 
substance among which they fall ; and this, whatever it be, is 
called "cultch," and is protected by severe penalties. About 
May the fishermen separate the spawn from the cultch, which 
is then thrown back into its former place. After May it is 
felony to disturb the cultch, as were it removed, mussels and 
cockles would rapidly take the place of the oysters. 

* Most people are acquainted with tbe proverb, that oysters are In season during 
(as months in which is the letter R. 



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578 



vers over-lapping one another, having their rife frora] 

another, asj 



the great lakes which are not far ol f one 
^ the Indians do certainly inform us. ^ But it is not my 
intent to wander tar from our patent; wherefore 1 refer 
you to the thrice memorable difcoverer of thole, parts, 
Captain Smith, who hath likewife fuily defcribed the 
fouthcrn and north-eaft part of New- England, with the 
noted head-lands, capes, harbours, rivers, ponds, and 
lakes, with the nature of the foil, and commodities both 
by fea and land, &c. with the degrees of forty one and 
forty five. 

Tin: Bay of Maflachufets lyeth under the degree 
of forty two and forty three, bearing fouth-welt from 
the lands end of England : at the bottom whereof are 
fituatcd mod of the Englijb plantations: This bay is 
both fife, fpacious, and (\ccp, free from fuch cockling 
feas as run upon the coalt of Ireland, and in the chan- 
nels of England: There be no (till' running currents, 
rocks, fiieJvcs, bars, or quickfands. The mariners 
having failed two or three leagues toward the bottom, 
may behold the two capes embracing their welcome 
mips in their arms, which thrufl themfelvcs out into 
rhe fea in form of a half-moon, the unrounding more 
being high, and mewing many white dill's, in "a molt 
plcafant profpeel, with divers places of low land, out of 
which divers rivers vent themfelvcs into the ocean, 
with many openings, where is good harbouring for 
mips of any burthen ; fo that if an unexpected ftorm 
or ciofs wind mould bar the mariner from recovering 
his defired port, he may reach otucr harbours, as Pli- 
mouth, Cape- Anne, Salem, Marblchcad ; all which afford 
good ground for anchorage ; being likewife land-lockt 
from wind and feas. The chief and ufiial harbour, is 
the flill bay of Mafacbufets, which is clofe aboard the 
plantations, in which molt of our mips come to anchor, 
being the ncarcfl their mart, and ufual place of landt 

3 

ing of paflcngcrs ; it is a fiifc and a plcafant harbour 
within, having but one common and fafe entrance, and 
that not very broad ; there fcarce being room for 3 mips 
to come in board and board at a time, but being once 
within, there is room for the anchorage of 500 mips. 

This harbour is made by a great company of iilands, 
whofe high clifts Ihouldcr out the boiitcrous feas, yet 
may cafily deceive any unlkilful pilot ; prcfenting ma* 
ny fair openings and broad founds, which afford too 
fliallow waters for lliips, tho' navigable for boats and 
fmall pinnaces. The entrance into the great haven 
is called Nantaflet ; which is two leagues from Boflon; 
this place of itlelf is a very good haven, where ihips 
commonly call anchor, until wind and tide fervc them 
for other places ; from hence they may fail to the river. 



WeJ'agufcus,* Nepwfet^ Charles river, and AH flick river, 
on which rivers be feared many towns. Jn many of 
thefe fore-named harbours, the feamen having fpent 
their old Itorc of wood and water, may have frelh fup- 
plies from the adjacent iilands, with good timber to re- 
pair their weather-beaten lliips : Here likewife maybe 
had malts or yards, being llorc of fuch trees as are 
ulelul tor the fame purpofe. 

CHA P. II. 
Of the Sea fons of the Tear, Winter and Summer, 
together -with the Heat, Cold. Snow, Rain, 
and the Ejfctts of it. 

FOR that part of the country wherein molt of the 
Englijb have their habitation ; it is for certain the 
bell ground and fweeteft climate in all thofe parts, bear- 
ing the name of New-England, agreeing well with the 
temper of our Englijh bodies, being high land, and 
(harp air; and though mofl of our Englijb towns bor- 
der upon the fea coaft, yet they are not often troubled 
B 2 with 

* Wcymputh. \ MUcon. 



with mills, or unwholfomc fogs, or cold weather from 
the fea, which lies eafl and fouth from the land. And 
whereas in England moll of the cold winds and wea- 
thers come from the fea, and thofe filiations arc count- 
ed molt unwholfomc, that are near the fea-coafl ; in 
that country it is not fo, but otherwile ; for in the ex- 
tremities of winter, the north-ealt and fouth wind com- 
ing from the fea, produceth warm weather, and bring- 
ing in the warm working waters of the fea, loolheth 
the frozen bays, carrying away their ice with their tides, 
melting the mow, and thawing the ground ; only the 
north-well wind coming over the land is a caufe of ex- 
treme cold weather, being always accompanied with 
deep fnows and bitter froil, fo that in two or three 
days the rivers are paffable for horfe and man. But as 
it is an axiom in nature, Nullum v'wlentum eft perpctuum, 
No extreams lall long ; fo this cold wind blows feldom 
above three days together, after which the weather is 
more tolerable, the air being nothing fo fharp, but. 
peradventurc in four or five days after this cold mef- 
ienger will blow afrefh, commanding every man to his 
houfe, forbidding any to outface him without prejudice 
to their nofes. But it may be objected, that it is too 
cold a country for our EngliJJjmen, who have been 
accultomcd to a warmer climate ; to which ir may be 
anfwercd (Ignc levatur hyems) There is wood good 
ilorc, and cheap, to build warm houfes, and make 
good fires, which makes the winter lefs tedious ; and 



673 



moreover., ft he extremity of this cold weather lalt-j 
eth but for two months, or ten weeks, beginning iuj 
December, and breaking up the tentli day or' February, 
which hath become a paflage very remarkable, that tor 
ten or a dozen years the weather hath held himfelf to 
1 his day, unlocking his icy bay6 and riverc, which arc 
J never frozen again the fame year, except there be fomc 
Imall frojl until the middle of March, It is obferved^ 



( fm; 



Tythc Indians that every tenth year there is little or 
no winter, which hath been twice obferved by the 
En^li/b //the year or ISeiu-i'limoutb mens arrival was 
uc?~w1nter in comparifon ; and in the tenth year after 
likewife,* when the great company fettled thcmfclvcs in 
Ma/facbu fetts Bay, was a very mild fcafon. little froft. 



-ana leisTnow, but clear lercne weather, few north-weft 
winds, which was a great mercy to the Englijb coming 
over i'o rawly and uncomfortably provided, wanting all 
uteniils and provifions, which belonged to the well- 
being of planters : And whereas many died at the 
beginning of the plantations, it was not becaufe the 
country was unheakhful, but becaufe their bodies were 
corrupted with fea-diet, which was naught, the beef 
and pork being tainted, their butter and cheefe cor- 
rupted, their filh rotten, and the voyage long, by reafon 
of crofs winds, fo that winter approaching before they 



man and an fnaian, who going together a fowling, the 
morning being fair at their fetting out, afterwards a 
terrible florm arifmg, they intended to return home ; 
but the florin being in their faces, and they not able 
towithftand it, were frozen to death, the Indian having 
gained three flight-fhot more of his journey homeward, 
was found reared up againfl a tree with his aqua-vitx 
bottle at his head. A fecond pafTagc (concerning the 
which many think hardly of the country in regard of 
the cold) was the mifcarriage of a boat at fea ; certain 
men having intended a voyage toNcw-Plimouth, fetting 
fail towards night, they wanted time to fetch it, being 
conftraincd to put into another harbour, where being 
negligent of the well-mooring of their boat, a flrong 
wind coming from the lhore in the night, loofencd the 
killock, and drove them to fea, without fight of land, 
before they had awaked out of flcep, but feeing the 
imminent danger, fach as were not benummed with 
cold, fliipt out their oars, fhaping their courfe for Cape 
Cod, where the Indians met them, who buried the dead, 
and carried the boat with the living to Plimout h, where 
fomc of them died, and fomc recovered. Thefe things 
may fright fomc, but being that there hath been many 
paflages of the like nature in our Englijb climate, it 
cannot difheartcn fuch as ferioufiy conlider it, feeing 
likewife that their own ruins fprung from their own 
negligence. 

The 'Country is not fo cxtreamly cold, unlefs it be 



could get warm houfes, and the fearching fiiarpnefs of when t h e 'north-wefl wind is high, at other times it is 
that purer climate, creeping in at the crannies of their or a mary for fifhermen to go to fea in January and 



crazed bodies, caufed death and ficknefs; but their 
harms have taught future voyagers more wifdom, in 
(hipping good proviiion for fea, and finding warm 
houfes at "landing, find health in both. It hath been 
obferved, that of i\\^ or fix hundred paffengers in one 
year, not above three have died at fea, having their 
health likewife at land. But to return to the matter 
in hand, daily obfervations make it apparent, that the 
pcircing cold of that country produccth not fo many 
noifomc effects, as the raw winters of England. In 
public aflcmblies it is ftrange to hear a man fneezc or 
cough, as ordinarily they do in old England ; yet not 



February, in which time they get more fifh, and better 

7 

than in fummer, only obferving to reach fome good 
harbours before night, where by good fires they flcep 
as well and quietly (having the main-fail tented at their 
backs, to (helter them from the wind) as if they were 
at home.* To relate how fome Englijb bodies have 
borne out cold, will (it may be) ftartle the belief of 
fome, it being fo ilrange, yet not fo ftrange as true. 
A certain man being fomething diftra&ed, broke away 
from his keeper, and running into the wood could not 



to Another any thing, left you judge me too partial in be found with much feeking after; but four days being 

expired, he returned, to appearance as well in body, as 
at his egrefs, and in mind much better : For a mad 
man to hit home through the unbeaten woods, was 
flrange ; but to live without meat or drink in the deep 
of winter, Granger; and yet return home bettered, 
was mofl flrange : But if truth may gain belief, you 
may behold a more fuperlative ftrangenefs. A certain 
maid in the extremity of cold weather (as it fell out) 
took an uncertain journey, in her intent fhort, not 
above four miles, yet long in event ; for loling her way, 
flie wandered fix or feven days in moft bitter weather, 
not having one bit of bread to flrengthen her, fomc- 



reciting good of the country, and not bad ; true it is, 
that fome venturing too nakedly in extremity of cold, 
being more fool-hardy than wife, have for a time loll 
jhc ufe of their feet,, others the ufe of their fingers; 

but 
* iCio. 

6 
but time and furgery afterwards recovered them. 
Some have had their over-grown beards fo frozen to- 
gether, that they could not get their flrong water 
bottles into their mouths. I never heard of any that 
utterly perifhed at land with cold, faving one Englijb- 



674 



times a frefh fpring quenched her thirft, wliich was all 
the refreshment flie had ; the fnow being upon the 
ground it firft, (lie might have track'd her own foot- 
ftcps back again, but wanting that understanding, flic 
wandered ti!l God by his fpedal providence brought 
her to the place flie went from, where flic lives to 
this day. 

1 II K 

* The vaft continent behind us (covered with immenfe tracls of 
fnow) condenieth the air, and renders our winters Co cold--- 
and in fuminer is one great occulion of our exceflive heats, 
the wind puffing over great trails of land intcnftly heated by 
the fun— Bordering upon the great lakes, an caflcrly wind 
brings a dry cold Jhow— and a wellerly one the contrary, 
but upon this caltcoaft of America we find it quite the revcrfe 
— and when an enfycrly wind prevail* in, iummcr, wc alwayg 



8 

The hard winters are commonly the fore-runners 
of pleafant fpring-times, and fertile fummers, being 
judged likewife to make much for the health of our 
Englifl) bodies: It is found to be more healthful for 
fuch as adventure thither, to come towards winter, than 
in the hotfummer; the climate in winter is commonly 
cold and dry, the fnow lies long, whic h is thought to 
be no fmall nourifhingto the ground. [For the~lndian? 
burning it to fupprefs the under-wood, which elfe 
would grow all over the country, the fnow falling noti 
long after, keeps the ground warm, and with his melt- 
jing conveys the allie s into the pores of the earthj 
(which doth fatten it.j It hath been oblerved, that 
Englijh wheat and rye proves better, which is winter 
fown, and is kept warm by the fnow, than that which 
is fown in the fpring. The fummers be Hotter than 
in England, becaufe of their more fouthern latitude, 
yet are they tolerable ; being often cooled with frefh 
blowing winds, it feldom being fo hot as men are dri- 
ven from their labours, efpecially fuch whofe employ- 
ments are within doors, or under the cool fhade : Ser- 
vants have hitherto been privileged to reft from their 
labours in extream hot weather from ten of the clock 
till two, which they regain by their early rifing in the 
morning, and double diligence in cool weather. The 
fummers are commonly hot and dry, there being fel- 
dom any rains ; I have known it fix or feven weeks 
before one fhower hath moifiened the plowman's 

labour, 

find the weather cold and raw — but a wefterly brings 
drought and heat. As the land becomes clear our winters 
grow milder, tho' not to fuch a degree as is generally ima- 
gined, for the vail wilds, uncultivated, beyond our moft ex- 
tended frontiers will forever affcil our climate. An Irijh gen- 
tleman obferved that there was a vifible alteration in Ireland 
within thefe thirty years, the climate was more mild and 
temperate, which he imputed folcly to the draining of the 
bogs, and the improrement of the foil. 



9 



labour, vet the harveft hath been very good, the Indian 
com requiring more heat than wet; for the Englijh 
corn, it is r< irclh'd with the nightly dews, till it grow 
up to lhade his roots with his own fubitance from the 
parching fun. In former times the rain came feldom, 
bur very violently, continuing his drops (which were 
great and many) sometimes four and twenty hours to- 
gether; fomctimes eight and forty, which watered the 
ground for a long time after ; but of late the feafons 
be much altered, the rain coming much oftner, but 
more moderately, with lefTer thunder and lightnings, 
and fudden guffo of wind. I dare be bold to affirnut, 
that I faw not fo much rain, raw coids, and mifty fogs 
in four years in thofe parts, as was in England in the 
fpace of four rruvuhs the lait winter ; yet no man at 
the year's end, complained of too much drought, or 



too little rain 
beffimiinc of 



The times of moft 



rain. 



are in the 
April, and at Michaelmas. The early 
fprings an d long fummers make bat fliort autumns and 
winters. _ fi n the fpring, when the grafs begins tol 
'put forth, it grows apace, fo that where it was all 
black bv rcafon of winters burnings, i n a fortnight | 



there will he grafs a foot hip/h. 



15 

C H A P. V. 

Of the Herbs, Fruits, Woods, Waters, and 

Minerals. 

r-|""i HE ground affords very good kitchen gardens, 

X for turnips, parfnips, carrots, radifhes, pumpions, 

jnulkmellons, ifquouterfquafh.es, cucumbers, onions, and 

whatfoever grows well in England, grows as well there, 

many things being better and larger : There is like- 

16 
wife gro wing all manner of herbs for meat and medi- 
cine, and fridt only in planted gardens, but in the woods,) 
''without either the art or help of man, as fweet mar-) 
jorum, purflane, forrc l. pennyroyal, yarrow, myrtle, J 
faxafarilla, bayes, Sec. / There is likewife itrawberrics 



Tn abundance, very large ones, fome being too inches 
about ; one may gather half a bufhel in a forenoon : 
In other feafons there be goofeberries, bilberries, raf- 
berries, treackleberries, hurtleberries, and currants ; 
which being dried in the fun are little inferiour to 
thofe that our grocers fell in England. This land 
likewife affords hemp and flax, fome naturally, and 
fome planted by the Englijb, with rapes if they be well 
managed. For fuch commodities as lie under ground, 
I cannot, out of mine own experience or knowledge, 
fay much, having taken no great notice of fuch things ; 



576 



but it is certainly reported that there is iron-done ; 
and the Indians informed us, that they can lead us to 
the mountains of black lead, and have ihewn us lead- 
ore, if our fmall judgment in fuch things does nor 
deceive us ; and tho' nobody dare confidently conclude, 
yet dare they not utterly deny, but that the Spaniards 
blifs may lie hid in the barren mountains. Such as 
have coaded the country aiHrm that they know where 
to fetch fea-coal, if wood were fcarcc ; There is plenty 
of done, both rough and fmoorh, ufeful for many- 
things, with quarries of flate, out of which they get 
covering for houfes ; with good clay, whereof they 
make tiles and bricks, and pavements for their nc- 
ceffary ufes. 

For the country, it is as well watered as any land 
under the fun; every family, or every two families 
having a fpring of fwcet water betwixt them, which 
is far different from the waters of England, being not 
fo fharp, but of a fatter fubdancc, and of a more jetty 
colour : It is thought there can be no better water in 



fwamps, and low grounds that are wcr, in which the 
higlifbgci oilers, h allcs, and fuch fmall wood as is for 
chur ufc, Of thefe fwamps, fbir.e be 10, fome 20, and 
fome 30 miles long, being preferred by the wetnefs 
or the foil wherein they grow ; for it being the cudom 

18 

of the Indians to burn the woods in November, -when 
thegrafs is withered, and leaves dried, it confumes all 
the under-wood and rubbilh, which otherwife would 
overgrow the country, making it unpayable, and fpoil 
their much afiecled hunting; fo that by this means in 
thofe places where the Indians inhabit, there is fearce 
a bufh or bramble, or any cumbcrfome underwood to 
be fecn in the more champain ground. Small wood 
growing in thefe places where the lire cannot come, is 
' prefcrved. In fome places where the Indians died or 
the plague foine fourteen years ago, is much under- 
wood, as in the mid-way betwixt Weffagufcus and 
VUmouth, becaufe it hath not been burned ; certain 



17 

as fome have done, but any man will choofe it before 
bad beer, whey, or buttermilk. Thofe that drink it 
be as healthful, frdh, and ludy, as they that drink beer. 
Thefe fprings be not only within land, but likewife 
bordering on the lea coads, fo that fometimes the tides 
overflow fome of them, which it counted rare in mod 
parts of England. No man hath been conltraincd 



the world, yet dare I not prefer it before good beer, rivers flopping the fire from coming to clear that place 

of the country, hath made it unuiclul and troublcfomc 
to travel through, infomuch that it is called ragged 
plain, becaufe it tears and rents the cloaths of them 
that pafs. Now becaufe it may be nccclfary lor me- 
chanical artificers to know what timber, and wood of 
ufe is m the country, I will recite the mod ufeful, 
as followcth. 

Trees both in hills and plains, in plenty be, 
The long-livd oak, and mournful Cyprus tree ; 
Sky-ton) ring pines, and chef nuts coated rough, 
The lafling cedar, with the wallnut tough; 
The rosin-dropping fir, for majls in ufe, 
The boatmen feek for oars, light, neat grown fpruce ; 
The brittle afh, the ever trembling afps, 
The broad-fpread elm, whofe concave harbours wafps ; 
The water fpungy alder geed for nought, 
Small elder n by 'the Indian fletchers fought ; 
The knotty maple, palled birch, hawthornes, 
The horn-bound tree that to be cloven fcorns, 
Which from the tender vine oft takes his fpoufe. 
Who twines embracing arms about his boughs. 

Within this Indian orchard fruits be fome, 
The ruddy cherry, and the jetty plumb ; 



hitherto to dig deep for his water, or to fetch it far, 
or to letch of fcvcral waters for feveral ufes; one 
kmd or' water ferving for wafliing and brewing, and 
other things. Now bolides thefe fprings, there be 
divers fp.icious ponds in many places of the country, 
out of which run many fv.ect dreams, which arc con- 
joint in their oniric both winter and fummcr, whereat 
the cattle quench their third, and upon which may 
be built water-mills, as the plantation incrcafes, 

Til k next commodity the land allords, is good ftorc 
of woods and that not only fuch a-; may be needful 
for fuel, but likewife for the building of fliips and 
houfes, and mills, and ail manner of water-work about 
which wood i.; needful. The timber of the country 
jjroWN iirair, and tall, fome trees being twenty, fome 
thirty foot high, before they fpread forth their 
branches; generally the trees be not very thick, tho' 
there be many that will fcrve for mill-pods, fome being 
three foot and an half over. And whereas.it is gene- 
rally conceived, that the woods grow fo thick, that 
tlvrc is no more clear ground than is hewed out by 
labour of men; ir is nothing fo: In many places, di- 
vers acres being' clear, fo that one may ride a hunting 
in moll: places of the land, if he will venture himfclf 
for being loir : There is no underwood, faring in 



19 

Snake-murthering hazel, with fwcet faxaphrage, 
Whofe fpurns in beer allays hot fevers rage ; 
'The dear jhumach, with more trees there be, 
That are both good to ufe, and rare to fee. * 

Thou on many of thefe trees may fecm to have 
epithets contrary to the nature of them as they grow 
in England, yet are they agreeable with the trees of 
that country. The chief and common timber for or- 



876 



dinnry life is oak and walnut : Of oiks there be three 
kinds, the red oak, white, and black ; as thefe are dif- 
ferent in kind, fo are thcychofen for fuch nfes as they 
arc moil fit for, one kind be ins fit (or clapboard, other, 
for fawn board, fomc fitter for (hipping, others for 
houfes. Thefe trees afford much mail for hogs, 
cfpecially every third year, bearing a bigger acorn than 
our Engli/b oak. The walnut tree is fomething diffe- 
rent from the Engli/b walnut, being a great deal more 
tough, and more foniccablc, and altogether heavy: 
And whereas our guns that are (locked with Engli/b 
walnut, are foon broken and cracked in frail, being a 
brittle wood; we are driven to (lock ihem new with 
the country walnut ; which will endure all blows and 
weather ; killing time out of mind. Thefe trees bear 
a very good nut, fomething f mailer, but nothing infe- 
riour in fwectnefs and goodnefs to the Engli/b nur, 
having no bitter peal. There is likewife a tree in 
fomc parts of the country, that bears a nut as big as a 
pear. The cedar tree is a tree of no great growth, 
not bearing above a foot and a half at the moil, nei- 
ther is it very high. I fuppofe they be much inferior 
to the cedars of Lebanon, fo much commended in holy 
D 2 writ. 

- This clafllc turn of our author, will hardly fail of being 
agreeable to the tafte of many Gentlemen, who will take a 
pleafure in comparing fome of the mod applauded paflages 
in the Georgics, with this, and ievcral ibbfetjuent, poetic 

excurlions . 

20 
writ. This wood is more defired for ornament than 
fubiiance, being of colour red and white like eugh, 
fmelling as fweet as juniper : It is commonly ufed for 
cieling of houfes, and making of chcils, boxes and 
flaves. The fir and pine be trees that grow in many 
places, (hooting up exceeding high, efpecially the pine ; 
they do af ford good mafts, good board, ro/.in and tur- 
pentine.^ fOut of thelc pines is gotten the candle-wood, 
[that is fo much fpoken of, which may ferve for a fhift 
amongft poor folks ; but I cannot commend it for lin- 
gular good, becaufe it is fomething fluuiih, dropping 
a pitchy kind of fubflancc where it (lands, f Here no 
doubt might be good done with faw~mil!s; for I have 
feen of thefe (lately high grown trees, ten miles toge- 
ther clofe by the river (ide, from whence by (hipping 
they might be conveyed to any delircd port. Likewife 
it is not improbable that pitch and tar may be forced 
from thefe trees, which bear no other kind of (ruit. 
For that country a(h, it is different from the aili of 
England, being brittle and good for little, fo that wal- 
nut is ufed for it. The hornbound tree is a tough 
kind of wood, that requires fo much pains in riving as 
is almoit incredible, being the bell to make bowls and 
difhes, not being fubjeft to crack or leak. This tree, 



growing with broad fpread arms, the vines twill their 
curling branches about them ; which vines a'lord great 
(lore of grapes, which are very big both for the grape 
and clufler, fweet and good : Thole be of two ions, 
red and white, there is likewife a fmallcr kind of grape, 
which groweth in the illands, which is fooucr ripe, 
and more delegable ; fo that there is no known rcafon 
why as good wine may not be made in rhofe parts, as 
well as Bourdea'ux in France ; being under the fame 
degree. It is great pity no man fets upon fuch a ven- 
ture, whereby he might in fmall time enrich hiniielf, 
and benefit the country. I know nothing that doth 

21 

hinder, but want of fkilful men to manage fuch an 
employment ; for the country is hot enough, the ground 
good enough, and many convenient hills lie toward the 
fouth fun, as if they were there placed for the pur- 
pofe.j The cherry trees yield great ( lore of cherries, 
which grow on cluflcrs like grapes ; f tney be much\ 

((mailer than our Engiijb cherry, nothing near fo good, 
if they be not very ripe ; they fo furr the the mouth 
. that the tongue will cleave to the roof, and the throat 
wax hoarfe with (wallowing thofe red bullies (as I may 
call them) being little better in tafte, Engli/b ordering 
may bring them to an Engli/b cherry, but they are as 
wild as the Indians. The plumbs of the country be 
better for plumbs than the cherries be for cherries ; 
they be black and yellow, about the bignefs of damfons, 
\of a reafonable good tafte. The white thorn affords 
hawes as big as an Engli/b cherry, which is efteemed 
above a cheiry for his goodnefs and pleafantnefs to 
the tafle. 



r 



CHAP. VI. 
Of the Beqfts that live on the Land. 

HAVING related unto you the plcafant fituation 
of the country, the hcalthfulncfs of the climate, 
the nature of the foil, with his vegetatives, and other 
commodities ; it will not be amifs to inform you of fuch 
irrational creatures as arc daily bred, and continually 
nourifhed in this country, which do much conduce to 

the 

f There is a ropy tafte in all our wild grapes ; tho' it is the 
opinion of our beft naturaliits it might be corrected by culti- 
vation. The fouth part of this continent is well adapted for 
wine. The late Col. Tajler ot Maryland, in one year, 
made more than twenty hogftieads from the Burgundy grape ; 
which by good judges, were thought equal to the produce 
of France. 

22 
the well-being of the inhabitants, affording not only 
meat for the belly, but cloathing for the back. The 



beads be as fol lowed 1 : 

The kingly Lion, and the Jlrong arni'd Bear, 
The large limb'd Moofes, with the tripping Deer ; 
Squill-darting Porcupines, and Raccoons be 
CaflePd in the hollow of an aged tree ; 
The flipping Squirrel, Rabbet, purblind Hare, 
Immured tn the f elf fame cajlle are, 
Left red-efd Ferret, wily Foxes Jhould 
Them undermine, if rampWd but with mould ; 
The grim-fae'd Ounce, and rav'nous howling Wolf 
Whofe meagre paunch fucks like a [wallowing gulf ; 
Black vliflering Otters, and rich coated Bever, 
The Civet fronted Mufqitafb fuelling ever. 
Concfrnixo Lions, I will not fay thai I ever faw 
any myfclf, but fome affirm that they have lecn a Lion 
at Cape- Anne, which is not above ten leagues from 
Bojlon : Some likewife being loft in the woods, have 
beard fuch terrible roarings, as have made them much 
agaft; which muft be cither Devils or Lions; there 
being no other creatures which ufe to roar, faving 
Bears, which have not fuch a terrible kind of roaring : 
Befides Plimouth men have traded for Lions Ikins in 
former times. But fure it is that there be Lions on 
that continent, for the Virginians faw an old Lion in 
their plantation, who having loft his jackal, which was 
wont to hunt his prey, was brought lb poor that he 
could go no further. For Bears they be common, 
being a black kind of Bear, which be moil fierce in 
ftrawberry time, at which time they have young ones; 
at which time likewife they will go upright like a man, 
and climb trees, and fwim to the illands ; which if the 



677 



ing vexed with a fhot, an 1 a man run upon him before 
they be dead, in which c.il'j they will ftand in their 
own defence, as may appear by this inftancc. Two 
men going a fowling, appointed at evening to meet at 
a certain pond fide, to lhare equally, and to return home ; 
one of thefe gunners having killed a Seal or Sea-calf, 
brought it to the pond where he was to meet his com- 
rade, afterwards returning to me fea fide for more game, 
and having loaded hiinfelf with more Geefe and Duck?, 
he repaired to the pond, where he faw a great Bear 
feeding on his fcal, which caufed him to throw down 
his load, and give the Bear a falute ; which though it 
was but with goofe fhot, yet tumbled him over and 
over ; whereupon the man fuppofmg hiin to be in a 
manner dead, ran and beat him with the handle of hi> 
gun: The Bear perceiving him to be fuch a coward 
to flrike him when he was down, fcrarnbled up, 

24 

/landing at defiance with him, fcratching his legs, tear- 
ing his cloaths and face, who Itood it out till his fix 
foot gun was broken in the middle ; then being de- 
prived of his weapon, he ran up to the fhoulders into 
the pond, where he remained till the Bear was gone, 
and his mate come in, who accompanied him home. 

The beaft called a Moofe, \ is not much unlike red 
Deer ; this bead is as big as an ox, How of foot, 
headed like a Buck, with a broad beam, fome being 
two yards wide in the head, their fleih is as good as 
beef, their hides good for cloathing. The Englijh 
have fome thoughts of keeping him tame, and to ac- 
Indians fee, there will be more fportful Bear-baiting cuftome him to the yoke, which will be a great com- 
than Paris garden can afford. For feeing the Bears modify: Firft becaufe they arc lb fruitful, bringing 
take water, an Indian will leap after him, where they forth three at a time, being likewife very uberous. 

Secondly, becaufe they live in winter without any 
2 * fodder. There be not many of thefe in the Majjachu- 

go to water cuffs for bloody nofes, and feratched fides ; fetts-Bay, but forty miles to the north-cad there be 
in the end the man gets the victory, riding the Bear great (tore of them : Thefe poor bealts likewife are 
over the watery plain till he can bear him no longer, much devoured by the Woolves. The ordinary Deer 
In the winter they take themfelvcs to the clifts of rocks be much bigger than the Deer of England, of a brigh- 
and thick fwamps, to flicker them from the cold; and rer colour, more inclining to red, with fpotted bellies; 
food being fcant in thofe cold and hard times, they live the molt (tore of thefe be in winter, when the more 
only by lleeping and fucking their paws, which keepcth northern parts of the country be cold for them ; they 
them as fat as they are in fummcr; there would be defire to be near the fea, fo that they may fwim to the 
more of them if it were not for the Wolves, which de- illands when they are chafed by the Woohcs. It is 
vour them ; a kennel, of thofe ravening runnagadoes, not to be thought into what great multitudes they 
let ring on a poor tingle Bear, will tear him as a Dog would increafe, were it not for the common devourer 
will tear a Kid; it would be a good change if the the Wolf : They have generally three at a time, which 
country had for every Wolf a Bear, upon condition all they hide a mile one from another, giving them fuck 
the Wolves were banifhed; fo mould the Inhabitants by turns; thus they do, that if the Wolf fliould find 
be not only rid of their greateit annoyance, but fur- one, he might mifs of the other. Thefe Deer be far 
influx! with more (lore of provifions, Bears being ac- in the deep of winter; in fummcr it is hard catching 
counted very goal meat, clteemcd of all men above of them wiih the belt Greyhounds that may be pro- 
venifon : again, they never prey upon the Englijh cat- cured, becaufe they be fwift of foot. Some credible 
tie, or offer to a Haul t the perfon of any man, unlefs be- perfons 

\ Generally thought to be the Elk of Eurcpt. 



25 



57i 



p:*rfon> have affirmed, that they have feen a Deer leap 
threescore feet at little or no forcement; befidcs, there 
be fo many old trees, rotten flumps, and Indian barns, 
that a Dag cannot well run without being moulder 
ihot ; yet would I not dilTwadcany from carrying good 
Dogs ; for in the winter time they be very ufeful ; for 
when the fnow is hard frozen, the Deer being heavy, 
links into the fnow, the Dogs being light, run upon 
the top, and overtake them, and pull them down : 
Some by this means have gotten twenty Ducks and 
Does in a winter : The horns of thefe Deer grow in 
a (trait manner (overhanging their heads) that they 
cannot feed upon fuch things as grow low, till they 
calf their old horns. Of tiiefe Deer there be a great 
many, and more in the M/jfachufctts-Bay, than in any 
other place, which is a great help and refreshment to 
tiioi'c planters. The Porcupine is a fmall thing not 
much unlike a Hedge-hog ; fomcthing bigger, who 
(lands upon his guard, and proclaims a Noli me tangere, 
to man and bead that ilia 1 1 approach too near him, dart- 
ing his quills into their legs and hides. The Raccoon 
is a deep furred heart, not much unlike a Badger, hav- 
ing a tail like a Fox, as good meat as a Lamb : there is 
one of them in the tower. Thefe beafh in the day 
time ileep in hollow trees, in the moon fhine night they 
go to iWd on clams at a low tide, by the .f ca fiue.where 
the Eiwljjb hunt them with their Dogs. ( The Squir- 
rels be of three forts, firlt the great grey Squirrel, 
which is almoll as big as an Engl'ijl) Rabbit ; of thefe 
there be the greateft plenty, one may kill a dozen of 
them in an a fternoon, about three of t he clock they be- 
gin to walk. / The Second is a lmall Squirrel, not un- 
TTke the EngUfl) Squirrel, which doth much trouble the 
planters of corn, fo that they are conltrained to fet di- 
vers traps and to carry their Cats into the cornfields, 

26 

till their corn be three weeks old. The third kind is 
a flying Squirrel which is not very big, (lender of body, 
with a great deal of loofe (kin, which (lie fprcads fquare 
when fhe flies, which the wind gets, and fo wafts her 
Bat-like body from place to place; it is a creature more 
for fight and wonderment, than either plcafure or profit. 
The Rabbits be much like ours in England. The 
Hares be fome of them white, and a yard long ; thefe 
two harmlefs creatures are glad to fhelter themfelves 
from the harmful Foxes, in hollow trees ; having a hole 
at the entrance no. bigger than they can creep in at ; 
if they fhould make them holes in the ground, as our 
Englifh Rabbits do, the undermining Reynolds would 
rob them of their lives, and extirpate their generation. 
The beafte of offence be Squncks, Ferrets, Foxes, 
whofe impudence fometimes diverts them to the good 
wives Hen-rooft, to fill their paunch : fome of thefe be 
black, their furrs is of much efleem. 



28 
CHAP. VII. 

Beajls living in the Water. 

FOR all crcamrcs that live both by land and water, 
they be firft Otters, which be mod of them 
black, whofe fur is much ufed for muffs, and are held 
almofl as dear as beaver. The flefh of them is none 
of the beft meat, but their oil is of rare ufe for many 
things. Secondly , Martins, a good fur for their big- 
nefs. [Thirdly, Mufqualh esJ which be much like°a 
beaver for lhape, but nothing near fo big: The male 
hath two {tones which fmell as fweet as mu(k, and 
being killed in winter and fpring. never lofe their 
reet fmell J rTheTe (kins are nr> higgpr than a conp\ 
^/kjn, yq are fold fpr fiye jthilliqgs a piece, being feat) 




will perfume*) 

h t and goodJ 

I fhould at" 

large difcourfe, according to knowledge or information, 
I might make a volume. The wifdom and under- 
standing of this beaft will almofl conclude him a rea- 
fonable creature : His fhape is thick and fhort, having 
likewife fhort legs, feet like a mole before, and behind 
like a goofe, a broad tail in form like a fhoc foal, very 
tough and ftrong ; his head is like an otter's head, 
faving that his teeth before be placed like the teeth of 
a rabbet, two above and two beneath, fharp and broad, 
with which he cuts down trees as thick as a man's 
thigh, fometimes as big as a man's body, afterwards 
dividing them into le ngths, according to the ufe the 
are appointed for. ( If one beaver be too weak to 
r carry the log, then another helps him; if they two 
be too weak, then multorum multibus grande levatur 
onus ; four more adding their help, being placed three 
to three, which fet their teeth in one anothcrs tough tails, 
and laying the load on the t wo hindcrmoft, they draw 
the log to the deflred place ;J alfo tow it in the water, 
the ltrongeit getting under, bearing it up that it may 
fwim the lighter. That this maynotfeem altogether 
incredible, remember that the like almofl may be feen 
in our ants, which will join fometimes feven or eight 
together in carrying a burden. Thefe creatures build 
themfelves houfes of wood and clay, clofe by the ponds 
fide, and knowing the feafons, build them anfwerable 
houfes, having them three llories high, fo that as land 
floods are raifed by great rains, as the waters arife, 
they mount higher in their houfes j as they afwage, 
they defcend lower again. Thefe houfes are fo ftrong, 
that no creature faving an induftrious man with his 
penetrating tools, can prejudice them ; their ingrefs 
and egrefs being under water. Thefe make likewife 



30 



579 



very good ponds, knowing whence a dream inns be- 
tween two hills, they will there pitch down piles of 
wood, placing fmaller rubbifli before it, with clay and 
Cods, not leaving, till by their art and induftry they 
have made a firm and curious dam-head, which may 
draw admiration from wife underflanding men. Thefe 
creatures keep themfelves to their own families, never 
parting fo long as they are able to keep houfe together; 
and it is commonly faid, (If any Beaver accidentally f 
flight into a ftrange place, he is made a drudge fo long} 
as he lives there, to carry at the gre ater end of the I 
| log, unlcfs he creep away by ftealth. j Their wifdom 
fecures them from the Englijb, who feldom or never 
kill any of them, being not patient to lay a long fiege, 
or to be fo often deceived by their cunning evafions, 
fo that all the Beaver which the Englijh have, comes 
from the Indians, whofc time and experience fits them 
for that employment. 



CHAP. VIII. 
Of the Birds and Fowls both of hand ej>' Water, 

HAVING fhewed you the molt dcfirable, ufefu!, 
and beneficial creatures, with the moll oifenfive 
carrions that belong to our wildernefs, it remains in 
the next' place, to fhew you fuch kinds of Fowl as the 
country affords : They are many, and we have much 
variety both at fea and on land; and fuch as yield 
us much profit and honefl pleafure, and are thefe that 
fo llow ; as 

The princely Eagle, and the /oaring Hawk, 
Whom in their unknown ways there's none can chalk / 
The Humbird for fome Sheen's rich cage more 
Than in the vacant wildernefs to Jit ; 



'fr 



L. 



31 



The fvift-wing'd Swallow fweeping to and fro, 
As fwtft as arrow from Tartarian bow ; 
IV hen as Aurora'/ infant day new fprings, 
There tb' morning mounting Lark her fwect lays fingt-; 
The harmonious Thrujh, fwift Pigeon, Turtle Dove-, 
Who to her mate does ever conflant prove ; 
The Turkey-Pheafant, Heathcock, Partridge rare, 
The carrion-tearing Crew, and hurtful Stare ; 
The lon^-livd Raven, tlS ominous Screech-Owl, 
Who tells, as old wives fay, dif after s foul; 
The drowfy Madge, that leaves her day-lov'd nefl, 
And loves to rove when day-birds be at refl ; 
To' Eel-murthering Hearne, and greedy Cormorant, 
That near the creeks in morifh marjhes haunt; 
The bellowing Bitterne, with the long-leg 'd Crane ; 



Prefaging winters hard, and dearth of grain ; 
The fiver Swan that tunes her mournful breath, 
To fing the dirge of her approaching death ; 
'I he tattling Oldwivcs, and l/Te cackling Geefe, 
The fearful Gull that fhuns the murthering piece; 
The Jlrong-winfd Mallard, with the nimble Teal, 
And ill-(hafd 1 urn, who his harfh notes doth fqueal '; 
There Widgiis, Sheldrakes, and Humititees, 
Snipes, Dippers, Sea-Larks, in whole millions flee. 

The Eagles of the country be of two forts, one 
like the .Eagles that be in England, the other is fome- 
thmg bigger, with a great white head, and white tail ; 
thefe be commonly called Gripes ; thefe prey upon 
ducks and gczfc, and fuch fifli as are cad upon the 
fca-fliore. And although the Eagle be counted King 
of that feathered regiment, yet there be a certain black 
Hawk that beats him, fo that he is conftrained to foar 
fo high, till heat expel his adverfary. The Hawk is 
much pri;:ed of the Indians, being accounted a Saga- 
more's ranfom. 

32 

To fpeak much of Hawks, were to trefpafs upon my 
judgment, and bring upon my felf a deferved cenfure, 
for abufing theFaulconer's terms ; but by relation from 
thofe that have more infight in them than my felf, there 
be divers kinds of Hawks; their aierics arc eafy to 
come by, being in the holes of rocks, near the fhore, fo 
that any who are addicted to that fport, if he will but 
beat the charge of finding Poultry for them, may have 
his defires. We could wifli them well mew'd in Eng- 
land, for they make havock of Hens, Partridges, Heath- 
cocks and Ducks ; often hindering the fowler of his long 
look'd for (hoot. The Humbird is one of the wonders 
of the country, being no bigger than a Hornet, yet hath 
all the dimensions of a Bird, a bill and wings, with quills, 
fpider-like legs, fmall claws ; for colour, fhe is glorious 
as the Rainbow; as fhe flies, fhe makes a little humming 
noife like a humble-bee; wherefore fhe is called the 
Humbird. The Pigeon of that country is fomething 
different from our Dove-houfe Pigeons in England, be- 
ing more like Turtles, of the fame colour ; they have 
long tails like a Magpie ; and they feem not fo big, be- 
caufe they carry notfo many feathers on their backs as 
our Englifh Doves, ) ct arc they as big in body. Thefe 
come into the country to go to the north parts in the 
beginning of our fpring, at which time (if I may be 
counted worthy to be believed in a thing that is not fo 
ftrange as true) I have feen them fly as if the airy 
regiment had been Pigeons ; feeing neither beginning 
nor ending, length or breadth of thefe millions. The 
(houting of people, the rattling of guns, and pelting of 
fmall fhot could not drive them out of their courfc, but 
fo they continued for four or five hours together : 
yet it mud not be concluded that it is thus often, for 



580 



it is but at the beginning of the fpring and at Michael- 
mas, when they return to the fouthward; yet are 
there fome all the year long, which are caiily attained 

35 

by inch as look after them. Many of them build a- 
mong the pine trees, thirty miles ro the north-cad of 
our plantations ; joining nefl to nefl, and tree to tree 
by their ncfts, fo that the Sun never fees the ground 
in' that place, from whence the Indians fetch whole 
loads of th;m. 

Tiif. Turkey is a very large bird, of a black colour, 
vet white in flefli ; much bigger than our Englilh Tur- 
key. He hath the ufe of bis long legs fo ready, that 
he can run a, fall as a Dog, and fly as well as a 
Coofe : of tliefc fomctimes there will be forty, threc- 
fcore and a hundred of n flock, fomctimes more and 
fomctimes lefs; their feeding is Acorns Hawcs, and 
Berries, fome of then get a haunt to frequent Englifh 
corn: In winter when the fnow covers the ground, 
they refort to the fca-fliore to look for fhrimps, ' and 
fuch ftnall fiflics at low tides. Such as love Turkey 
hunting muft follow it in winter after a new fallen 
fnow, when he may follow them by their tracks; fome 
have killed ten or a dozen in half a day; if they can be 
found towards an evening, and watched where they 
perch, if one come about ten or eleven of the clock, he 
may ilioot as often as he will, they will fit, unlcfs they 
be fleinlcrly wounded. Thefe Turkics remain all the 
year long ; the price of a good Turkey Cock is four 
uVliings;' and he is well worth it, for he may be in 
weight forty pounds; a Hen two drillings, Pheafants 
be very rare; but Hcarhcockri and Partridges be com- 
mon; he that is a good husband, and will be flirring 
betimes, may kill half a dozen in a morning. 

Thr Partridges are bigger than they are in 
England ; the lleih of the Hcathcocks is red, and the 
flefli of the Partridge white, their price is four pence 
.1 piece. The Ravens and Crows are much like them 
of other countries. There are no Magpies, Jackdaws, 
Cuckoos, Jaycs, &c* The Stares, or Blackbirds, be 
F h *S$ er 

* Of theft birds there is now a jjrent plcntv, 

34 

bigger than thofe of England, as black as Crows, 

being the mofl troublefome and injurious bird of all 

other ; pulling up the corn by the roots, when it is 

young, fo that thofe who plant by reedy and feggy 

places, where they frequent, are much annoyed by them, 

they being fo audacious that they fear not guns, or 

their fellows hung upon poles ; but the corn having a 

week or nine days growth is part their fpoiling. The 

Owls be of two forts; the one being fmall, fpeckled 

like a Partridge, with ears ; the other being a great 

Owl, almofl as big as an Eagle, his body being as good 



meat as a Partridge. Cormorants be as numerous as 
other fowls, which deflroy abundance of fmall fifh ; 
thefe be not worth the (hooting, becaufe they be the 
word fowls for meat, tailing rank, and fifhy ; again, 
one may (hoot twenty times and mifs ; for feeing the 
fire in the pan, they dive under water before the (hot 
comes to the place where they were : They ufe to 
rood upon the tops of trees and rocks, being a very 
heavy drowfy creature, fo that the Indians will go in 
canoes in the night and take them from the rocks, as 
eafily as women take a Hen from rood : No duck- 
ing ponds can afford more delight than a lame Cor- 
morant and two or three lufly dogs. The Crane, 
although he be almofl as tall as a man, by rcafon of 
his long legs and neck ; yet is his body rounder than 
other fowls, not much unlike the body of a Turkey. 
I have feen many of thefe fowls, yet did I never fee 
one that was fat, though very (leaky ; I fuppofe it is 
contrary to their nature to grow fat : Of thefe there 
be many in fummcr, but none in winter ; their price 
is two (hillings. There be likewife many Swans, 
which frequent the frefli ponds and rivers, feldom 
conforting themfelves with ducks and geefe ; theft be 
very good meat, the price of one is fix fhi'iin >•<. The 
Geefe of the country be of three forts, firil a !>raht 

35 

Goofe, which is a Goofe almofl like the wild Goofc 
in England, the price of one of thefe is fix pence.. 
The fecond kind is a white Goofe, almoil as big as an 
Englifh tame Goofe ; thefe come in great flocks about 
Michaelmas, fometimes there will be two or three 
thoufand in a flock, thofe continue fix weeks, and fo 
fly to the fouthward, returning in March, and (laying 
fix weeks more, returning to the northward ; the price 
of one of thefe is eight pence. The third kind of 
Gee(e is a great grey Goofe with a black neck, and a 
black and white head, (Irong of flight ; and thefe be a 
great deal bigger than the ordinary Geefe of England, 
fome very fat, and in the fpring full of feathers, that 
the fliot can fcarce pierce them ; moll of thefe Geefe 
remain with us from Michaelmas to April ; they feed 
on the fea upon grafs in the bays at low water, and 
gravel, and in the woods of Acorns, having as other 
fowl have, their pafs and repafs to the northward and 
fouthward : the accurate markfmen kill of thefe both 
flying and fitting ; the price of a good grey Goofe is 
eighteen pence. The Ducks of the country be very 
large ones and in great abundance, fo there is of fTezl 
likewife ; the price of a Duck is fix pence, of a Teal 
three pence. If I fliould tell you how foinc have killed 
a hundred Geefe in a week, fifty Ducks at a (hot, for- 
ty Teal at another, it may be counted almofl impofll* 
ble, though nothing more certain. The Oldwives be 
a fowl that never leave tailing day or night, fomething 
bigger than a Duck. The Loon is an ill-fhap'd thing 



581 



like a Cormorant ; but that he can neither go nor fly; 
(he maketh a noifc fomctimes like a Sow-geldcr's horn. ) 
The humilities or Simplicities (as I may rather call 
them) be of two forts, the biggeft being as big as a 
green Plover, the other as big as birds that we call 
Knots in England. Such is the fimpliciry of the fmal- 
ier forts of thefc birds, that one may drive them on a 

36 

heap like fo many (heap, and feeing a fit time, (hoot 
them ; the living feeing the dead, iettle themfelves on 
the fame place again, among which the fowler dis- 
charges again. 1 my felf have killed twelve fcore at 
two (hots ; thefe birds are to be had upon fandv brakes 
at the latter end of fummer, before the Geefe come in. 
Thus much I have (hewed you as I know to be true 
concerning the Fowl of the country. But methinks 
I hear fome fay that this is very good if they could be 
caught, or likely to continue, and that much (hooting 
will fright away the fowls : True it is, that every ones 
employment will not permit him to fowl; what then.' 1 
yet their employments furnilh rhem with (liver guns 
with which they may have it more eafy. For the 
frighting of the fowl ; true it is that many go blurting 
away their powder and (hot, that have no more Ik ill to 
kill, or win a Goofe, than many in England that have 
rufly mu/kets in their houfes, know what belongs to a 
foldicr, yet they are not much aUrighted. I have feen 
more living and dead the laic year, than I have done 
in former ycars.f 



CHAP. IX. 
Of Fijh. 

HAVING done with thefe, let me lead you from 
the land to the fea, to view what commodities 
may come from thence ; there is no country known, 
tha.t yields more variety of Fifh winter and fummer ; 
and that not only for the prefent (pending and fuile- 
pfttion 6f the plantations, but likewile for" trade into 

other 

\ By hunting them unfeafonahJy., many fpecics of thefe birds 

are; alraolt cxtinfl, not an Heathcock is to be met with, 

fcarcely remain any- Quails, and the want of Fartridjrcs, 

Jpichu wUi fboft regret, The prcfervation of the game hath 

37 

other countries, fo that thofe which have had ftages 
and make fifhing voyages into thofe parts, have gained 
(it is thought) more than the Newfoundland fifher- 
men. Codfilh in thefe feas are larger than in New- 
foundland, fix or feven making a quintal ; whereas 
they have fifteen to the fame weight ; and though this 
may feem a bafe and more contemptible commodity in 
the judgment of more neat adventurers, yet it hath 



been the enrichment of other nations, and is likely to 
prove no fmall commodity to the planters, and likewife 
to England, if it were thoroughly undertaken. At this 
time being yearly ufed, a great return is made to the 
weft country merchants of Bridal, Plimouth and Barn- 
Ihible. Salt may be had from the fait illands, and it is 
fuppofed may be made in the country. The chief 
fi(h for trade is a Cod, but for the ufc of the country, 

there i s all manner of fi(h as followeth. 

king of waters, the lea-Jboulderinz W haleT^ 
'ffing Grampus, with the oily Seal ; 



(77* 
The fnu, 



Smelt, 



The Jlorm-prefiging Porpus, Herring-Hog, 
Line /hearing Shark, the Catfijb, and Sea Dog ; 
The fcalc-fenc'd Sturgeon, wry-mouth } d Hollibut, 
The flouncing Salmon, Codfi/h, Greedigut ; 
Cole, Haddick, Hake, the Thornback, and the State, 
Whofe (limy ouijide makes him fcld' in date; 
The /lately Bafs, old Neptune's fleeting pofl. 
That tides it out and in from fea to coa/l ; 
Cqnfbrting Herrings, mid the bony Shad, 
(wg-bellied Alewtves^ Mackrcls richly clad 
With rainbow colour', the Froflfi/b and the S 
As good as ever Lady Gu/lus felt ; 
The fpotted Lamprons, Eels, the Lamperies, 
That fcek fre/h water brooks with Argus eyes ; 

Thefc 

not been thought derogatory to the dignity of a Britifh par- 
liament, would it be to our legislature i A law fomething like 
the Deer aft might prevent the unnatural deduction of 
thci'e creatures, 

38 

Thefe watery villagers, with thoufands more, 
Do pafs and repa/s near the verdant /bore. 
Kinds of Shell-FiOi. 

The lufcious Lobfier, with the Crabffh raw, 
The brinifJj Oyfter, Mu/cle, Pcrriwig, 
And Tortoife fought by the Indian's Squaw, 
Which to the flats, dance many a winter's jig. 
To dive for Cockles, and to dig for Clams, 
Whereby her lazy husband's guts fhe crams. 

To omit fuch of thefc as are not ufeful, .therefore 
not to be fpoken of, and only to certify you of fuch 
as be ufeful. Firft the Seal, which is that which is 
called the Sea-Calf, his fkin is good for divers ufes, 
his body being between fi(h and flefli, is not very 
delectable to the palate, or congruent with the (to- 
mach ; his oil is very good to bum in lamps, of which 
he affords a great deal. The Shark is a kind of filh 
as big as a man, fome as big as a horfe, with three 
rows of teeth within his mouth, with which he fnaps 
afunder the fiflierman's lines, if he be not very circum- 
fpect : This fifh will leap at a man's hand if it be over 
board, and with his teeth fnap off a man's leg or hand 
if he be fwimming : Thefe are often taken, being good 



582 



for nothing but to put on the ground tor manuring 
of land. The Sturgeons be all over the country, but 
the bell catching of them is upon the fhoals of Cape- 
Cod, and in the river of Merrimack, where much is 
taken, pickled and b; ought to England ; fume of thefe 
be 12, 14, and 18 feet long : I fet not down the price 
of fifh there, becaufe it is fo cheap, fo that one may 
have as much for two pence, as would give him an an- 
gel in England. The Salmon is as good as it is in 
England, and in great plenty in fome places. The 
Hollibut is not much unlike a Plaice or Turbut, fome 
being two. yards long, and one wide, and a foot thick ; 
the plenty of better fifh makes thefe of little efteem, 

39 

except the head and fins, which ftewed or baked is 
very good : Thefe Hollibut be little fet by while Bafs 
is in feafon. The Thornback and Scatcs are given to 
the dogs, being not counted worth the drefling in many 
places. The Bafs is one of the bed fifh in the country, 
and though men are foon wearied with other fifh, yet 
are they never with Bafs ; it is a delicate, fine, fat nth, 
having a bone in his head, which contains a fawcer-full 
of marrow, fwect and good, pleafant to the palate and 
wholcfome to the flomach. When there be great flore 
of them, we only cat the heads and fait up the bodies 
for winter, which exceeds Ling or Harberdine. Of 
thefe iifhcs fome be three and fome four foot long, 
fome bigger, fome lefler ; at fome tides a man may 
catch a dozen or twenty of thefe in three hours ; the 
way to catch them is hook and line ; the fifherman 
taking a great cod-line, with which he faflcneth a piece 
of lobfler, and throws it into the fea, the fifh biting at 
it he pulls her to him, and knocks her on the head 
with a flick. Thefe arc at one time of the year 
(when alewives pafs up the rivers) to be catched in 
rivers, in lobfler time at the rocks, in mackrel time in 
the bays, at michaelmas in the feas. When they ufe 
to tide it in and out to the rivers and creeks, the En- 
glifli at the top of an high water do crofs the creeks 
with long feines or Bafs nets, which flop the fifh, and 
the water ebbing from them they are left on the dry 
ground, fomeiimcs two or three thoufand at a fer, 
which arc faked uj> again ft winter, or dillributed to 
fucli as have prefenr occalion either to fpend them in 
their houfes, or ufe them for their ground. The 
Herrings be much like them that be caught on the 
Englifh coafts. Alewives be a kind of fifh which is 
much like a Herring, which in the latter end of April 
come up to the frefh rivers to fpawn, in fuch multi- 
tudes as is almoft incredible, preffing up in fuch fhallow 

40 
waters as will fcarce permit them to fwim, having 
likewifc fuch longing delire after the frefh water ponds, 



that no beatings with poles, or forcive agitations by 
other devices, will caufc them to return to the fea, till 
they have caft their fpawn. The Shads be bigger 
than the Englifh Shads and fatter. The Mackrels be 
of two forts, in the beginning of the year are great 
ones, which be upon the coaft ; fome are 1 8 inches 
long. In fummer, as in May, June, July and Auguft, 
come in a fmaller kind of them : Thefe Mackrels are 
taken with drails, which is a long fmall line, with a 
lead and a hook at the end of it, being baited with a 
piece of red cloth : This kind of fifh is counted a lean 
fifh in England, but there it is fo fat, that it can 
/carce be faved agaiuft winter without rcifling. There 
be great flore of fait water Eels, efpccially in fuch 
places where grafs grows; to take thefe there be 
certain Eel-pots made of ofiers, which muft be baited 
with a piece of lobflcr, into which the Eels entering 
cannot return back again ; fome take a bufhel in a night 
in this manner, eating as many as they have need of for 
the prefent, and fait up the reft againft winter. Thefe 
Eels be not of fo lufcious a tafte as they be in Eng- 
land, neither are they fo aguifh, but are both wholc- 
fome for the body, and delightful for the tafte. Lam- 
prons and Lampries be not much fet by. Lobfters be 
in plenty in moft places, very large ones, fome being 
twenty pounds in weight; thefe are taken at a low 
water amongft the rocks ; they are very good fifh, and 
(mall ones be the befl ; their plenty makes them little 
efteemed and feldom eaten. The Indians get many of 
them every day, and eat them when they can get no 
Bafs. The Oyflers be great ones, in form of a fhoe- 
horn, fome be a foot long ; thefe breed on certain 
banks that are bare every fprmg ride. This fifh with- 
out the (hell is fo big, that it muft adrait of a divifion 

41 

before you can well get it into your mouth. The 
Pcrriwig is a kind of filh that lieth in the ouzc like a 
head of hair, which being touched conveys itfelf, 
leaving nothing to be feen but a fmall round hole. 
M nicies be in great plenty, left only for the hogs; 
which if they were in England would be m ore eflcem- 
ed of the poorer fort. Q Clams or Clamps J is a fhell-fifh 
not much unlike a cockle, it lieth under the land, every 
fix or feveu of them having a round hole to take air 
and receive water at. \\ hen the tide ebbs and flows, 
a man running over thefe clam banks will prefently be 
made all wet, bv their lpouting of water out of thefe 



fmall holes :J Thefc fifhes be in great plenty in moft 1 
places of the country, which is a great commodity for 
the feeding of twine, both in winter and fummer; for 
being once ufed to thofe places, they will repair to 
them as duly ever y ebb as if they were driven to them 
b y keepers, / in fome places or the country tlicre be 
lams as T>ig as a penny white loaf, which are great 



683 



dainties among! t the natives, and would be in good 
eftecin ainonglt the Engliih, were it not for better fifti. 

51 

CHAP. xr. 

Of the Evils, and fuch Things as are hurtful 
in the ''Plantation. 

T Have informed you of the country in general, and 
I of every plantation in particular, with their com- 
modities, and wherein one excelleth another. Now 
that I may be every way faithful to my reader in this 

52 
ttork, I will as fully and truly relate to you what is 
evil, and of moft annoyance to the inhabitant. Firft, 
thofe which bring moft prejudice to their eftates are 
the ravenous Wolves, which deftroy the weaker cattle; 
but of thefe you have heard before : That which is 
mod injurious to the perfon and life of man is a Rattle 
Snake, which is generally a yard and an half long, as 
thick in the middle as the fmall of a man's leg, ihe hath 
a yellow belly, her back being fpotted with black, ruf- 
fer, yellow, and green colours, placed like fcales ; at her 
tail is a rattle, with which flie makes a noife when fhe 
is molefled, or when (lie fees any approach near her ; 
her neck feems to be no thicker than a man's thumb, 
yet can me fwallow a Squirrel, having a great wide 
mouth, with teeth as (harp as needles, wherewith (lie 
biteth fuch as tread upon her ; her pcifon iieth in her 
teeth, for fhe hath nofting. When any man is bitten 
by any of thefe creatures, the poifon fpreads fo fudden- 
ly through the veins, and fo runs to the heart, that in 
one hour it caufeth death, unlefs he hath the antidote 
to expel the poifon, which is a root called Snake weed, 
which muft be champed, the fpittle fwallowed, and the 
root applied to the fore ; this is prefent cure again ft 
that which would be prefent death without ir ; this 
weed is rank poifon, if it be taken by any man that is 
not bitten, unlefs it be phyfically compounded ; who- 
ever is bitten by thefe Snakes his flefh becomes as fpot- 
ted as a leper until he be perfectly aired.*" It is re- 
ported that if the party live that is bitten, the Snake 
will die ; and if the party die, the Snake will live. 
This is a moft poifonous and dangerous creature, yet 
nothing fo bad as the report goes of him in England. 
For whereas he is faid to kill a man with his breath, 

and 

* A man mowmjy near Newbury was by a Rattle SnaVe bit in 

the calf of his leg, fuch was his prefence of mind that he 

inftantly cut the calf off, which preventing the infection pfhjji 

blood, fayed his life. 



53 

and that he can fly ; but there is no fuch matter, for he 
is naturally the moft fleepy and unnimble creature that 
lives, never offering to leap or bite any man, if he be not 
troden on firft, and it is their delire in hot weather to 
lie in paths, where the fun may fhine on them, where 
they will fleep fo foundly, that I have known four men., 
ftridc over them, and never awake her; five or fix- 
men have been bitten by them, which by ufing of Snake' 
weed were all cured, never any yet lofing his life by 
them. Cows have been bitten, but being cut in divers- 
places, and this weed thruft into their ftefh, were cured. 
1 never heard of any beaft that was yet loft by any of 
them, faving one Mare. A fmall fwitch will eafily kill, 
one of thefe Snakes. In many places of the country 
there be none of them , jis at Plimouth, Newtown, 
Affowamme, Nahant, &c.( ln fome places they will live^ 
fon one iidc of the river, and fwimming but over the 
water, as foon as they be come in to the woods, they J 
| turn up their yellow bellies and die. \ Up into the coun- 
try weft ward from the plantations is a high hill, which 
is called Rattle Snake hill, where there is great (lore of 
thefe poifonous creatures. There be divers other kind 
of Snakes, one whereof is a great long black Snake, two 
yards in length, which will glide through the woods 
very fwiftly ; thefe never do any hurt, neither doth any 
other kind of Snakes moleft either man or beaft. Thefe 
creatures in the winter time creep into clifts of rocks, 
and into holes under ground, where they lie clofe till 
May or ]une ^(Here likewise be great Itore of Frogs,] 
which in the fpring do chirp and whiftle like a bird, 
and at the lat ter end of fummer croak like our Engliih. , 
Here be alio Toads which will climb the tops 
or nigh trees, where they will fet croaking to the won- 
derment of fuch as are not acquainted with them. I 
never faw any Flefhwormes or Moles, butPifmires and 
Spiders be there. There are iikewife troublefome Flies, 





MEMOIRS 


OF 


WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, 

i 


POET-LAUREATE, D.O.L. 


BIT 


CHRISTOPHER WORDSWORTH, D.D. 


CANON OF WESTMINSTER. 


IN TWO VOLUMES. 


VOL. 11. 


LONDON: 


KDWARD MOXON, DOVER STREET. 


1851. 



584 



480 

"Next to your principles, and affections, and health, 
value your time." 

I have been favoured, by one of Mr. Wordsworth's 
friends 2 , with the following reminiscences: 

" I remember Mr. Wordsworth paying that, at a 
particular stage of his mental progress, he used to be 
frequently so rapt into an unreal transcendental 
world of ideas that the external world seemed no 
longer to exist in relation to him, and he had to re- 
convince himself of its existence by clasping a tree, 
or something that happened to be near him. I could 
not help connecting this fact with that obscure pas- 
sage in his great Ode on the ' Intimations of Immor- 
tality,' in which he speaks of 

1 See above, Chapter XLV. 

2 The Rev. R. P. Graves, of Windermere. 



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586 



NARRATIVE 


or AN 


EXPEDITION TO THE POLAR SEA, 


IN THE YEARS 1830, 1SSI, 1812, AND 1823. 


COMMANDED BY LIEUTENANT, NOW 


ADMIRAL FERDINAND VVRANGELL, 


OT THI RCS*liH 1W1II1L NAVT. 


NEW-YORK; 


HAKPER AND BROTHERS, CLirr-St. 


1842. 



58 



(At Nishne 
SefHeflnber; an 



27 

On the 9th of June we found ourselves opposite 
the town of Olekma.* Here we had heavy rain, 
and so violent a wind setting against the stream as 
completely to stop our progress. We had recourse, 
therefore, to an expedient commonly resorted to 
here in such cases, and which succeeded perfectly 
well. 1 We bound lour larch-trees together in a tow\ 
r and, by attaching stones to them, suspended them] 
about a fathom under water, their tops being down- J 
ward, and their roots attached by cords to the fore- J 
part of our vessel. As the wind had no effect onl 
the water at that depth, the under current, acting on I 
this kind of subaqueous sail, impelled us forward, in] 
.spite of the opposition encountered at the surface.^ 

as we continued our voyage, we saw large tracts 
of forest burning, notwithstanding the heavy rain. 
The bushes and dry underwood were for the most 
part already consumed. The giant pines and larch- 
es still stood enveloped in flames, offering a mag- 
nificent spectacle, especially at night, when the red 
flames were reflected' by the waves of the Lena, and 
nothing was heard but the loud crackling of the huge 
resinous trees. The forest-conflagrations often des- 

• The sables of Olekma are the best in Siberia : from 50 to 
100 roubles* a piece, and even more, are sometimes given here 
for skins of remarkable beauty. Those which have a bluish 
cast are the most prized. The squirrel skins of this district, 
which are distinguished for their very long, thick, dark-grey 
hair, are also much sought after, and fetch a high price. Olek- 
ma is therefore a place of importance on account of its fur-trade. 
It may moreover be regarded as the limit of grain-cultivation 
in Siberia : none grows to the north of Olekma, and the winter 
rye, which is the only grain cultivated at this place, not unfre- 
quently fails. 



59 



70 



Kolymsku he river freezes early in 
id nearer the mouth, especially of the 
most northerly branch, which has the least rapid 
current, loaded horses often cross on the ice as 
early as the 20th of August, nor does it ever melt 
before the beginning of June. It is true that during 
the three months which are honoured with the name 
of summer, the sun remains, for fifty-two days, con- 
stantly above the horizon, but then so near it that 
his light is accompanied by very little heat ; his 
disk often assuming an elliptical form, and being so 
dim that it may be gazed upon with the naked eye 
without inconvenience. 

During this season of perpetual light the usual 
order of nature is not disturbed: as the sun ap- 
proaches the horizon, evening and night come on, 
and all is hushed in repose ; as he again ascends, 
nature awakes ; the few little birds hail the new day 
with their cheerful twittering; the small folded yel- 
low flowers expand their petals, and everything liv- 
ing appears anxious to partake in the enjoyment 
which his faint beams afford. 

As under the tropics there are only spring and 
summer, so here there are only summer and winter, 
in spite of the opinion of the inhabitants, who talk 
quite seriously of their spring and autumn. 
fihey affect to recognise in that period when the sunl 
is first visible at noon, though at this vernal season] 
the thermometer is often — 35° during the night ; and ' 
autumn they reckon from the first freezing of the | 
river, which is early in Sept ember, when the tem- 
perature is frequently — 47°. t 

i ne vegelalifln of summer is scarcely more than 
a struggle for existence. In the latter end of May 
the stunted willow-bushes put forth little wrinkled 
leaves, and the banks which slope towards the south 
assume a semi-verdant hue. In June the tempera- 
ture at noon attains <o 72° ; the flowers begin to 
show themselves, and the berry-bearing plants blos- 



som, when not unfrequently an icy blast from the 
sea turns the verdure yellow, and destroys the 
bloom. The air is clearest in July, and the tem- 
perature is then usually mild. But, as if to imbitter 
to the inhabitants of this dreary region any sem- 
blance of summer, and to make them wish for the 
return of winter, millions of moschetoes now dark- 
en the air, and oblige them to take refuge in the 
thick and pungent smoke of the dymokuries* to pro- 
tect themselves against these tormentors. l~!ut, as 
everything in nature has a beneficent purpose, and 
there is no disadvantage that is not compensated by 
good, these insects render an essential service to 
the inhabitants by forcing the reindeer to leave the 
forests, and to take refuge in the cold open plains 
near the sea. This they commonly do in troops of 
many hundreds, or even thousands ; and then the 
hunters, lying in wait for them, especially as they 
cross the rivers and lakes, kill great numbers with- 
out difficulty. 

Another service rendered by the moschetoes is, 
that they prevent the horses from straying away in 
the vast plains, where there are no enclosures, and 
where they feed without keepers. Their instinct 
teaches them to keep near the dymokuries, to protect 
themselves from their enemies, where they graze 
on the leeside of these glimmering heaps in the 
cover of the smoke. When the pasture is fed off in 
one place, the smoke-heaps are established in an- 
other ; and they are generally enclosed by a slight 
fence, to prevent the horses from coming too near 
the fire. 

Let us begin, then, with spring. The fisheries, as 
we have before remarked, are the most important 



586 



branch of industry which the inhabitants pursue, 
and one on which their very existence may be said 
essentially to depend. The immediate neighbour- 
hood of Nishne Kolymsk is unfavourable to it, so 
that in spring the people leave their habitations, and 
scatter themselves along the banks of the river in 
search of places which arc more advantageous, 
where they erect their balagans or light summer-huts, 
and make their preparations for fishing. Most of 
them have their country-houses for this purpose, at 

71 

the mouths of the smaller streams, which they begin 
to visit in April. When the traders are passing the 
lesser Aniuj, about the middle of May, on their re- 
turn to Jakuzk from the yearly fair at Ostrownoj, 
the whole population of the place goes out to meet 
them, leaving only the Cossack commander, one or 
two guards, "the priest, and perhaps a few destitute 
families, who have nothing to sell, and who are too 
■weak to follow the crowd. 

Spring on the Kolyma is the most trying season 
of the year : the provisions laid up during the pre- 
vious summer and autumn have been consumed, and 
the fish, which had withdrawn into the deepest parts 
of the rivers and lakes during the intense cold, have 
not yet returned. The dogs, too, are often so much 
enfeebled by their winter work and by insufficient 
food, that they are unable to chase the reindeer and 
elk over the nasi* the only favourable opportunity 
which the early spring affords for obtaining food. 
A few ptarmigan are snared, but they are quite in- 
sufficient to satisfy the general want. The Tungusi 
and Jukahiri now flock in from the Tundra and from 
the Aliiuj, to the Russian villages on the Kolyma, 
to escape starvation. One sees them, like wander- 
ing spectres, pale, without strength, and scarcely 
able to walk ; they greedily pick up the remains of 
bones, skin, or anything else which can alleviate the 
pangs of hunger. 

_f*VVhen the warmth of the sun in spring thaws the surface of^ 
the snow, it freezes again at night, forming a thin crust of ice, 
which is just strong enough to bear a light sledge with its team 
of dogs. This stale of the snow is called nasi. The hunters 
profit by it to pursue the elk and reindeer by night ; and as the 
weight of these animals cause them to break through, they fall 
an easy prey. The nasi continues to form during a longer or 
shorter period, according to the more or less sheltered situation 
of different places, and the depth of the snow. It does not occor 
every year ; and during the whole time of our stay there was no 
nasi in tho district, j . 

78 

Besides the hunting and fishing, there are other 
matters which cannot well be neglected. Those 
who have horses must endeavour to make some 
provision of fodder for them ; and sometimes the 
house must be repaired, or a new one built. Snares 
must also be set in the forest for the fur animals,* 
and occasionally visited: this is usually done on 
horseback, before there is any snow, when the ground 
is hard frozen ; and after snow has fallen, sledges 
and dogs are used. About this time the reindeer 
leave the western side of the river and cross to the 
eastern, and the inhabitants employ a variety of de- 

• These traps, called past, are a kind of long box, in which 
the bait is connected with the open lid in such a manner that at 
the slightest touch the latt er closes and keeps t he animal shut 

, iip till the hv»'T C2S2S2 -' The Russian inhal-" 

t Kolymsk have above 7500 such traps along 

I river, on the eastern side, and in the Western 

land foxes are chiefly taken on the eastern shore i 
aria albng the mountain-rivers fhilippowKa, rameiejewa, on;., 
and stone-foxes on the Western Tundra. The wolverine is 
seldom taken, as he is strong enough to break through the trap 
if caught. A careful hunter visits his traps at least ten times in 



a winter; few, however, do it so often, and nearly half the ani- 
mals which are caught are lost in consequence. The hunters 
reckon upon about one taken for every ten traps each time they 
visit them. Avery injurious custom prevails among the Tun- 
gusi and Jukahiri of carrying away the young whenever they 
find them, even when still blind ; and the number of young 
foxes destroyed in this way is very considerable. 

79 

vices for taking them in the passage. Parties also 
go out on sledges to hunt the elk and the wild sheep 
on the Baranow rocks, and others in chase of foxes,' 
sables, and squirrels, by following their tracks in the 
fresh-fallen snow in sledges drawn by trained dogs. 
The latter chase is pursued more particularly by the 
Ukahiri of the Aniuj and Omolon, who live in the 
mountains and forests, and by the Yakuti of Sredne 
and Werchne Kolymsk. 

140 

At this stage of my narrative I will notice the re- 
markable skill with which our sledge-drivers pre- 
served the direction of their course, whether in 
winding among large hummocks, or on the open un- 
varied field of snow, where there were no objects 
to direct the eye. They appeared to be guided by a 
kind of unerring instinct. This was especially the 
case with my Cossack driver, Sotnik Tatarinow, 
who had had great experience in his occupation. In 
the midst of the intricate labyrinths of ice, turning 
sometimes to the right and sometimes to the left, 
now winding round a large hummock, now crossing 
over a smaller one, among such incessant changes 
of direction he seemed to have a plan of them all 
in his memory, and to make them so compensate 
each other that we never lost our main course, and, 



141 

while I was watching the different turns, compass 
in hand, trying to discover the true route, he appear- 
ed always to have a perfect knowledge of it practi- 
cally. His estimation of the distances passed over, 
reduced to a straight line, generally agreed with my 
calculations, based on observed latitudes and the 
day's course. It was less difficult to preserve the 
true direction on a plain surface. To enable us to 
follow as straight a line as possible, we endeavoured 
to keep our eyes fixed on some remarkable piece 
of ice at a distance ; and if th ere were none such. 



we were guided Dy tne wavelike ridges of snow 
•(sastrugi) which are formed, both on the land and on 
the level ice of the sea, by any wind of long contin- 
uance. These ridges always indicate the quarter 
from which the prevailing winds blow. The inhab- 
itants of the tundras often travel to a settlement 
several hundred wersts off, with no other guide over 
these unvaried wastes than the sastrugi. They 
know by experience at what angle they must cross 
the greater and the lesser waves of snow in order 
to arrive at their destination, and they never fail. 
It often happens that the true, permanent sastruga 
has been covered by another produced by temporary 
winds ; but the traveller is not to be deceived there- 
by ; his practised eye detects the change, and, care- 
fully removing the recently-drifted snow, he corrects 
his course by the lo wer sastruga and by the angle 
, f ormed by the two, f we availed ourselves of these 
Hdges on the level ice of the sea, for the compass 
cannot well be used while driving : it is necessary 
lo halt in order to consult it, and this loses time. 
Where there were no sastrugi, we had recourse to 
the sun or stars when the weather was clear, but 
we always consulted the compass at least once ev- 
ery hour. 



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ulation, call themselves Tcnnygik. The two classes 
live on good terms with each other, and interchange 
their different commodities. The inhabitants of the 
coast furnish to those of the interior whale's flesh 
and bones, walrus skin, and train oil, which last is a 
favourite article of food, and receive in return rein- 
deer skins, both raw and made up into clothing. 

281 

> The huts of 
lages along 
t»r Of bOheU 

point at the top, where there is a hole for the smoke 
to escape. The low entrance is always turned to 
the south, and is at the narrow end of the hut : the 
opposite end is much broader, and in it is a low 
square inner tent, which forms the sleeping and living 
apartment. In severe cold weather it is also used 
for cooking in. by the heat of a lamp of train oil with 
.moss wicks. (The usual cooking fire is made of] 



587 




fBones Avnich nave been soaked In train 
Vwc. 



oil drift-J 
\ wood for fuel b eing extremely scarce. 
"["" At ir-Kaipij, me pn |lcl pal occupation of the inhab- 
itants is taking seals and walruses. Seals are some- 
times caught by a sort of net formed of thongs, 
placed under the ice, and in which the animal be- 
comes entangled. Sometimes the following method 
js resorted to : the hunter dresses himself in white, 
that he may not be noticed on the snow, and lies 
down near one of the openings where the seals 
come out of the water to sun themselves : he is 
armed with a Jance, and carries an instrument con- 
sisting of five bears' claws fastened to a stick, with 
which he keeps gently scratching the snow on the 
surface of the ice the whole time. The people say 
that this sets the seals to sleep ; but its more proba- 
ble use is to cover the noise made by the hunter as 
he gradually creeps nearer, till he is able to reach 
the animal with his lance. This method rarely fails 
of success. Wolves are killed by a very ingenious 
device. The two ends of a strong piece of whale- 
bone are bent together, and fastened by a thread ; 
•water is then poured over the ring till it is covered 
with a crust of ice sufficiently strong to make it re- 
tain its form ; the thread is then cut, and the whole 
is smeared over with fat. The wolf, on finding it, 
swallows it greedily, when the ice melts, and the 
.elastic whalebone springs asunder and chokes him. 

294 

The poor horses suffer 
at least as much as their riders ; for, besides the gen- 
eral effect of the cold, they are tormented by ice 
forming in their nostrils and stopping their breath- 
ing; whenever they intimate that this is the case, 
by a distressful snort and a convulsive slinking of 
the head, the drivers relieve them by taking out the 
pieces of ice, which would otherwise suffocate them. 
When the frozen ground is not covered with snow, 
their hoofs often burst from the intensity of the 
cold. The caravan is constantly surrounded by a 
thick cloud of vapour; nor is it only living bodies 
which produce this effect, but the very snow smokes. 
These evaporations are instantly changed into myr- 
iads of needles of ice, which fill the air, and cause 
a continual slight nois e- not unlike the sound of 
torn satin or thick silk. [Even the reindeer seek, the 



forest to protect themselves from the severity of the 
cold ; or, if they are in the tundras, where there is 
no shelter to be found, the whole herd crowd togeth- 
er as closely as possible to gain what little warmth 
they can from each other, and they may be seen 
standing in this way quite motionless. Only the 
dark bird of winter, the raven, still cleaves the icy 
air with slow and heavy wing, leaving behind him a 



long line of th in vapour, marking the track of his/ 
^ solitary flight. ( The frosty influence elftend*seven 
to inanimate nature ; the trunks of the largest trees 
are rent asunder with a loud explosive sound, which 
in these deserts falls on the ear like a signal-shot at 
sea ; large masses of rock arc riven from their an- 
cient sites ; the ground in the tundras and in the 
rocky valleys cracks, and forms wide yawning fis- 
sures, through which the waters beneath the frozen 
surface spring up, throwing off a cloud of vapour, 
and being instantly converted into ice. Nor are the 
effects of this degree of cold confined to the- earth ; 
the beauty of the deep blue polar sky, so often and 

295 

so justly praised, disappears in the dense and hazy 
atmosphere, and, though the stars still glisten in the 
.firmament, they no longer shine with their wonted 
brilliancy. 

•We had still before us the difficult passage of the 
Werchojansk Mountains, the foot of which we 
reached on the 4th of January, 1824. A violent 
cutting wind, blowing through the ravines, obliged 
us to seek shelter in a powarna. At sunset the 
whole country became covered with a thick frozen 
mist, which the wind drove towards us through the 
narrow mountain passes ; and this was followed by 
a storm so violent that it must have overthrown our 
frail shelter if its lowness had not saved it. The 
gale lasted till the following morning, when it sub- 
sided, the atmosphere cleared up, and the tempera- 
ture rose to — 11°, which, by comparison, seemed 
mild. We hastened to avail ourselves of this fa- 
vourable change to commence our passage across 
the mountains. On the 7th of January we reached 
the opposite side of them, and entered a fine fir 
wood, the evergreen beauty of which was the more 
striking, from the recent storm having swept the 
snow from the branches. On the 10th of January 
we reached Jakuzk, where I found my valued friend 
Lieutenant Anjou, who had returned in safety from 
his arduous journeys along the Jana and across the 
Polar Sea, and passed many happy hours with him 
in recounting our respective adventures. 

Since we were at Jakuzk four years before, many - 
changes had taken place. The old ostrog had been 
pulled down, and the materials had been employed 
in constructing a kind of clubhouse and assembly- 
rooms, where I saw a well-lighted ballroom, a buf- 
fet with refreshments, a billiard-room, a cardroom, 
&c. : public dinners and dances were given here, 
and the ballroom was occasionally even converted 
into a theatre. 




588 



LIVES 



OF THE 



BROTHERS HUMBOLDT, 



ALEXANDER AND WILLIAM. 



TRANSLATED AND ARRANGED FROM THE GERMAN 



KLENCKE & SCHLESIER, 



By JULIETTE BAUER. 



CffiftD ^portvafta. 



NEW YORK: 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 
329 ft 33) PEARL STREET, 

FRANKLIN SQUARE. 

1853. 




mm 




, -^fp^ 1 




i ?^lM0ti' r ^ l ° 



ALEXANDER VON HDMBOLDT. 




ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT 



& 'iitngrnpljinu Bnnnmfnt. 



By PROFESSOR KLENCKE. 

A 



Cvanslateto from tje German 



By JULIETTE BAUER. 



NEW YORK: 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS. 

S 1 9 ft 331 PEARL STRICT. 

riARKLIN IQOAIt. 

1853 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Axtiqcitt and origin of Field Sports. Wanting among the Israelites. In As- 
syria; in Persia; lloy.il Parks, or J'ctradineg ; In Greece; among the Ro- 
mans; the descent of the Norse races ; the chase a northern passion; un- 
congenial to the Latin nations; universal among people of Norse origin; 
not notable in provincial lirit.iin ; imported by the early Saxons; ancient 
statutes; increased after the Norman conquest; cruel game and forest laws; 
their relaxation ; continuance of the taste among the English gentry ; its 
effect on their character; New York prejudices; modification of these ; un- 
inanlincss of young men ; public attention called to the want of relaxation ; 
true sense of the word re-creation ; present need of re-creation ; inlluenco 
of field sports in soldiership; Balaklava and tho trenches; a contrast; a 
recommendation ; what I promise to my renders . . . pp. 17-33 

THE GUN, AND HOW TO CHOOSE IT. 

Shooting with gun or rifle the first of American Field Sports. Hunting, proper. 
little practised; severity of northern winters; the Washington and Mon- 
treal fox-hounds ; fox-hunting in Maryland and Virginia; deer-hunting in 
the Carolinas and Georgia; bear-hunting in Mississippi and Arkansas; 
coursing deer in the prairie States; forest game not hunted, but stalked or 
driven; stable-stand and dog-draw; ancient British and modern American 
hunting nearly identical; tho cross-bow; shooting, the first qualification 
of the American s[K>rtsmnn; dog management; wood-craft; the crack shot: 
false sportsmen ; the fowling-piece ; the percussion gun; the old Hint and 
steel; their comparative advantages; Dint and steel everywhere exploded; 
even in armies; the double gun ; the perfection of shooting; the single gun; 
the latter good for beginners ; its weight; its comparative effect; i:s con- 
tinned service. The gun must be intrinsically good; mu.-t especially suit 
its owner. Why one gun suits, and another not; how to try If a gun suits 
or no. The trigger-pull; how to ascertain its force; the light pull; the 
heavy pull; the true power; cause of missed shots. The actual quality of 
guns ; difficult to ascertain ; metal of which made ; the common cheap gun ; 
how to procure a good gun ; how a bad one ; tho flashy, cheap, sham gun ; 
how a good judge judges; forged names of gnnmakers ; Birmingham, Ger- 
man, Belgian rubbish; best quality of barrels; various opinions on; my 
own taste; why; London makers ; provincial do.; wholesale do. ; Ameri- 
can do. ; which the best; why so; comparative price of the best guns of 
each; recommendations, according to value. Double-barrels; revolving 
shot-guns; breech-loading do.; Lang's patent gun; Perry's patent do.; 
good for duck-guns. Length, weight, and gango of guns considered; the 
old system; the new system ; Colonel Hawker's system; the best general 
gun; its size and execution; what it will do ; why I prefer it; short guns; 



where they fail ; double-barrelled duck-guns; their size and service; heavy 
single duck-guns ; what they will do ; what they will cost; how to chooso 
a gun; tho trials; close shooting guns; scattering guns ; cartridges ; charg- 
ing, and its effects ; trial of duck-gui.s; what is a crack 6hot . . S4-SS 

THE GUN, AND HOW TO USE IT. 

The art once obtained, always available ; onco a master, always a master; with 
ono system, with all systems; Improves with Improvement; throe heads in 
tho nso of the gun: safety, effect, service; what is meant by safety; 
when a loaded gun maybe called safe; always liable to casual discharge ; 
safety stops ; why not useful ; how . ■, carry a loaded gun safely ; how to carry 
the locks safely ; on the nipples; at half-cock; at full cock; how to load safely; 
powder-flask ami shot-pouch; how to ram home; how to save a maimed 
hand; how to cap your piece; wadding; gunpowder; ducking powder; 
copper caps ; sizes of shot ; a gun, how safe in a carriage ; how safe in a house ; 
Idiotic accidents with loaded arms. The criminality of such accidents; tho 
proper penalty for such ; how not to draw one's ramrod ; how not to test its 
being loaded; how to blow one's brains out. How to clean a gun ; the effects 

of foulness on a gun ; wlinn i injurious. When to clean a gun; who should 

clean it; who not; to wash the barrels; to cleanso tho barrels ; to air tho 
barrels; to dry rub tho barrels; to clean externally; when not to clean tho 
locks; why; to polish the stock; to put by the gun for tho season. Per- 
cussion locks. When necessary to remove them. To take them off. Bar 
and back-action. How to dissect the lock. How to clean it; how to recon- 
struct it ; how to prcsorvc barrels when laid by. How to restore. Loon- 
skin oil. Tho rifle. The old-school rifle. Its gauge and length. Cause of 
its adoption and success. Infancy of the art. Its natural defects. Gradual 
improvements. Tho short yager rifle. The English double-barrelled sport- 
ing rifle. American rest and tariret-shootlng. The two-grooved rifle. Tho 
Minic rifle. Tho Enfield rille. Breech-loading arms. Perry's patent. Rc- 
Tolvcrs and breech-loaders useless as shot-guns. Military revolvers ; sport- 
ing do.; Colt's patent; pistols; rifles; Porter's do.; military breech load- 
ers; sporting do., rifles ; Perry's arm; described; its qualities; its princi- 
ple; Sharpo's arm; where and why defective; my own choice; single 
lines; English double rifles ; how to choose a rifle. How far men can bo 
taught to shoot by precept 84-12T 

nOW TO LEARN TO 8H0OT. 

The great dlflicnlly. Tho Oaklelgh shooting code ; how most men miss. Why 
they do 60. Keep tho eye low. When a stock fits. The main point My 
opinion of this. The art to bo acquired. Common error in this country. 
Shooting too ice 11 sitting. What must bo unlearnod. Not so In Europe. 
Effect of this cause hero. What makes tho rifleman mtss the flying shot. 
Mastery of tho gun. Position for practice. To raise and cock; to lower 
»nd return to half cock. To shoot quick. Both oyes open. Practlco with 
caps only — with jK>wdcr. Candle practlco. Practico at a mark — without. 



shot With phot At small birds. To Judge of errors. Allowance for mo- 
tion. Why necessary. How to acquire tin- trick, Practice for living shots. 
For running shots. Physical disabilities. To learn rifle shooting. Disper- 
iJon of a shot-charge. Directness of n hall, Necessity ol perfect aim. 
Steadiness. How to take, aim; rest-tiring had practice. Rifle clubs. Al- 
lowance for motion of objects. How to allow. For a cross wind — long 
ranees. Kitlo shooting and shooting flying nearly incompatible ; why so; 
shooting, riding, and to speak, truth, most bo learned — young 123-153 

Tin; DOG. 

Ills use nnd rptnllties; kind usage of; cruelty lo, exploded. House-do?* not 
good fleld-dogs; why. Intelligence; how cultivated. Punishment; when, 

and how, needed; in breaking; when broken; the whip — how to boused, 
kicking dogs— an infamy. Old dogs, when t > bo (logged ; when to be rated. 
Dinks and Xlayhew. Food and condition. Various breeds of sporting dogs. 
Sporting authorities — Hutchinson, Scrope, Oolquhoun, Hawker. English- 
broke dogs. English -bred dogs. Russian setters . . . 151-164 

THE SETTER. 

Ills excellences, 6tyle, beauty, and courage. His temper. Compared with the 
pointer. Craven's opinion. My own opinion. In summer shooting; 
autumn -Looting. Grouse shooting; on the hills ; on the prairies. Absurd 
plan for breeding setters. Pointing, formerly an acquired trick, now an in- 
stinct. Hacking the same. What is a setter? Classification of dogs. Tho 
spaniel; various breeds of— the Clumber— the King Charles— tho New- 
foundland. First mention of setters. First breaking of spaniels to set. 
Setters, till of late, called spaniels) The English setter; his points, his 
qualities, his beauty. The Irish setter; his points, his coloivhls nose, his 
temper. The Russian setter; his [mints, his docility, his endurance, his 
color. Rare in America. "Old Charon." Style and jioint of Russians. 
Range of setters. American dog-breakers— an error. Beating and quarter- 
lne. Duration of a dog. Dog poisoning in Jersey. Denks on the dog. 
Pointing vs. setting. Color of English Setters. The Webster setters. The 
Harewood setters ... 165-187 

THE POINTER. 

Not a natural dog. Original type of. The Spanish pointer. The improved 
English pointer. Two varieties. Best form. Excellences of. Defects 
ot Best for young sportsmen. Stouehcnge. Points of pointers. Col- 
ors of pointers. French pointers. Double-nosed pointers. Temper of 
pointers .... .... . . 183-197 

THE COOKING-SPANIEL. 

Best for woodcock. Preferable for covert-shooting to pointers or ect'ers. Why 
so. For quail shooting. Difficulty of breaking cockers. Little used In Amer- 
ica. The OarTollton breed. The cocker. The springer. The Clumber. 
Their points, colors, and qualities; strongly recommended . 19S-20S 

THE WATER-SPANIEL. 

His blood in setters. Crosses always objectionable. This cross the. least so. 
Two varieties. Points nnd colors. How to break him. How he should 
work ; how retrieve. Where to shoot over him — for wild fowl — for snipe — 
for teal— for ruffed grouse. On the Canadian rice lakes . 209-215 

THE NEWFOUNDLAND RETRIEVER. 

On the Chesapeake. In Great Britain. In Newfoundland. The Labradorcan 
the pure St. Johns ; their unrivalled qualities; their sagacity 210-221 

THE HOUND. 

The Talbot. The Sleuth hound. Shakspeare's type. Soincrvllle's type In 
George III.'s time. Stoneheuge's views. The improved English hound. 
How bred. The southern hound. The American fox-hound. Color of 
hounds. English stag-hound ; English fox-hound; English harrior; English 
beagle; Scottish deer-hound.* How bred 222-234 

Kennel Management. — Absurd dog-laws. Hydrophobia— dog-houses— clean- 
liness — beds— food — water — exercise — special remedies— for fleas and vc rmin 
— to harden the feet — for rheumatism. Lewis— Blaine— Youatt— Mayhew 
on the dog. The last preferred. Emetics— purgatives— for worms- for poi- 
son — for snake bites — for epileptic fits. Take advice . 235-213 

SNIPE SHOOTING. 

The English snipe — American do. Their time of arrival— differs in different 
States. Their seasons— state of the ground. Their habits — in mild weather 
— in wintry weather — In hail storms — when breeding. Drumming of snipe 
— great flights of snipe — when to look for them in spring— where. Best 
weather for— in England— here. Peculiarity of snipe — how to beat for; 
with what dogs; Cob Hutchinson; fast dogs; steady dogs; the check cord; 



591 



dogsrueing; beating at a trot; the slow pointer; downwind; distance of 
shots; snipo shooting a knack; autumn shipo shooting; in Canada; cour- 
tesy; how to shoot In company; how to mark; twenty roles for young 
sportsmen. Tho Virginia rail. The pectoral sandpiper 2+1-270 

BAY SHOOTING. 

Wild fowl; none at this season; whither gone; bay snipe. Tho curlew. 
The common curlow. Tho Hudsonian curlew. The Esquimaux curlew. 
Tho golden plover; the black-bellied plover ; the Bartramian sandpiper or 
upland plover; tho godwits — marlin nnd ring-tailed marlin. Red-breasted 
sandpiper; red-backed sandpiper. The yellow-shanks tattler ; tell-tale tat- 
tler. Tho willet. Mode of shooting them. Proper guns for. Anecdotes. 
End of season . .271-281 

WOODCOCK SHOOTING. 

In July — decrease of woodcock; impropriety of law; unfitness of season; the 
old birds, the young do.; shall dogs flush? to keep dogs steady; spaniel 
work; snap shooting; summer woodcock; bow they lly ; how they alight ; 
to mark them; to shoot them; dry weather; wet weather; in corn; durim- 
their moult. Summer migration 2S2-295 

GROUSE SHOOTING ON THE PRAIRIES. 

Six varieties of grouse— the rufl'cd grouse; the Canada grouse; the willow 
grouse; the geographical range of these three. How to shoot the ruffed 
grouse; the Canada grouse and willow grouse rarely shot; the pinnated 
grouse or heath hen ; the sharp-tailed grouse. Range of the pinnated grouse ; 
season for shooting; size of shot; shooting in August; in September; in 
October; pointers the best dogs; why so; best way to hunt; proper gun; 
how they fly; how to kill them; great sport .... 290-305 

BIRDS NOT GAME. 

The upland plover or Bartram's sandpiper; where found; shooting them from 
chaises at Newport; stalking them; poor sport. Rail shooting. Tho sora 
rail; where found; when; their habits; their flight; how to kill them; tho 
proper gun; the proper charge; the landing net; reed birds; teal; galli- 
nules; anecdotes of shooting; slaughter, not sport . . , 800-315 

AUTUMN SHOOTING. 

Quail; woodcock; ruffed grouse; large haro; smaller hare; morning shooting; 
when to start; how to beat for quail; tho best ground; the point; tho 
flush; single birds; the bevy; how and where to shoot; how to mark; 
how they fly; where they will alight ; retention of scent; lurking; after- 
noon shooting; quail a fast flyer; rises behind. The ruffed grouse; his 
whirr on rising; autumn woodcock; his different flight now; his autumn 
lying grounds ; the smaller hare ; to hunt with beagles ; habits of the hare ; 
best grounds; how to get shots; wheic to hit him . . . 316-332 

WILD FOWL SHOOTING. 

In Chesapeake Bay. The swan: the canvass-back; tho red head; the scaup; 
the buffel-headed duck; the South-southerly; the ruddy duck; the wid- 
geon ; the teal; English widgeon ; English teal ; J. C. Bell ; Chesapeake Bay 
shooting; from the points; how fowl are missed; the best guns; nllowaneo 
to be made for speed of flight. To tole wild fowl ; how to shoot on tho 
water; paddling up to fowl; proper powder; size of shot; goose shooting; 
from batteries; unsportsmanlike; Squam Beach; Barnegat; from boats in 
hassock; over stools; calling fowl ; coots; inland duck shooting; the mal- 
lard; the pin-tail duck ; the green-winged teal ; the blue-winged teal ; the 
golden eye; tho summer duck; tho dusky duck; the winter duck; the 
trumpeter swan; tho snow goose; the white-fronted goose; shooting on 
drowned meadows; by 6tream edges; on points of tho great lakes; on tho 
rice lakes; best guns for this sport. John Mullin's guns . . B33-S50 

'HIE FOREST AND THE PLAINS. 

Moose; cariboo; elk; buffalo; antelope; bear; deer; tnrkey. How to follow 
trail ; not to bo learned from books ; driving deer ; chasing on horseback : 
still hunting, or stalking; lire-hunting, not a sport. Quid of Qulncy; deer 
over pointers; waiting at a stand ; riding to hounds; still hunting; moose 
and cariboo, on snow-shoes; stalking bufl'alo; riding to buffalo; shooting 
from the saddle ; where to plant tho ball ; what sized balls ; sporting rifles; 
how stocked; how sighted ; always reload at once ; turkey hunting; with a 
call ; over beagles ; true sportsmanship 861-362 



GAME FISH. 

RIVER FISH AND FISniNG. 

Stonehenge's manual ; American fishes. The 6almon ; the sea trout; tho com- 
mon trout; the lake trout; the slskawit; tho moskalongo; the pickerel; 



592 



the chub, roach, and dace; the carp; the bass; tlio striped bass; the black 
bass; the rock bass; the growler; the pike-perch; the perch; the suntlsh; 
the eel. The line, reel, and hook ; reel lines; silk and hair; Indian weed; 
ellk; hair; reels; the foot length; English, Scotch, and Irish hooks ; tloats; 
sinkers; swivels 863-379 

Tin: Hod.- The general rod ; the fly-rod 879 

Natural ami Ground Baits. — The earth-worm; dew-worm; marsh-worm; 
tag-tail; brandling; red-worm; shrimps; cockchafers; beetles; grasshop- 
pers; moths; ephemera; caddises; humble bees; gentles; salmon roc; 
shad roe; smelt me; shrimp paste; bread paste; ground bait; fish bait; 
dead fish ; spinning; trolling with the gorge hook; to keep bait fish. Live 
bait 379-393 

Artificial Bait and Flies. — How to tic flies. List of twenty-four trout flics; 
salmon Hies; the landing net, gaff, <fcc., &c 893-405 

Bait Fishing. — For minnows and small fish 406, 407 

Carp Fishing. — Best rod, line, ice, Ac.; ground baits; baits; season; 
method 407-409 

Perch Fishing. — For small ones ; hooks; baits; largo fish ; with the minnow; 
roving; spinning; the gorge; the method 409-413 

Pickerel Fishing.— The tackle; the rod; the reel; the line; the baits; tho 
snap; tho gorge; to spin; to bait; the season; to throw; to strike; to 
play ; to kill ; to land ; to extract the hooks. The snap-bait; how to strike 
with it; the gorge hook; least cruel; tacklo for gorge trolling; how to 
cast; how to strike; how to remove the bait ; the spoon . . 413—122 

Bass Fisiiino. — Various methods of; the striped bass; will take real or artificial 
squid; artificial salmon fly; may be taken by spinning, trolling, or bottom 
fishing; shad roe in spring. Black ami rock bass of the lakes. The ibis fly; 
trolling; the spoon. The growler and piko perch, taken with the craw 
fish 423 

EEtFismNO. — The ledger line; float line; night line; bobbing; trimmers; 
sniggling; eel-spears. Live fish or worm baits. How to bait the hooks. 
Where to fish for eels; how to strike them 424-423 

Bottom Fishing for Common Trout, Lake Trout, anj> Ska Trout. — The rod; 
the casting lino; tho gut bait and tackle. The best baits, and how to bait 
with them. The minnow; the devil-bait. The season of trout; the best 
water; how to cast and play the worm; how to strike; caterpillars; 
grubs; salmon roo; how to use dead and live minnows. How to spin; 
Walton's, Stoddart's, and Hawker's theory 428-435 

Trolling for Lake Trout.— Order of description. The rod; the reel; tho 
line; the train of hooks. The bait and Hies; the bait and kettle; the boat 
and oarsman ; how to strike the fish 435-443 

NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FLY-FISHING. 
Where practised; the difference between the two .... 444,445 

Apparatus for Dippino and Whipping. — Tho rod for dipping; tho fly-rod, 
line, and reel ; the flies; how to cast; from the left shoulder; tho figure of 
8 ; how to play tho fly 445-452 

Trout Fisiiino.— Tho two-handed rod ; tho professed fly-fisher ; tho practical 
fly-flshcr; how to fish any water; how to throw the flics; how to strike; 
how to play and kill 452—457 

Salmon Fishing.— The tackle; the salmon-rod; the salmon-line; the flics; 
how to cast ; how to choose flies ; where to cast for fish. Cast from tho 
left shoulder, sometimes the reverse. Length of line; Mr. Stoddart's rule. 
How to work the fly on the water. Salmon less scary than trout; tostriko 
the salmon ; to play the salmon; one third of fish hooked escape; sizo and 
power of fish; Mr. Stoddart's rule for playing; grilse; bagglts; how to use 
the gaff; how to kill your fish 457-467 

SFA FISniNG. 

List of gamo sen-flsh. Weak fish; tackle, baits, and places for; king fish; 
tackle, baits, and places for; black fish; tackle, baits, and places for; 
sheep's-head ; tackle, baits, and places for; blue fish; sailing and squiddlng. 
Three tables of instruction for sea fishing 468-475 

Appendix A.— Mullln's New York fowling pieces and prices; table of strength 
of gun metals 476 

Appendix B.— Trimble's Imported duck guns, Baltimore. ... 478 

Appendix C— Apparatus for artificial fly making 479 



108 



' Loon-skin oil, mentioned a bove, is thus made. ) Cut 
away with a sharp knife all the fat, nearly half an inch in 
thickness, which comes away, adhering to the inside of the 
skin, when the bird is flayed ; try it out in an earthen pot 
or crucible, purify by inserting old nails or shot for ten 
day s, dr aw off the oil, and bottle. 

—jit is the sovercignest thing in the world to prevent rust, 
especially the rust arising from sea-air ; I learned the use 
of it from observing that the gunners at Barnegat, Egg 
Harbor, &c, constantly, when out on the bays, keep a piece 
of loon-skin in the pocket of their pea-jackets, and therewith 
wipe, from time to time, with the fleshy or fa tty side, the 
metallic parts of their fowling-pieces. J Perceiving the 



effect of this, I improved on the plan, by trying out and 
bottling the oil, and from long trial can pronounce it the 
best detergent and preventive of rust. 

A few words on the rifle, that most American of all 
fire-arms, as adapted to sporting purposes, and to field use 
as opposed to target practice, and I pass on to more inter- 
esting, if not more indispensable portions of my subject. 

The ordinary old-fashioned rifle of the American back- 
woodsman, which did its work of extermination on the 

109 
red Indian, and the fatal volleys of which told with effect 
so deadly on the disciplined battalions of England during 
the wars of the Eevolution and of 1812, has had its day ; 
it is superseded ; crowded out of its place by newer and 
more puissant arms ; its mission is ended, whether in the 
field of the chase or of real warfare. 

It was a ponderous, unwieldy, long, ill-balanced barrel, 
of weight so great, as, while it was rendered thereby irk- 
some to carry, and difficult even for a strong man to fire 
but from a rest, to prevent all recoil, and to make it as 
steady almost as a fixture in any hands capable of balancing 
or aiming it. 

The ball was ludicrously small, varying from 80 to 
120 to the pound, and the charge of powder in proportion. 
The object of the hunter was extreme precision at exceed- 
ingly short ranges, the densely wooded wilderness, which 
was alike the hunting ground and the battle field, present- 
ing insuperable obstacles to seeing an object, much more 
drawing a fine sight on it, at a distance exceeding a hun- 
dred yards. 

To this must be added, that in the old days of scouting, 
Indian fighting, and forest hunting in the Atlantic States, 
both lead and powder were matters to the woodman worth 
almost their weight in gold- 1 — that it was desirable to get 
as many bullets, as could by any means be compassed, out 



of a pound of lead, and that so valuable a thing as a charge 
was never to be wasted, unless with the certainty of bring- 
ing down an enemy or sending home a meal. 

246 

The seasons of the appearance of snipe in the mead- 
ows and salt marshes, where the spring and tide waters 
meet, which arc for the most part the scenes of their first 
appearance, are to be recognized by the simultaneous 
appearance of the blue-birds in the vicinity of buildings, 
of the shad in the river estuaries, by the croaking of the 
awakened frogs in the pools and quagmires, and by the 
bursting of the willow buds ; all of which indications of 
the spring occur nearly at the same moment in every 
various locality from the banks of the Potomac to those 
of the St. Lawrence. 

The frost must be entirely out of the ground, especial- 
ly in the wet, cold lowlands and meadow-swamps, which 
are the favorite feeding grounds of this bird, and the 
spring grass should have come up tender, succulent, and 
green ; the close of winter should have been distinguished 
by the raw north-eastern equinoctial gale, and this should 
have been succeeded by warm, genial weather, with an 

247 
intermixture of soft southerly or south-westerly breezes, 
and tepid rain showers with April gusts and sunshine ; 
the meadows should not be overflowed with water, nor 
yet, by any means, be dry or arid, but should be equally 
divided, or nearly so, between grassy dry tracts, from 
which the spring rains have long enough subsided to 
allow the herbage to grow sufficiently tall to yield a dry 
and comfortable covert, and shallow muddy pools, slanks 
and runnels, in which abound the aquatic insects on which 
the snipe breed. 

When the meadows are in this condition, early, and 
the weather is settled, fine and genial, the snipe make up 
their minds, as it would seem, to make a long halt, and 
refresh themselves fairly, before they again take wing for 
their northern breeding-places; and, in this case, they 
attach themselves to the ground, grow fat, tame and lazy ; 
and will sometimes, where the) arc not harassed by inces- 
sant persecution and pot-shooting, lie so hard to the dog, 
that they can with difficulty be got to rise on the wing. 

This occurs, however, only when the birds come on 
the ground early, and when the weather is fine during the 
whole, or, at least, the greater part of their stay. On 
their first coming they are always wild, constantly in motion, 
restless and capricious, often deserting favorite grounds 
and shifting to others in no wise superior, without any 
imaginable reason. If the meadows be in good order, 
and-the weather follows mild and warm, they settle them- 



593 



selves down, often pairing, and sometimes even breeding 

in the countr y . J I have myself never seen a nest of young 

[snipe, as I have the young woodcock repeatedly, while 



248 



unfledged and incapable of taking wing; but in July cock 
shooting, in Orange County, I have more than once shot 
young birds of the season, with the pin-feathers not yet 
fully grown, which must have been bred on the ground. ) 



\ In wild, windy weather, particularly on their first 
coming, and when the season is uncertain with interrupted 
night frosts and hail showers, snipe often rise in whisps, 
as it is termed, or little knots of ten or twenty birds, 
when they invariably fly wild and high, and often leave 
the ground entirely, soaring up and going away directly 
out of sight. 

At a later period, when the weather is hot, and when 
the breeding season is at hand, the birds have a trick of 
rising perpendicularly into the air, and then letting them- 
selves drop a hundred feet plumb down through the air, 
with the quills of their wings set edgewise, making a 
strange sound, which once heard cannot be mistaken, and 
is known as drumming, f This is, beyond doubt, an amor 



ous manifestation, like the strutting and cooing of pigeons, 
the shuffling and wing-fluttering of game-cocks, and the 
tail-displaying of peacocks and turkeys ; nor do I know a 
Bound of worse omen to the sportsman ; since, at these 
moments, the birds are inconceivably wild, calling one 
another up, until all in the neighborhood, or within sound, 
are wheeling and gyrating in the air like tumbler pigeons, 
and playing all sorts of fautastic tricks such as well-disposed 
snipe would never dream of at any other season, sometimes 
alighting on rail-fences or tall trees, and chattering like 
hens which have laid an egg. 
252 
A mild, sunshiny, soft, and even hot day, with a gentle 
southerly wind is, then, of all days, the day for the snipe 
bogs ; and I have invariably found that the hotter the 
day, if it be humid, with a good deal of gentle air, the 
closer lie the birds. I have seen the time when they 
could hardly be kicked up under the dog's nose ; nor is 
this all ; for every old sportsman knows that in such 
weather the flight of the birds themselves is wholly altered, 

253 

and that, instead of jumping up breast high at one jerk, 
and then zigzagging away like a flash of lightning, they 
will flop lazily along, like half-awakened owls in daylight, 
and, if they have been undisturbed and have long haunted 
the ground, will often drop again within twenty yards of 
the dog that has flushed them. 



594 



When they do thus, there is no easier bird, even for 
a tyro ; all that has to be done is to lot them go away a 
fair distance, so as to allow for the spread of your shot, 
to be cool, and to cover your bird before you pull the 

trigger „ 

> There is one peculiarity in the snipe, that it invari- 
ably rises up wind, and goes away as nearly up wind as 
possible. The consequence is that a mode of beating for 
him is proper, is indeed the only proper mode, which 
would be decidedly wrong in trying for any other kind 
gf game, J 

One must invariably beat down wind for him. If 
possible, and where there is a long narrow range of 
meadow, I would make a great circuit, and lose a couple of 
hours in doing so, since it is by far the better way to enter 
the ground from the windward, instead of, as one should do 
in every other sort of shooting, from the leeward end. If 
not, the whole tract must be worked diagonally, never 
fully up-wind, and wherever an unusually likely piece of 
lying ground, soft oozy tender grass, outspread in patches 
between high dry reed beds or burnt grounds, in which 
snipe never lie, or rusty half evaporated slanks and pools, 
or tussocky spring bogs, a circuit must be made to get the 
wind. 2Q0 

The only advantage that I can perceive in summer 
woodcock -shooting is, that it does uncmestionably teach one 
how to kill snap shots, and to bring down birds, firing at 
them unseen, by calculation, in a style which can hardly 

be acquired in any other school. ^^^^ 

}± Summer woodcock almost invariably fly straight, rising 
gradually till they have topped the bushes, if in close 
covert, and then go away nearly in a horizontal line, until 
they choose to alight. Their method of doing this is 
peculiar; they never gradually decline, lowering and lower- 
ing their flight as they near the earth, like the quail, nor 
pitch down at an acuter angle from their original line of 
flight, like the snipe; but invariably make a short, quick 
zigzag turn to right or left, and then dart downward in an 
instant, and run off swiftly five or six yar ds, before they 
settle either to feeding or to lie up. J 



291 

The knowledge of this trick is essential to markinj* 
correctly, and to finding the bird when marked in. 

In thick coverts, always cast the eye forward to the 
next weak or open spot in the direction of the bird's flight, 
and higher or lower, as lie is declining or rising, whether 
to get a snap shot at a live bird, to mark one supposed to 
be hit and falling, or to follow up one which has gone away 
unhurt. 



I have recovered many dead birds, which my companions 
have assorted not to be killed, by satisfying myself that 
they did not cross some weak open place immediately 
ahead of their course when last seen ; and I have killed 
many, by waiting until they should cross some such open- 
ing, in otherwise impervious covert, and then letting them 
have it, just in the nick of time. 

335 



It is worthy of remark, that within the last few years 
the English widgeon, and the English green- winged teal, 
anas Penelope, and anas Crccca, both of which arc dis- 
tinct varieties from the American kinds, distinguishable 
by small though plain and immutable marks, are becoming 
frequent among us, working their way, as it would seem, 
from the northeast south-westerly, having been, until 
within the last twenty-five years, unknown on this continent 



The annexed cut represents the English widgeon, the 
principal difference between which and the American bird 
is, that the former has the whole of the wing-coverts pure 
white, tipped with black, whereas in the latter the pri- 
mary coverts are brown and the secondaries only white. 
This distinction is well preserved in the cut, as also the 
variation in the shape and coloring of the head and bill. 






m * 



mgpk 



0§H 




336 



The English widgeon was first noticed by Mr. J. N. | 
Lawrence in Fulton market, having been shot on Long 
Island, and the discovery was communicated by him to 
Mr. Giraud, who has embodied it in his admirable work on 
the birds of Long Island. Since that period, however, it 
has been killed so frequently as to merit a place among 
the birds of America. 

The existence on this continent of the Englisti green- 
winged teal, which wants the peculiar lunatcd bar of white, 
bifurcated at the inferior extremity, crossing the scapulars, 
J which is so conspicuous in the males of the American J 



595 



species, I was myself, I believe, the first to establish ; 
having remarked the fact — which had induced me, in the 
first instance, to suppose the distinctive bar a mere casual 
variation, not a specific distinction — that I had unques- 
tionably shot many birds in this country, without that 
mark, to Mr. J. C. Bell, the. distinguished naturalist and 
taxidermist of New York, who had then no knowledge of 
the bird as belonging to this country, but who informed 
me only the other day, that recently many specimens have 
been brought to him. It was previously known to exisl 
yin Nova Scotia.) 



It is worthy of remark here, that many varieties of 
wild fowl, formerly confined to extreme northern and 
southern latitudes, are, of late, greatly extending their 
ranges, and meeting, as it were, midway between their 
natural abodes. Several Arctic fowls, which were former- 
ly never seen westward of Cape Cod, and others of which 
the farthest eastern limit was the Cape of Florida, now 

337 
meet, as it were, on the neutral ground of the Jersey bays 
and the Long Island shore. 

The method of shooting wild fowl on Chesapeake Bay, 
is to wait for them as they fly up and down, in proportion 
as the flats on which they feed are submerged too deeply 
for their use by the rise of the spring tides, behind screens 
erected for the purpose on the points and islands over 
which they must necessarily pass, and thence shoot them 
on the wing. 

346 In 

addition to these, the coarse and fishy sea-ducks, known as 
coots, namely, the scoter, the velvet-duck, and the surf- 
duck, and sometimes the harlequin-duck, the pied-duck, 
the ring-duck, and eveu the eider-duck, are visitants to our 
bays and beaches. Their flesh is, however, worthless, and 
unless for specimens, or, in the case of the last named, for 
its down, they are literally not worth the powder. The 
mergansers, commonly known as shclldrakcs, fall under the 
same category, as do also the south-southerlies, which, 
however, for the most part, take far too good care of them- 
selves to venture near enough to the stools to tempt the 
gunner's forbearance. 

The little dippers, or buffet-headed ducks, are held in 
small estimation from their inferior size, and on salt water 
they are neither so fat nor so succulent as when killed on 
inland ponds and streams, where they arc highly and 
deservedly esteemed ; and the same is the case with the 
blue-winged teal, when it is found on the bays, as it is 



at some seasons. 

The winter is the best season for the prosecution of 
this sport, and the severer the frost, and the rougher the 
winds and waters, the better the chance of success. Tt is. 
therefore, no holiday work, no light matter to bo under- 

347 

taken as a frolic, by rheumatic or otherwise delicate folk, 
who arc apt to catch cold if they sit in a thorough draft, 
and shiver at a strong breeze through a key-hole. It is 
hard, earnest, downright work. It requires a man, who 
not only can rough it, but who loves to rough it, for its 
own sake — who can endure cold, wet, fatigue, and the 
weariness of long waiting, not only with patience but 
with pleasure, and at last feel himself well rewarded if he 
make a good bag, and not altogether unrewarded, if he 
make a bad one, Tf he cannot bring himself to this, he 
would far better stay at homo by his cosy fireside, and 
pretty wife or pleasant friend ; and, if he be past forty- 
five years old, I do not know but he were wiser to do 
so, whether or no. 







Teal 




596 



TRANSCRIPTION OF THE FACT BOOK 



[At the end of each of the following items — 
with a few exceptions — appear two numerals 
separated by a colon. The first is a page 
number in Volume One (the facsimile); the 
second, to the pagination of Volumes Two and 
Three (the sources). The Index at the end 
covers only pages 596ff.] 



Halcyon Days 
"By some [of the ancients] it was superstitious ly 
supposed that this bird exercised a controlling in- 
fluence over the winds and waves — hence the origin 
of its antique name of 'Halcyon' and of those days 
of unusual stillness, which were poetically termed 
'Halcyon days. ' On these days the kingfishers are 
particularly industrious, for the reason probably 
that the purity of the atmosphere and the slightness 
of evaporation from the surface of the water, promise 
extraordinary success in their piscatory operations." 
Warren's "Para" 1:552 

A Buffalo Lick in Georgia 
'"^he earth, from the superficies to an unknown 
depth, is an almost white or cinereous colored tena- 
cious fattish clay, which all kinds of cattle lick 
into great caves, pursuing the delicious vein. It 
is the common opinion of the inhabitants, that this 
clay is impregnated with saline vapors, arising from 
fossil salts deep in the earth; but I could discover 
nothing saline in its taste, but I imagined an insip- 
id sweetness. Horned cattle, horses, and deer, are 
immoderately fond of it, insomuch, that their excre- 
ment, which almost totally covers the earth to some 
distance round this place, appears to be perfect clay; 
which when dried by the sun and air, is almost as 
hard as brick." Bartram's Travels 1:51 

Black Oaks 
Bartram, describing a magnificent forest near 
Wrightsborough Georgia, says that "many of the black 
oaks [Ouercus tinctoric ] measured eight, nine, ten, 
and eleven feet diameter five feet above the ground, 
as we measured several that were above thirty feet 
girt, and from hence they ascent perfectly straight, 
with a gradual taper, forty or fifty feet to the 
limbs; but below five or six feet, these trunks 
would measure a third more in circumference, ' ' ac- 
count of the projecting jambs, or supports, which 
are more or less, according to the number of hori- 
zontal roots that they arise from;" 2:51 

Morning Thoughts 
"I [one of Wordsworth's friends] heard him once 
make tne remark that it would be a good habit to 
watch closely the first involuntary thoughts upon 
waking in the morning, as indications of the real 
current of the moral being." Memoirs of Wordsworth. 
2:584 

And again "This also, — that our first waking 
thoughts are often our finest and truest; and that 
dreams are sometimes eminent and wise; which phenom- 
ena are incompatible with the idea that we die down 
like grass into our organic roots at night, and are 
resuscitated as from a winter in the morning. And 
it must again be adverted to that this would not 
suit the Grand Economist; for after nature has as- 
cended to one plateau of life, represented by a day, 



she will surely not tumble down into the valley 
because rest is needed, but will pitch her tent, & 
make her couch upon that elevation." Wilkinson. 
He wishes to prove that the cerebellum is the brain 
of the body and during sleep of the cerebrum also. 
3:560 



Rhus Glabra 
"The branches boiled with the berries afford a 
black ink like tincture. The boys eat the berries, 
there being no danger of falling sick after the re- 
past; but they are very sour." Kalm's Travels at 
Philadelphia 3:207 

The Pea Weevil 
Kalm says that the pease about Albany were not 
infected. "At my departure from America, I took 
some sweet peas with me in a paper, and they were 
at that time quite fresh and green. But on opening 
the paper after my arrival at Stockholm, on August 
the 1st 1751; I found all the peas hollow, and the 
head of an insect peeping out of each. Some of these 
insects even crept out, in order to try the weather 
of this new climate; but I made haste, to shut the 
.paper again, in order to prevent the spreading of 
this noxious insect. I own, that when I first per- 
ceived them, I was more . frightened than I should 
have been at the sight of a viper. For I at once 
had a full view of the whole damage, which my dear 
country would have suffered, if only two or three of 
these noxious insects had escaped me. The posterity 
of many families, and even the inhabitants of whole 
provinces would have had reason to detest me as the 
cause of so great a calamity." Bruchus Pisi Lin- 
[naeus]. Yet Linnaeus describes them as in the 
South of Europe. 4:207 

Rhus Radicans 

"This sap is so sharp that the letters & char- 
acters made upon linen with it, cannot be got out 
again, but grow blacker the more the cloth is washed 

— If you write with it on paper, the letters 
never go out, but grow blacker from time to time." 
Kalm 5:208 

Sign of Rain 
"The reason they gave for this conjecture, was, 
that this morning at sun rising, from their windows 
they had seen everything very plainly on the other 
side of the river, so that it appeared much nearer 
than usual, and that this commonly foreboded rain." 
Kalm at Philad. 5:208 

Pigeons 
"The Frenchmen shot a great number of them, and 
gave us some, in which we found a great quantity of 
the seeds of the elm, which evidently demonstrated 
the care of Providence in supplying them with food; 
for in May the seeds of the red maple, which abounds 
here, are ripe, and drop from the trees, and are 
eaten by the pigeons during that time: afterwards, 
the seeds of the elm ripen, which then become their 
food, till other seeds ripen for them." Kalm be- 
tween Forts Anne & St. Frederic, on his way to Can- 
ada. 5:209 

Fall of Trees in the Forest 
"Almost every night, we heard some trees crack 
& fall, whilst we lay here in the wood, though the 
air was so calm that not a leaf stirred. The rea- 
son of this breaking I am totally unacquainted with. 



597 



Perhaps the dew loosens the roots of trees at night; 
or, perhaps there are too many branches on one side 
of the tree. It may be that the above-mentioned wild 
pigeons settle in such quantities on one tree as to 
weigh it down; or perhaps the tree begins to bend 
more & more to one side, from its center of gravity, 
making the weight always greater for the roots to 
support, till it comes to the point when it can no 
longer be kept upright, which may as well happen in 
the midst of a calm night as at any other time. When 
the wind blows hard it is reckoned very dangerous to 
sleep or walk in the woods, on account of the many 
trees which fall in them; and even when it is very 
calm, there is some danger in passing under very 
great & old trees." Kalm, same place as last. 6:209 

Kalm Astray on Woodcreek 
"We had rowed fast all the afternoon, in order to 
get forward; and we thought that we were upon the true 
road, but found ourselves greatly mistaken: for to- 
wards night we observed, that the reeds in the river 
bent towards us, which was a mark that the river like- 
wise flowed towards us; whereas if we had been on the 
true river, it should have gone with us." Kalm at 
same place. 6:210 

Asclepias Syriaca 
Called by the Canadians le Cotonier "The French in 
Canada nevertheless use its tender shoots in spring, 
preparing them like asparagus; and the use of them is 
not attended with any bad consequences, as the slen- 
der shoots have not yet had time to suck up any 
thing poisonous. Its flowers are very odoriferous, 
and, when in season, they fill the woods with their 
fragrant exhalations, and make it agreeable to travel 
in them; especially in the evening. The French in 
Canada make a sugar of the flowers, which for that 
purpose are gathered in the morning, when they are 
covered all over with dew. This dew is expressed, 
and by boiling yields a very good brown, palatable 
sugar. The pods of this plant when ripe contain a 
kind of wool, which encloses the seed, and resembles 
cotton, from whence the plant has got its French 
name. The poor collect it, and fill their beds, es- 
pecially their childrens, with it instead of feath- 
ers." Kalm. 7:210-211 

Ginseng (Panax Quinquefolium) 
"The Mantechoux-Tartars call it Orhota, that is 
the most noble, or the queen of plants" — "The Iro- 
quese, or Five (Six) Nations, call the Ginseng roots 
Garangtoging, which it is said signifies a child, 
the roots bearing a faint resemblance to it." — "The 
trade which is carried on with it here [at Quebec ] 
is very brisk." — "In the summer of 1748, a pound 
of Ginseng was sold for six Francs, or Livres, at 
Quebec; but its common price here is one hundred 
Sols, or five Livres." — "The roots were collected 
in Canada with all possible diligence; the Indians 
especially travelled about the country in order to 
collect as much as they could together, and to sell 
it to the merchants at Montreal. The Indians in the 
neighborhood of this town [Quebec] were likewise so 
much taken up with this business, that the French 
farmers were not able during that time to hire a sin- 
gle Indian, as they commonly do, to help them in the 
harvest." An unusual demand that year. Kalm 8:211- 
212 

Plants used for food 
"The sea-side plantain [Plantago maritima] is very 



frequent on the shore. The French boil its leaves 
in a broth on their sea-voyages, or eat them as a 
salad. It may likewise be pickled like samphire" 
"Gale, or sweet willow, [Myrica gale] is likewise 
abundant here. The French call it Laurier , and 
some Poivrier . They put the leaves into their broth, 
to give it a pleasant taste." But what does a 
Frenchman not put into his broth? 

"The sea-rocket [Bunias cakile] is, likewise, not 
uncommon. Its root is pounded, mixed with flour, 
and eaten here, when there is a scarcity of bread." 
"The women (Canadian) dye their woolen yarn yellow 
with seeds of gale." Kalm at Cap aux Oyes last 
sortance off Montmorenci. 8:212 

Man 

"he appears to be the only living creature 

whose sense of smell is sufficiently delicate to 
be affected by unpleasant odors." Cuvier's Animal 
Kingdom Trans, by Ed. Griffith & others 9:106 

Grotesques, Foliages &c. 
"My performances, indeed, were much finer and 
more durable than the Turkish, for several reasons: 
one was, that I made a much deeper incision in the 
steel [of his daggers] than is generally practised 
in Turkish works; the other, that their foliages 
are nothing else but chiccory leaves, with some 
few flowers of Echites: these have, perhaps, some 
grace, but they do not continue to please like our 
foliages. In Italy there is a variety of tastes, 
and we cut foliages in many different forms. The 
Lombards make the most beautiful wreaths repre- 
senting ivy & vine leaves, and others of the same 
sort, with agreeable twinings highly pleasing to 
the eye. The Romans and Tuscans have a much better 
notion in this respect, for they represent Acanthus 
leaves, with all their festoons & flowers, winding 
in a variety of forms; and amongst these leaves 
they insert birds & animals of several sorts with 
great ingenuity and elegance in the arrangement. 
They likewise have recourse occasionally to wild 
flowers, such as those called lions' mouths, from 
their peculiar shape, accompanied by other fine 
inventions of the imagination, which are termed 
grotesques by the ignorant. These foliages have 
received that name from the moderns, because they 
are found in certain caverns in Rome, which in an- 
cient days were chambers, baths, studies, halls, 
and other places of the like nature. The curious 
happened to discover them in these subterraneous 
caverns, whose low situation is owing to the rais- 
ing of the surface of the ground in a series of 
ages; and as these caverns in Rome are commonly 
called grottos, they from thence acquired the name 
of grotesque. But this is not their proper name; 
for, as the ancients delighted in the composition 
of chimerical creatures, and gave to the supposed 
promiscuous breed of animals the appellation of 
monsters, in like manner artists produced by their 
foliages monsters of this sort; and that is the 
proper name for them — not grotesques." Memoirs of 
Benvenuto Cellini p65 8:97 

Epitaph for a Young Soldier 
"This name I ordered to be carved in the finest an- 
tique characters, all of which were represented bro- 
ken except the first & last" — "The letters were rep- 
resented broken, because his corporeal frame was des- 
troyed; and those two letters, namely, the first & 



598 



last were preserved entire — the first in allusion to 
that glorious present, which God has made us, of a 
soul enlightened by his divine rays, subject to no in- 
jury; the last on account of the great renown of his 
brave actions." ibid. 11:98 

Kalmuks 

"So great is their attachment to a roving life, that 
I was assured by one of their priests that it would be 
looked upon as a sort of violation of religious prin- 
ciple if they were even to attempt to provide a sup- 
ply of hay in summer to secure their horses & oxen 
from the danger of perishing of hunger in the winter, 
because it would seem an approximation to habits to 
which their national practices are too obstinately 
opposed . " 

"The Kalmuks make no use whatever of vegetables, 
the herbs of the steppe, or fruits; probably because 
their production in sufficient abundance might impose 
upon them the necessity of attending to the culti- 
vation of the soil, and this, were it only for a sin- 
gle reason, might interfere with the independence of 
their roving life. Their only concern is their flocks 
and herds, which they find adequate to the supply of 
all their wants." — The migration from the winter to 
the summer pastures constitutes the only important 
event in his monotonous existence." Parrot's Journey 
to Ararat. 12:387 

Houses of Tiflis in Georgia 
The roof "is formed of a layer of earth & stiff 
clay, about two feet thick." "These flat terraces 
are, moreover, usually overgrown with weeds; — This 
becomes scorched in summer, and then is set on fire 
to get rid of the dry stalks, so that the fire, which 
scon seizes on this inflammable vegetable matter, 
will often present the startling and beautiful spec- 
tacle of a wide body of flame sweeping over the city 
in the night." Ibid. 13:389 

Virginia 
"Some persons who are not well informed, name all 
North-America Virginia , because Virginia from her to- 
bacco trade is well known." Van der Donck's New 
Netherlands Edition 1656. 13:545 

Catching Deer 
"Many are taken in the water by persons who reside 
in the neighborhood of rivers and streams, by the 
means of boats, with which they pursue the animals. 
If the deer is so near the shore as to be likely to 
gain the land before the boat can be near enough to 
take the prize, the person or persons in the boat 
shout & holloa loudly, when the echo from the land 
and woods frightens the animal off from the place to 
which it was swimming, and fearing to land it is eas- 
ily taken by these stratagems." Ibid 14:545 

Beavers 
"Whether they look up when the tree falls, to ob- 
serve its direction, I have never heard. But I have 
seen many trees which had been cut down by the bea- 
vers, that had fallen fast against trees that stood 
near by, that were left by the animals. After a tree 
has fallen down, they then gnaw off the wood into prop- 
er lengths for their work. They carry the wood to- 
gether, and nearly all the inhabitants of the New- 
Netherlands know that many skins are sold from which 
the outside wind hairs are worn off on the back, 
which are called wood-carriers' skins, because they 
carried wood for the construction of their houses; 



this is not done as the ancients relate, between 
their legs, as upon a sled or wagon; but the Indians 
who have seen the beavers labor, have frequently told 
me, that after the wood is cut off and ready for re- 
moval, the female places herself under the piece to 
be removed, which the male and the young ones support 
on her back to the place where it is used." Ibid. 
14:546 

Bears & Beech-nuts 
"Impelled by hunger, bears often climb and gather 
the nut before it is ripe. I have frequently seen, 
during by backwoods excursions, the topmost limbs 
broken off and pulled in toward the trunk of the tree, 
some of them three inches in diameter, until the 
whole of the top branches were furled in, forming a 
tufted circle fifty feet in air." Forest Life and 
Forest Trees John S. Springer. 15:477 

Eggs of Infusoria 
These eggs which are extremely minute, (some of 
them are only 1/12000 of inch in diameter), are 
scattered everywhere in great profusion, in water, 
in the air, in mist, and even in snow." Principles 
of Zoology Agassi z & Gould. 16:10 

Uniformity of Color in the Arctic Fauna 
"There is not a single bird of brilliant plumage, 
and not a fish with varied hues. Their forms are 
regular, and their tints as dusky as the northern 
heavens." Ibid. 16:10 

Types of animals peculiar to temperate America 

"The types which are peculiar to temperate Amer- 
ica, and are not found in Europe, are the Opossum, 
several genera of Insectivora, among them the shrew- 
mole ( Scalops aquaticus ) , and the star-nose mole 
(Condylura cristata), which replaces the Mygale of 
the Old World; several genera of rodents, especially 
the muskrat. Among the types characteristic of 
America must also be mentioned the snapping-turtle 
among the tortoises; the Menobranchus and Menopoma, 
among the Salamanders; the Gar-pike and Amia among 
the fishes; and finally among the Crustacea, the 
Limulus. Among the types which are wanting in tem- 
perate America,- and which are found in Europe, may 
be cited the horse, and wild boar, and the true 
mouse. All the species of domestic mice which live 
in America, have been brought from the Old World." 
Ibid. 16:10 

Monkeys of the New & Old Worlds 
" — the monkeys of America have flat and widely 
separated nostrils, thirty-six teeth, and generally 
a long, prehensile tail. The monkeys of the old 
world, on the contrary, have nostrils close together, 
only thirty-two teeth, and not one of them has a 
prehensile tail." Ibid 17:11 

Theophrastus 
Botanists refer to Theophrastus as the first cul- 
tivator of their science. He was born at Eresus in 
Lesbos in the 3 century before Christ, was a dis- 
ciple of Plato & Aristotle, the last of whom caused 
him to take the name of Theophrastus on account of 
his eloquence & the elegance of his language. The ti- 
tles of above a hundred treatises which he composed are 
enumerated. "About 20 of these are extant, among 
which are his history of stones, his treatise on 
plants, on the winds, on the signs of fair weather, 
&c. and his Characters, an excellent moral treatise 



which was bequn in the 99 th year of his age." He 
died in the 107 th year of his age, "lamenting the 
shortness of life, and complaining of the partiality 
of nature in granting longevity to the crow & to the 
stag, but not to man. To his care we are indebted 
for the works of Aristotle — " Classical Diet. 17:263 

Linnaean Vengeance 

"The attacks of the whole phalanx of his foreign 
opponents could not induce him to accept a challenge. 
The method of his vengeance was equally original and 
piquant. He sat enthroned above the whole reign of 
vegetation. With the plants he transmitted honor & 
disgrace to posterity. To beautiful plants he assigned 

the names of his friends, and to the pernicious 
and inferior ones he gave the names of his enemies. 
As an instance of this particular, we only need quote 
here the Siegesbeckia , Heisteria, Bufonia, Adansonia , 
and Pontederia . " Stoever's Life of Linnaeus 18:491 

Ancient Commerce with the East Indies 
In the account "given by Strabo of the importa- 
tions into Egypt, cloves, which we know to be the ex- 
clusive produce of the Moluccas, are expressly men- 
tioned." Raffles' Hist, of Java. 19:406 

Custom in Pregnancy 

"The pregnant woman must afterwards was[h] her body 
with the milk of a green cocoa-nut on the shell of 
which has been previously carved two handsome figures, 
one of each sex, by which the parents intend to repre- 
sent a standard of beauty for their expected off- 
spring, and to engrave on the imagination of the moth- 
er, impressions which may extend to the lineaments of 
her infant. The nut must be opened by her husband." 
A modern as well as ancient custom — Ibid. 19:407 

"As the sura j a flower floats in the water, so does 
the heart exist in a pure body; but let it not be for- 
gotten, that the root of the flower holds to the 
ground, and that the heart of many depends upon his 
conduct in life." Ibid from The Niti Sastra Kawi . 
19:408 



599 



to Peru with another society, to measure there the 
degrees beneath the equator, and Maupertius, Outhier, 
Clairaut, Camus, and Mounier, repaired to Tornea in 
Lapland, whither they were accompanied from Upsal 
by Andrew Celsius, the Swedish astronomer. The re- 
sult of both these voyages & observations, was a 
full confirmation of Newton's opinion, that the 
earth is a spheroid, higher towards the equator and 
more depressed about the poles." (Newton was dead). 
Ibid. 21:491 

Linnaeus Professor of Bot. at Upsal 
"The usual number of students was 500 — But dur- 
ing the septennial war in 1759, while Linnaeus 
was rector for six months, the number of students 
amounted to one thousand five hundred. To profit 
by his knowledge pupils came from Russia, Norway, 
Denmark, Great Britain, Holland, Germany, Switzer- 
land, nay even from America — He made summer excur- 
sions at the head of his pupils, who frequently 
attended him to the number of upwards of two hun- 
dred. They then went in small parties to explore 
different districts of the country. Whenever some 
rare or remarkable plant, or some other natural 
curiosity was discovered, a signal was given with 
a horn or trumpet, upon which the whole corps joined 
their chief, to hear his demonstrations & re- 
marks. What swelled his audience was a fine regu- 
lation made in his time at Upsal, in consequence 
of which all the young students of divinity and 
country rectors were obliged to learn the elements 
of botany and domestic medicine, that they might 
be able to act as physicians in remote districts 
where regular medical assistance could not speedily 
enough be procured." Ibid 22:491 

"Prolepsis Plantarum" 
"He considered them [blossoms] as a sudden dis- 
play, happening all at once, of the leaves and the 
gems of plants, — (Prolepsis Plantarum), as the 
anticipation of a growth of five years." Ibid 
23:494 



Origin of Javan Music 
"The Javans say the first music of which they have 
an idea was produced by the accidental admission of 
the air into a bambu tube, which was lef [t] hanging 
on a tree." Raffles. 20:409 

Javan Marriage Custom 
"Should any circumstance occur to prevent the 
bridegroom from attending at the mosque on the day se- 
lected for the marriage, he follows the singular cus- 
tom of sending his kris to the ceremony." Ibid. 
20:408 

Linnaeus 
"He put cards in the worn-out shoes which were 
given by his comrades, and stitched and mended them 
with the bark of trees, to enable him at least to go 
out to collect plants." Stoever's Life of Linnaeus 
trans, from German by Trapp. 20:490 

Newton's Theory Confirmed 
Newton maintained the flatness of the earth at the 
pole. The Italian astronomer Cassini attempted to 
refute this hypothesis. "To decide this contest, 
this learned expedition was undertaken at Paris, 
through the endeavors of Count Maurepas, an expedi- 
tion which will ever be memorable in the annals of 
literature." "Condamine was dispatched from Paris 



Rousseau's Opinion of Linnaeus 
"Rousseau afterward shewed me Linnaeus' Philo- 
sophia Botanica, saying, 'This book contains more 
knowledge than the largest folio volumes." 
(Bjoernstahl's Letters) Ibid 23:495 

Classification of Writers on Botany 
In Linnaeus' Bibliotheca Botanica authors are 
classified as follows 

"1. Patres. 9. Peregrinatores . 

2. Commentatores . 10. Philosophi. 

3. Ichniographi . 11. Systematici. 

4. Descriptores . 12. Nomenclatores . 

5. Monographi. 13. Anatomici. 

6. Curiosi. 14. Hortulani. 

7. Adonistae. 15. Medici. 

8. Floristae. 16. Anomali." 
Pulteney's View of Linnaeus. 23:398 

Trivial Names in Botany 
"In this work, [the Species Plantarum of Lin- 
naeus, — by some called ' Opus maximum et aeternum' 
which appeared in 1753] for the first time, the pro- 
fessor has given to each plant, what he calls a trivial 
name: that is, a single epithet, which may be expres- 
sive, as far as possible, of the essential specific 
difference among the species of the genus: this, how- 
ever, can take place but rarely; in other instances it 



600 



is expressive of some, the most striking and obvious 
differences; and not seldom it is a local term; or the 
name of the first discoverer . " The hint of these "was 
probably borrowed from Rivini" Ibid 24:399 

Winter food of the Rein-deer 
"In winter, they are solely sustained by the Rein- 
deer liverwort, (Lichen Rangif erinus ) or Coralline 
Moss , with which the Alps of the north are covered . " 
(Cervus Tarandus. C. F. Hoffberg). Ibid. 24:400 

Culina Mutata. M. G. Osterman 

"The Acorns & Nuts of the primitive days have given 
way to all the variety of sweeter farinaceous seeds & 
roots." "To the Malvaceous tribe of plants, so much 
used by the Greeks and Romans , hath succeeded the more 
grateful Spinach . And to the Blite , the Garden Orach. " 

"The rough Borage is supplanted by the acescent 
Sorrel ; and Asparagus has banished a number of roots, 
recorded by the Roman writers under the name of Bulbs 
— &c" 

"Our author, however, thinks that the Parsnip has 
undeservedly usurped the place of the Skirret . " 

"The Bean of the ancients, improperly so called, 
being the roots as well as other parts of the Nymphaea 
Nelumbo , Sp. PI. 730, is superseded by the Kidney- 
bean." 

"The Garden Rocket, 



(Brassica Eruca &c) eaten with 



and as an antidote against the chilling Lettuce , is 
banished by the more agreeable Cress , and Tarragon . 
The Apium by the meliorated Cellery , the Pompion , and 
others of the Cucurbitaceous tribe, by the Melon ; and 
the Sumach Berries by the fragrant Nutmeg . " 

"The Silphium , or Succus Cyrenaicus , which the 
Romans purchased from Persia & India , at a great price, 
and is thought by some to have been the Asafoetida 
of the present time, is no longer used in preference 
to the Alliaceous tribe . " x x x 

"The change of Oil for Butter; of H oney for Sugar ; 

of Mulsa , liquors made of wine, water, and honey, for 
the exquisite Wines of modern times; and that of the 
antient Zythus , for the improved Malt Liquors of this 
day, are all recited; not to mention also the Calida 
of the Roman Taverns, analogous to our bewitching 
Tea & Coffee." Ibid 24:401 

American fruits cast on the shore of Norway 
Some "so recent as to germinate." — These fruits 
are usually the Cassia Fistula : Anacardium , or Cushew 
Nuts; Cucurbitae Lagenariae , Bottle Gourds; Pods of 
the Mimosa Scandens , — called Cocoons in the West 
Indies; Pods of the Piscidia Erythrina , called Dog- 
wood Tree by Sloane: and Coco-nuts." H[enricus] 
Tonning — Ibid — These from the Amoenitates Academicae . 
26:402 

Kalendarium Florae 
"Linnaeus — demonstrated how accurately flowers per- 
form the service of a time-piece, in which the hour 
of the day can be precisely ascertained; he composed 
a calendar for the period when the plants thrive 
their blossom, (Calendarium Florae) and pointed out 
from this calendar in what manner the time best cal- 
culated for certain labors of rural oeconomy may be 
chosen, &c" Stoever's Life of Lin. 26:494 



Clayton, 1739; Dr Mitchell, 1748; Governor Colden, 
1743. By the industry of these writers, botany had 
been augmented with 77 new genera, to which Kalm add- 
ed 8." (Chenon Am. Acad.) Pulteney's View 27:400 

Travelling Disciples of Linnaeus 
Six of his pupils "six ambassadors of Flora," 
"were stopped in their mission by premature death. 
Viz. Ternstroem, Hasselquist, Forskal, Loefling, Falk, 
& Bjoernstahl. Thus there were Kalm, Toren, Osbeck, 
the last two to the East Indies. In Osbeck 1 [s] case, 
"The captain of the ship himself became conspicuous 
for his love of natural history, & the zeal with which 
he served Linnaeus. His name was Eckeberg" The ship 
was a Swedish East-Indiaman . Sparrmann — Thunberg 
whose travels are trans, into English — Solander In 
European States — Koehler, Alstroemer, Martin, Troil, 
Rothmann, Fabricius Gieseke, Ehrhart, Ferber, Montin 
Falk & Bergius &c. Stoever's Life of" 27:492ff . 

Fame of Linnaeus 
"While he [ Bjoernstahl] was at Tharapia in Turkey 
he saw a Greek in a field, who was walking about with 
a book in his hand." It was the Linnaean System of 
Nature which Forskal had given him — then physician 
to the Pacha— at Cairo. 28:493 

Sand-fleas 
"The children even of rich people go without shoes 
or stockings, but before they go to bed it is neces- 
sary to examine their little feet, and take out the 
sand-fleas that may have nestled in them — an opera- 
tion which is commonly performed by the elder negro 
children with a pin." Ida Pfeiffer's "Lady's 
Voyage round the World" (near Rio de Janeiro 28:391 

The Puri Indians Near Rio 
"For yesterday, to-day, and to-morrow they have 
only one word, and they express the variety of mean- 
ing by pointing backward for yesterday, forward for 
to-morrow, and overhead for the passing day." 
Ibid. 29:391 

Smelling Gold 
"He [a Tahitian] then remarked a ring on my fin- 
ger, and after smelling it also, signified that he 
would accept of that one. I am told they can always 
distinguish real gold by the smell." Ibid 29:392 

A Chinese Lady's Foot 
"The forepart of the foot was so tightly bound 
with strong, broad ligatures that all the growth is 
forced into height instead of length & breadth, and 
formed a thick lump at the ankle; the under part mea- 
sured scarcely 4 inches long and an inch and a half 
wide." Ibid. 29:393 

Papa & Mama 
"To my great surprise I heard the [Arab] children 
call their mother mama or nana , and their father 
baba ." Ibid near Nineveh 29:393 

Natural Arrangement of Plants in Loudon 
[Cf. the chart — omitted here — with T's source. 
He adds in pencil: "For advantages of Nat. Meth. V 
9th Journal 1/3 way." 30:329] 



Who treated of N. Am. plants before Kalm 
Cornutus 1625; Banister in Ray's history, 1680; 
Plukenet, in 1691; Bobart, in 1699; Ray, in his sup- 
plement, 1704; Catesby, in 1731; Gronovius, or rather 



The Cellulares answer to the Linnaean Cryptogamia , 
and are also called Acotyledonous . — The Vasculares 
to the Phanerogamia and Cotyledonous . 30:330 



601 



Cellular plants are formed entirely of cellular tis- 
sue, without woody fibre or spiral vessels; or in more 
familiar terms by having no veins in their leaves if 
foliaceous, and not forming wood; they also are des- 
titute of perfect flowers. The lower tribes, such as 
Fungi & Algae, are destitute of leaves, and in some 
points approach the animal kingdom so nearly as to be 
scarcely distinguishable. In the highest tribe, Ferns , 
apparent veins are formed in the leaves; but as they 
are imperfectly supplied with spiral vessels, they can- 
not be considered more than analogous to the veins of 
other plants. Ferns, however, hold the intermediate 
station between Cellulares and Vasculares, and are 
chiefly retained among the former on account of their 
perfect accordance in other respects. In the whole of 
the Acotyledones , it is unnecessary to examine the 
seed for the purpose of determining whether it has one 
cotyledon, several cotyledons, or none, the structure 
of the perfect plant giving the most obvious & satis- 
factory evidence." This last true excepting one case 
in 500 of the Vasculares. 30:300 

The Vasculares have cellular tissue, woody fibre 
spiral vessels, leaves with veins & perfect flowers 
i.e. fls with stamina pistillum or both. 

The 2 nd is the lowest class of vasculares. It has 
only one cotyledon or 2 alternate In the i st class 
they are more than one — sometimes several, as in pines 
and opposite These 2 classes differ in their seeds. 
In the 2nd wood & cellular tissue mixed without annual 
layers — 1st not so. In 2 no silver grain & gener- 
ally no articulation between the leaves and the stem — 
and the veins of the leaves are parallel. 

A natural order commonly named from its type — as 
Ranunculaceae — but some have popular names as Com- 
positae &c derived from peculiarities. 

An order terminates in aceae , a suborder is eae — 
but this is only partially the rule — on account of 
the spelling and gramatical construction in some cases. 
30:330 

[T. continues his digest of Loudon. Cf. 32-41:324- 
329.] 

Observations by Prof. Agardh on the 
orders of Cellulares to contrast with 
the foregoing. I copy some of them. 
[Cf. T's abbreviated notes with his source. 42-44: 
331.] 

Facts from Loudon's Encyclopedia of Plants. — 

Lindley & Sowerby 
[Cf . T's list of "facts" with his source. 45-46: 
322-324] 

America 
"in both the northern and southern hemispheres of 
the new world Nature has not only outlined her works 
on a larger scale, but has painted the whole picture 
with brighter and more costly colors than she used 
in delineating and in beautifying the old world." 

"The heavens of America appear infinitely higher — 
the sky is bluer — the air is fresher — the cold is 
intenser — the moon looks larger — the stars are 
brighter — the thunder is louder — the lightning is 
vivider — the wind is stronger — the rain is heavier,— 
the mountains are higher — the rivers larger — the 
forests bigger — the plains broader;" Head's Emi- 
grant 54:161 

Flies altering the Climate 
of N. Am. 
They sting the wild animals, which rush to the 



smoke wherever the forest happens to be on fire, to 
avoid their enemies. The Indian accordingly sets 
fire to the woods & the flies drive to him his game. 
This lets in the sun — melts the snow — and changes 
the climate. Ibid 54:161 

Disappearance of the Elk, Bear &c 
Thus "Not only is the Am. continent gradually un- 
dergoing a process which, with other causes, will 
assimilate its climate to that of Europe, but the 
Indians themselves are clearing and preparing their 
own country for the reception of another race, who 
will hereafter gaze at the remains of the elk, the 
bear, and the beaver, with the same feelings of 
astonishment with which similar vestiges are dis- 
covered in Europe — the monuments of a state of exis- 
tence that has passed away!" Ibid 55:162 

Temperature of Ice 
"In lower Canada it occasionally sinks to 40° be- 
low zero, or to 72° below the temperature of ice 
just congealed." Varies in different places & hence 
one ice will keep longer than another. Ibid. 55: 
162 

The Emigrant's Lark, or Home Sweet Home 
A poor emigrant shoe-maker brought over an English 
sky-lark to Canada. The vessel was wrecked in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, but he preserved his lark, 
"and afterward kept it for 3 days in the foot of an 
old stocking." He settled himself to his trade in 
Toronto & every morning hung the lark's cage outside 
his window — before his bench. Every passer stopped 
to listen to his song — "even the trading Yankee, 
in whose country birds of the most gorgeous plumage 
snuffle rather than sing, must have acknowledged 
that the heaven-born talent of this little bird un- 
accountably warmed the Anglo-Saxon blood that flowed 
in his veins." — -"He was the most powerful advocate 
of Church & State in Her Majesty's dominions." Three 
times was his master "interrupted in his work by 
people who each separately offered him one hundred 
dollars for his lark; an old farmer repeatedly of- 
fered him a hundred acres of land for him; and a poor 
Sussex carter, who had imprudently stopped to hear 
him sing, was so completely overwhelmed with affec- 
tion and maladie du pays, that, walking into the shop, 

he offered for him all he possessed in the world 

his horse & cart; but his master would sell him to 
no one." 

Finally the shoemaker died & the Governor General 
obtained him, but says the latter "whether it was 
that he disliked the movement, or rather want of 
movement in my elbows, — or whether from some myster- 
ious feelings some strange fancy or misgiving, the 
chamber of his little mind was hung with black — he 
would never sing to me." When the latter left Canada 
he gave him to a poor man in his service, and as soon 
as the bird was hung on the outside of his humble 
dwelling, "he began to sing again as exquisitely as 
ever. He continued to do so all through Sir Geo. 
Arthurs Administration; — and after singing these 9 
years he died. The poor man sent his remains to the 
Governor in England. He got him set up — & put in 
a cage with an inscription &c &c Ibid 55:162 

A Governors Progress 
As every body could not come to see him — though 
all came who could afford it — he determined to visit 
those whom he was appointed to govern. "The plan I 



602 



pursued was to give notice of the time and place at 
which I proposed to enter each district; and accord- 
ingly, on my arrival, I generally found assembled, on 
horseback, people of all conditions, who, generally 
from good feelings, and occasionally from curiosity, 
had determined to accompany me through their respec- 
tive townships." 

"The pace I travelled at, from morning till 5 or 6 
o'clock in the evening, was a quiet, steady, unrelent- 
ing trot;" talking with such as accompanied him. Ibid 
57:164 

Drowned Land 
"The flooding of the wilderness [on the Rideau 
Canal] was a sentence of death to every tree whose 
roots remained covered with water; and yet no sooner 
was the operation effected than Nature appeared deter- 
mined to repair the injury by converting the fluid 
which had created the devastation into a verdant prai- 
rie; and accordingly from the hidden soil beneath there 
arose to the surface of these artificial lakes a thin 
green scum, which gradually thickened, until the whole 
surface assumed the appearance I have decribed." This 
becomes poisonous to life. 58:165 

Observers — Philosophical Observers — Naturalists 
"They [naturalists] start either simply from nature 
without philosophical grounds or ends, and accumulate 
only and then accommodate facts, — the observers; or 
again, knowing that man and reason are first, and that 
we cannot proceed but from them and with them, they 
begin scientifically with what they must begin with at 
any rate, (differing from the former, then, as mechani- 
cians do from mechanics , ) and have hence a ground in 
the philosophy of their own being, and hence, also, an 
aim, — the philosophical observers; or finally, in 
some large and beautiful minds, we can discern neither 
of these ways by itself, but only what seems their 
real and original union, wherein the divine reason ap- 
pears, 

and facts are observed not 
only, but eternal laws are prescribed to science, — the 
naturalists." E. Tuckerman's Essay on the Nat. 
Systems. 58:515 

Lichens 
cease "only at perpetual water & perpetual snow In 
the same book "Algae are either aerial, amphibial, 
or aquatic, and fall into three orders, Lichenes, 
Byssaceae and Phyceae." Ibid. 59:515 

"Philosophia Botanica" 
The same quotes Rousseau as saying of this book — 
"C'est le livre le plus philosophique que j'ai vu de 
ma vie." And Sprengel as saying "Quippe qui et canones 
Philosophiae Botanicae ubique servare ac applicare 
religionis ducam." 59:515 

Thallophyta 
"Lichenes are — an order of Algae, or Protophyta, 
which is a section of Thallophyta." "Thallophyta 
(Homonemeae, Fries) are the lowest forms of vegetable 
life. With one of the two sections into which this 
greater division falls, — Protophyta or Algae, — vege- 
tation has been said to begin and from it to ascend: 
with the other, — Hysterophyta , or Fungi, — the whole 
vegetable system to be, as it were, concluded & fin- 
ished." Ibid, (accord to system of Endlicher 60:515 



The Descendants of the Northmen 

"The sites, and even the names, of the little es- 
tates or gaards on which these men were born, remain 
unchanged, in many instances, to this day; and the 
posterity of the original proprietors of the 9th cen- 
tury may reasonably be supposed, in a country in which 
the land is entailed by udal rights upon the family, 
to be at this day the possessors — engaged, however, 
now in cutting wood for the French or Newcastle market, 
instead of in conquering Normandy and Northumberland." 
Laing's Sea Kings of Norway. 60:468 

The Dry Docks of Rolf Ganger 
"Europe holds no memorials of ancient historical 
events which have been attended by such great results 
in our times, as some rude excavations in the shore 
banks of the island of Vigr, in More, — which are 
pointed out by the finger of tradition as the dry 
docks in which the vessels of Rolf Ganger, from whom 
the fifth in descent was our W= the Conqueror, were 
drawn up in winter, and from whence he launched them, 
and set out from Norway on the expedition in which he 
conquered Normandy." Ibid. 61:468 



Origin of the Name in Architecture 
"The nave of the Gothic cathedral, with its round or 
pointed arches, is the inside of a vessel with its tim- 
bers, and merely raised upon posts & reversed." Hence 
the name of the main body of the Gothic church, nave, 
navis, or ship. 61:469 

Parallax 
The instruments which Struve & Bessel used in '37-8 
&c to discover the parallax of fixed stars, appreciated 
1/10 of a second of an arc — equivalent to measuring a 
line an inch long at the dist. of 32 6/10 miles. 
Gould's Lectures on Ast. reported in "Traveller" 62:67 

A Northman's War-ship 
"One of these long low war-ships of the vikings, 
with a gilded head representing a dragon on the stem, 
and a gilded representation of its tail at the stern 
curling over the head of the steersman, with a row of 
shining red and white shields hung over the rails all 
round from stem to stern, representing its scaly sides, 
and thirty oars on each side giving it motion and repi- 
resenting its legs, must have been no inapt represen- 
tation of the ideal figure of a dragon creeping over 
the blue calm surface of a narrow gloomy fiord, sunk 
deep, like some abode for unearthly creatures, between 
precipices of bare black rock, which shut out the full 
light of day. Dragon was a name for a class or size of 
war-ships, &c" Laing's Sea Kings of Norway. 62:469 

Northmen in America 
"The most interesting of these inscriptions [in 
Greenland & its neighborhood] is one discovered in 
1824, in the island Kingigtorsook in Baffin's Bay, in 
latitude 72° 55' north, longitude 56° 5' west of 
Greenwich" "The inscription found in this high lati- 
tude was sent to three of the greatest antiquaries and 
Runic scholars in Europe — Finn Magnusen, Professor 
Rask, and Dr. Bryniulfson in Iceland; and, without 
communication with each other, they arrived at the 
same interpretation, viz. "Erling Sighvatson and 
Biorne Thordarson and Eindrid Oddson, on Saturday be- 
fore Ascension Week, raised these marks and cleared 
ground. 1135" i.e. to[o]k possession of the land. — 
"All that can be proved, or that is required to be 



603 



proved, for establishing the priority of the discovery 
of America by the Northmen, is that the saga or tradi- 
tional account of these voyages in the 11 century 
was committed to writing at a known date, viz. be- 
tween 1387 and 1395, 

in a manuscript of unquestionable authenticity, of 
which these particular sagas or accounts relative to 
Vinland form but a small portion; and that this known 
date was 80 years before Columbus visited Iceland to 
obtain nautical information, viz. in 1477, when he 
must have heard of this written account of Vinland; 
and it was not till 1492 that he discovered America." 
Ibid 63:470 

Odin's Law about Monuments 

"For men of consequence a mound should be raised 

to their memory, and for all other warriors who had 

been distinguished for manhood a standing stone; which 

custom remained long after Odin's time." Ibid 64:472 

Egil Ullsaerk 
"High standing stones mark Egil Ullsaerk' s grave." 
Ibid. 64:472 

Olaf Tryggvesson 
"King Olaf could run across the oars outside of 
the vessel while his men were rowing the Serpent. He 
could play with three daggers, so that one was always 
in the air, and he took the one falling by the handle. 
He could walk all round upon the ship's rails, could 
strike & cut equally well with both hands, and could 
cast two spears at once." 64:472 

Beaver 
"They make dams (diques) 4 or 500 feet long, 20 
feet high, & 7 or 8 thick in 5 or 6 months, though 
there may be only 100 workers in all." Voyages De La 
Houtan 65:236 

Natural Method 
[.T. summarizes and translates from Linnaeus' s Philo- 
sophia Botanica (Vienna, 1763). Cf. 65:288] 

Motion of Plants 65:288 

The Flower 66:288 

Flowers of Different Countries 66:289 

Oides 67:290 

Time of Flowering &c 67:290 

Snow Fleas 
Edward Allen Talbot of the Talbot Settlement Upper 
Canada counted 1000 on a square inch of snow (suffer- 
ing it to dissolve) which gave 1,296,000 on a square 
yard & he thouqht that every yard of woodland in the 
province would average an equal number. Talbot's 
Five Years in the Canadas London 1824. 68:496 

Bees 
"The Indians, who have no name for them in their 
own language, call them 'English flies'." Ibid. 
Says that when the hunter gets near the tree he puts 
a piece of honey-comb on a heated brick, the odor of 
which while melting attracts the whole swarm. 69:497 

Power of the Sun in Northern Latitudes 
"The power of the sun, this day, in a cloudless 



sky, was so great that Mr. Rae & I were glad to take 
shelter in the water while the crews were engaged on 
the portages. The irritability of the human frame 
is either greater in these northern latitudes, or the 
sun, notwithstanding its obliquity, acts more power- 
fully upon it than near the equator; for I have never 
felt its direct rays so oppressive within the trop- 
ics as I have experienced them to be on some oc- 
casions in the high latitudes." Sir John Richard- 
son's Arctic Searching E(x)pedition. Being near 
Athabasca Lake. Mosquitoes are numerous & trouble- 
some there, and the inhabitants are glad to use ice 
in the summer. 69:439+ 

Distribution of Animals northward 
Frogs attain the 68 tn parallel of lat. Snakes 
the 55 th — tortoises the 51 st at S end of Lake 
Winipeg. "The Canada geese, or 'bustards' of the 
Canadians ( les outardes ) , breed throughout the woody 
districts, but do not reach the vicinity of the Arc- 
tic Sea, except on the banks of some of the large 
rivers. The most northern localities in which we 
observed them were the Channels between the alluvial 
islands which form the delta of the Mackenzie." 
The barking crow (corvus Americanus) not seen by 
R. N of 61 69:439+441 

Mackenzie's River 

"might be navigated by vessels of considerable 

burden — 12 to 1300 miles." Riv. of i st class. 

o 
drains 17 of lat. The successive portions are the 

Warhacummow, Elk or Hithabuscan, Slave, & Mackenzie. 

Ibid. 70:439+ 

Distribution of Plants 
"A few turnips, radishes & some other culinary 
vegetables grow at Fort Good Hope [near the mouth 
of the Mackenzie] in a warm corner; but none of the 
Cerealia are cultivated there, nor do potatoes repay 
the labor of planting." —"In Lat. 68 55' N the 
trees disappeared so suddenly, [he is just reaching 
the estuary of the Mackenzie] that I could not but 
attribute their cessation to the influence of the 
sea-air. Beyond this line a few stunted spruces 
only, were seen struggling for existence, and some 
scrubby canoe birches, clinging to the bases of the 
hills." About 69 the most N point of "the common 
red currant on this continent" as far as he knows. 
— Ribes Sanguineum is a native of the Pacific coast 
only. 70:440 "Cultivation of the earth was not 
carried on to the north of the Chippeway country, 
since maize does not prosper in America beyond the 
52d parallel." 70:442 —"Plants actually grow on 
the summits of the White Mts of New Hampshire which 
are not met with again until we reach the shores of 
the Arctic Sea." — Maize "on the western shore of 
Europe is not cultivated beyond 46 , though in the 
valley of the Rhine it extends to 49 ." "In South 
Am. on the Chile coast, it is planted as low as 
40 south." — "A profitable return can be obtained 
from it in Ruperts Land between the 49 tn & 51 st 
parallels, where, however, the vine does not ac- 
company it, as on the banks of the Rhine." (on ac- 
count of the greater heat of the summer) — Aspens 
spring up on burnt lands as in Maine. — 71:444 
"the frozen subsoil of the northern portions of the 
woodland country does not prevent the timber from 
attaining a good size, for the roots of the white 
spruce spread over the icy substratum as they would 
over smooth rock." — "On the borders of the Great 
Bear Lake 400 yrs are required to bring the stem of 



604 



the white spruce to the thickness of a man's waist." 
— "At the limit of the woods the white spruce is 
everywhere the most advanced tree, growing either 
solitarily — or in clumps. — The s alix speciosa 
may indeed be said to pass beyond the spruce; but 
it does so only on the alluvial points of rivers, 
and not in its tree form." 71:445 

Divides N. Am. north of the 4g th par. in 5 divi- 
sions — i s t Eastern Woodland Country from Atlantic 
west to prairies. 2 nd Barren Grounds north of last 
to Icy Sea — widest at east on Hudson's Bay & the 
Welcome where it ex [tends] from 60 or 61 st to sea on 
north, narrowing toward the N W —3 rd the Pr airie Dis- 
t rict widest on Missouri thence N to the 6r) th par. 
4th Rocky m^. chain 5 th Woodland Country on Pacific 
side. — . [For T's description of plants in each of 
these areas, cf . 72+. 445+.] 

Wells below high water-mark 
on the shore of the Icy sea 
"These wells are evidently supplied from rain fall- 
ing on the sand-hills, and kept up to the level at 
which we found it by the pressure of the sea." Ibid 
73:441 

Foxes used to dispense information 
Sir James C. Ross, being in search of Franklin in 
1848 — "During the winter many white foxes were taken 
in traps; and copper collars, on which were inscribed 
notices of the situation of the vessels, and of the 
depots of provision, having been secured round their 
necks, they were set at liberty again." Ibid 74:442 

Wintering in the North James Saunders 
of the 'North Star' sent out with supplies 
for Sir J. C. Ross who was in search of Franklin "the 
ship wintered in [40-50] in lat. 76 33' N., long. 
68 56 1/4 W. , [in Baffin's Bay] being the most north- 
erly position in which any vessel has been known to 
have been laid up." Ibid. 74:442+ 

Carrier Pigeons 
Sir John Ross took 4 pigeons from a lady in Ayrshire 
A pigeon appeared at the dovecot the l3 tn Oct. From 
Melville Island it is 2400 miles — There was no billet. 
Afterwards learned that he despatched a pair on the 
6 th or 7 tla of October. Osborn says it was 5 days go- 
ing 3000 miles the longest flight on record, but he 
knows not how it was caried by the balloon. Ibid 
74:443 

Prevalence of Summer 
"In no arctic district to which man has yet pene- 
trated, is there a permanent covering of snow through 
any wide extent of low country. Even at Spitzbergen, 
only 9 from the Pole, there is a summer in which 
vegetation proceeds, of which we have witnesses in 
the flora & fauna. The well-fed herds of reindeer, 
which that hyperborean land maintains, must find grass 
& lichens, whereon they fatten." Ibid [p. 373] The 
summer heats do not decrease as the cold increases 
going north. 



the vegetative processes, and before the earth, still 
enveloped in its snowy covering, has felt the influ- 
ence of returning spring." Ibid 75:444 

"Progress of the seasons at Fort Franklin, 
or. Great Bear Lake, in Lat. 65 12' N., 
Long. 123 12' W." 
Deepest snow — which is in March averages 3 feet. 
"About the io fcl1 of April the snow begins to thaw 
decidedly in the sunshine, and myriads of Podurae 
are seen at such times moving actively in its cav- 
ities. Ptarmigan begin to assume their summer plum- 
age toward the end of the month." "From the ^ s t 
to the 5 th of May waterfowl arrive." — "Singing 
birds orioles s, swifts arrive about the middle of 
the month. — 23 of May "there is a bright light 
at midnight on Great Bear Lake, and the Fringilla 
leucophrys is employed with other songsters in sing- 
ing at that hour." "Snow-geese arrive about this 
time." — "In the beginning of August stars may be 
seen at mid-night; and in the last week of this month 
the van flocks of snow geese are seen going south- 
ward, having spent between 80 & 90 days at their 
breeding stations." "Between the first appearance 
of vegetation till the falling of the leaves of 
deciduous trees, almost 100 days elapse;" Ibid. 
76:443 

Facts respecting Cryptogamic Plants 
Some fungi are "meteoric, that is, spring up 
after storms, or only in particular states of the 
atmosphere." Fries thinks that they are propagated 
by sporules, and that in one individual he has count- 
ed 10,000,000, often resembling thin smoke [For 

T's abridgement of John Lindley's A Natural System 
of Botany , cf. 77-79:274-276.] 

The English Archer 
"In shooting he did not, as in other nations, 
keep his left hand steady, and draw his bow with his 
right: but keeping his right at rest upon the nerve, 
he pressed the whole weight of his body into the 
horns of his bow.* Hence probably arose the English 
phrase of bending a bow ; and the French of drawing 
one." Gilpin's Forest Scenary Vol i st . 79:146 
*See Bp. Latimer's sermons. Serm. VI. 



,th 



Hybernation of Trees 



"From the 50 par. northward the trees are frozen 
to their centres in winter; and conseguently, the de- 
velopment of buds & other vital processes which go on 
in the temperate climate of England, even in the cold- 
est months, are completely arrested." — "The hyber- 
nation of trees ceases long before the temperature of 
the atmosphere is sufficient to restore activity to 



Season of Picturesgue Beauty in Woods 
"The intermediate time is the season of pictur- 
esque beauty; (before the wane of Autumn) when the 
greens, & the browns, and the yellows, are blended 
together by a variety of middle tints , which often 
create the most exquisite harmony." Ibid. 80:146 

Life in China & Tartary 
The landlord is styled the "Superintendent of 
the Chest." At one place the first thing he did was 
to present his guests with a padlock of their apart- 
ments. The waiter is the Steward of the Table; the 
cook the Governor of the Kettle. There are — the Inn 
of Eternal Equity — The Hotel of the Three Perfec- 
tions — of Justice & Mercy — of the Five Felicities — 
of Social Relations — & of the Temperate Climates — 
referring to the warmth of its apartments. — The 
Watchman is the Inspector of the Darkness. A village 
was named "Waters always flowing." The robbers are 
polite; do not demand but ask you to lend them your 
horse or coat. 80:183+ 

Tartary "is a boundless prairie, sometimes broken 
up by immense lakes, majestic rivers, imposing moun- 
tains, but rolling away always into vast and immeas- 
urable plains. You feel alone in its green soli- 



60S 



tudes, as in the midst of the ocean." The traveller 
carries a stick to keep off the dogs, but Tartar 
etiquette requires that he leave it at the entrance 
of the tent, and not affront the inmates by implyinq 
that they are all dogs. "My Lord Lamas," said the 
old man, "all men are brothers; but those who dwell 
beneath tents are united as the flesh and the bone." 
80:184 

"A Mongol seems out of his element when he sets 
his foot on the ground; his step is heavy; the bowed 
shape of his legs — his bust always stooping forward — 
his eyes moving incessantly about, — all announce a 
man who passes the greater part of his life on a horse 
or on a camel." He sleeps on the back of his camel 
while he is grazing. An eagle carried off the trav- 
ellers' supper while they were eating it. 80:185 

"On re-entering cultivated lands, the agitation, 
perplexity & turmoil of civilization oppressed & suf- 
focated us; the air seemed to fail us, and we felt 
every moment as if about to die of asphyxia." 81:186 

"When a person has compromised himself, (i.e. been 
detected in cheating or the like) one must avoid put- 
ting him to the blush, or in Chinese phrase, Carrying 
away his face. Whan our words had " covered all thei r 
faces " &c 82:186+ 

"The vagabond Lamas visit all the countries acces- 
sible to them &c &c —Losing their way in the desert 
is not possible, since all ways are alike to them. 
Travelling without an object, the places they arrive 
at are always those where they desire to go. The 
legend of the Wandering Jew is exactly realised in 
the persons of these Lamas. One would say they are 
under the influence of some mysterious power, which 
drives them incessantly onward; and it seems as if God 
has caused to flow in their veins something of that 
motive force which urges worlds forward in their course, 
without ever permitting them to rest." 82:187 

The cunning Chinese let the simple Tartars have 
goods on credit charging an exorbitant interest — 
The interest amounts up till you come to compound in- 
terest; it goes on from generation to generation. 
"A Tartar debt is never paid. — It is a mine of gold." 
Life there as on our prairies. They use dried 
dung or "argols" Each took his sack & went in search 
of argols. "Those who have never led the nomadic life 
will have some difficulty in comprehending how this 
kind of occupation can be susceptible of enjoyment. 
Yet when you have the good fortune to find suddenly 
among the grass an argol remarkable for its size & 
dryness, you experience those sudden pleasurable emo- 
tions that for the moment make you happy." 82:188 

Describes in Tartary a praying mill — a Chu-Kor 
le. a " turning prayer " They are sometimes made to go 
by water while the person whom the prayers concern 
is asleep. 83:189 

The camel "is the real treasure of the desert. It 
can remain 15 days or even a month without eating or 
drinking, and however miserable the country, it always 
finds something to satisfy it, especially if the soil 
is impregnated with salt or nitre; plants that other 
animals will not touch, brambles or even dry wood, 
serve it for food." — "Its ordinary burden is 7 or 
800 weight, and thus laden it can go 40 miles a day." 
83:189 

To butcher in Tartary is to "effect a transmigra- 
tion" Tartars think there is nothing west beyond 
Thibet "The world ends there," say they, "beyond there 
is nothing but a shoreless sea." 83:189 

The Chinese say of the English — "The Ing-Kie-Li 
never dare to quit the sea; as soon as ever they come 
on shore they tremble & die like fish." 84:191 



Describes a tree (one only) in Thibet (which he saw) 
every leaf of which was "distinctly marked with a 
Thibetan character." 84:191 

The fair Thibetans besmear their faces so as to 
make themselves ugly when they go abroad — Those who do 
not thus are considered women of bad reputation. 
84:192 

The currency of Thibet is of silver only — on one 
side are 8 small flowers — These pieces are broken 
and the number of flowers on each piece determines 
its value. — All chant their prayers together in 
the public squares of Lha-Ssa at evening. 84:192 

One way of disposing of the dead there is to cut 
them up & give them to the dogs — The poor use the 
dogs of the suburbs, but for the rich "sacred dogs" 
are kept. 84:192 

The prayer chanted on these occasions is Om mani , 
padme houm . Rich & zealous Buddhists entertain 
companies of Lamas to propagate the mani who "chisel 
& hammer in hand, traverse field, mountain, and 
desert, to engrave the sacred formula on the stones 
& rocks they encounter in their path." — The prayer 
means literally: the jewel in the Lotus ! Amen! 
"The Lamas assert that the doctrine contained in 
these marvellous words is immense, and that the 
whole life of man is insufficient to measure its 
depth and extent." — They make this symbolic formula 
mean "0 that I may attain perfection, and be absorbed 
in Buddha! Amen." 84:192 

A Journey through Tartary, Thibet & China by 
M. Hue, in 44-5-S.6 

In his next book speaks of The Hotel of Accom- 
plished Wishes 85:181 



Source of the Columbia & the Missouri 
"The spring which is the head of the Yellowstone, 
gushes out in a strong stream of excellent and very 
cold water, and about thirty yards from the source 
it is divided by a large rock into two parts, one 
of which forms the Yellowstone River, and the other 
the Lewis Fork of the Columbia." Culbertson's 
Expedition to the Mauvaises Terres — is told by a 
fur-trader. 86:105 

Rise & Fall of Rivers 
It is said that "when a stream rises it is high- 
er in the middle than at the shores, and consequently 
the driftwood floats near the shores, while in fall- 
ing water the stream is lowest in the middle, and 
will therefore carry the drift there. My obser- 
vation on two rises of the Missouri does not con- 
firm that theory." Ibid. 86:105 

Bears & Laplanders 
"Leems also acquaints us, that the Laplanders 
never presume to call the Bear by its proper name 
of Guourh j a , but term it the old man in the fur 
cloak, because they esteem it to have the strength 
of ten men and the sense of twelve. It is also said 
that the Bear is the great master of the Kamskatkans 
in medicine, surgery, and the polite arts." 
Richardson's Fauna Boreali — Americana. 87:450 

White Bears at Sea 
"Captain Sabine mentions that he saw one about 
mid-way between the north and south shores of the 
Barrow's Straits, which are forty miles apart, al- 
though there was no ice in sight to which he could 
resort to rest himself upon; — " Ibid. 87:451 



Dogs baying the Moon 
Says of the Canis Familiar is variety Canadensis 
(North American dog) by which he means that "most 
generally cultivated by the native tribes of Canada, 
and the Hudson's Bay countries" — "All the dogs 
of a camp assemble at night to howl in unison, par- 
ticularly when the moon shines bright." Ibid. 
87:451 

Musquash 
"Musquash, watsuss, or wachusk, also peesquaw-tupe- 
yew (the animal that sits on the ice in a round form), 
Cree Indians." — "Although the fur of the Musquash 
resists the water when the animal is alive, it is 
easily wetted immediately after death." — "In Lat. 55 , 
the Musquash has three litters in the course of the 
summer, and from 3 to 7 young at a litter." — Inun- 
dations leaving no resting places destroy great num- 
bers — "They are sometimes almost extirpated from 
certain parts of the country by the freezing up of 
the swamps, which they inhabit. In such cases, be- 
ing deprived of their usual food, they are driven by 
famine to destroy each other!" — "Their great fecun- 
dity, however, enables them to recover these losses 
in a very few years, although the deaths are at times 
so numerous, that a fur -post, where the Musquash is 
the principal return, is not infrequently abandoned 
until they have recruited." — "Their favorite abodes 
are small grassy lakes or swamps, or the grassy bor- 
ders of slow-flowing streams where there is a muddy 
bottom. They feed chiefly on vegetable matters; and 
in northern districts principally on the roots and 
tender shoots of the bulrush and reedmace, and on the 
leaves of various car ices and aquatic grasses. The 
sweet-flag (acorus calamus) of whose roots, according 
to Pennant, they are very fond, does not grow to the 
northward of Lake Winipeg." — "When ice forms over 
the surface of the swamp, the musquash makes breath- 
ing holes through it, and protects them from the frost 
by a covering of mud. In severe winters, however, 
these holes freeze up, in spite of their covering, 
and many of the animals die.... The Indians kill these 
animals by spearing them through the walls of their 
houses." Burrows & breeds in the banks Ibid 88:452+ 

Eating Deer Marrow 
"The hunter breaks the leg bones of a recently 
slaughtered deer [Cervus tarandus, var. arctica Barren 
Ground Caribou] and while the marrow is still warm 
devours it with much relish. The kidneys and part of 
the intestines, particularly the thin folds of the 
third stomach or many-plies, are likewise occasion- 
ally eaten when raw, and the summits of the antlers, 
as long as they are soft, are also delicacies in a 
raw state." Ibid. 89:453 

Effect of Rain 
"Even the rain gave a gloomy grandeur to many of 
the scenes; and by throwing a veil of obscurity over 
the removed banks of the river, introduced, now & then, 
something like a pleasing distance." Observations 
on the River Wye and several Parts of South Wales, 
&c relative chiefly to picturesque Beauty: made in 
1770 by w" 1 Gilpin. Prebendary of Salisbury and Vicar 
of Boldre near Lymington. 5th Edition 90:145 

Broken Reflections 
"A disturbed surface of water, endeavoring to col- 
lect its scattered images and restore them to order, 
is among the pretty appearances of nature." Ibid. 
90:145 



606 



Castles & Abbeys 
"Castles & abbeys have different situations, agree- 
able to their respective uses. The castle, meant for 
defence, stands boldly on the hill; the abbey, intend- 
ed for meditation, is hid in the sequestered vale." 

' Ah! happy tho u, if one superior rock 
Bear on its brow the shivered fragment huge 
Of some old Norman fortress; happier far, 
Ah! then most happy, it thy vale below 
Wash, with the crystal coolness of its rills, 
Some mould 'ring abbey's ivy-vested wall.'" 
Ibid in his account of Tintern Abbey. 91:145 

Facts from Evelyn's Sylva 
Refers to Pliny the saying "that a serpent will 
rather creep into the fire, than over a twig of ash." 
"Pliny thinks it a pretty speculation, that a wood 
should be stronger to bind withal, being bruished 
and divided, than when whole and entire." 92:117 

"Of the sallow is made the shoemaker's carving or 
cutting board, as best to preserve the edge of their 
knives, for its equal softness every way." 92:118 
The willow "is far the sweetness of all our Eng- 
lish fuel, provided it be sound and dry, and emit- 
ting little smoke, is the fittest for ladies cham- 
bers,"— "not forgetting the fresh boughs, which of 
all the trees in nature, yield the most chast, and 
coolest shade in the hottest season of the day; 
and this umbrage so wholesome, that physicians pre- 
scribe it to feverish persons, permitting them to be 
placed even about their beds, as a safe and comfort- 
able refrigerium ." 92:118 

Holly 
"There goes a tradition that they will not sprout 
till they be passed through the maw of a thrush; 
whence the saying, Turdus exitium suum cacat." 
92:119 

Buried Trees 
The people of Cumberland who frequently dig up 
large trees in bogs near the sea shore, observe 
that the dew "never lies upon that part, under which 
those trees are interred." 93:120 

Ship timber 
"It is pretty (saith Pliny) to consider that those 
trees which are so much sought after for shipping, 
should most delight in the highest of mountains, as 
if it fled from the sea on purpose, and were afraid 
to descend into the waters." i.e. Pines & Firs 
93:120 

Intestine Works 
"With fir we likewise make all intestine works, 
as wainscot, floors, pales, balks, laths, boxes, 
bellies for all musical instruments in general, nay 
the ribs and sides of that enormous stratagem, the 
so famous Trojan Horse, may be thought to be built 
with this material, and if the poet mistake not, 
The ribs with deal they fit — Sectaque intexunt 
abiete costas." AEn. 2. 93:120 

Making tar in New England 
[This is abbreviated from Mr Winthrop's account 
presented to the Royal Soc.] "They [the pitch 
pines] grow upon the most barren plains, on rocks 
also, and hills rising amongst those plains, where 
several are found blown down, that have lain so many 
ages as that the whole bodies, branches and roots of 



the trees being perished, some certain knots only 
of the boughs have been left remaining intire 
(these knots are that part where the bough is joined 
to the body of the tree) lying at the same dis- 
tance and posture, as they grew upon the tree for 
its whole length. The bodies of some of these trees 
are not corupted through age, but quite consumed 
and reduced to ashes, by the annual burnings of the 
Indians, when they set their grounds on fire; which 
yet has, it seems, no power over these hard knots, 

beyond a black scorching; although being laid on heaps, 
they are apt enough to burn. It is of these knots they 
make their tar in New England, and the country adja- 
cent, while they are well impregnated with that tere- 
binthine and resinous matter, which like a balsam pre- 
serves them so long from putrefaction." The rest of 
the tree he says yields tar "as appears by a small crys- 
talline pearl which will sweat out" if you make an in- 
cision but it is too expensive to fell the trees & get 
out the knots; so they collect cart loads of the above 
& heap them on hearths of clay & stone & burn out the 
tar as they make charcoal,* "and afterward find the 
knots made into excellent charcoal, preferred by the 
smiths before any other whatever, which is made of wood; 
and nothing so apt to burn out when their blast ceaseth; 
neither do they sparkle in the fire, as many other sorts 
of coal do." — "Of these knots likewise do the planters 
split out small slivers, about the thickness of one's 
finger, or some what thinner, which serve them to burn 
instead of candles; giving a very good light. This 
they call candle-wood, and it is in much use both in 
New England, Virginia, and amongst the Dutch planters 
in their villages; but for that it is something offen- 
sive, by reason of the much fuliginous smoke which comes 
from it, they commonly burn it in the chimney corner, 
upon a flat stone or iron; except, occasionally they 
carry a single stick in their hand, as there is need of 
light to go about the house." 

*Theophrastus account referd to in Vol 2d of this C. 
Book 94:121 

Larch 
"The timber of it is so exceedingly transparent, 
that cabanes made of the thin boards, when in the dark 
night they have lighted candles, people who are at a 
distance without doors, would imagine the whole room 
to be on fire, which is pretty odd, considering there 
is no material so unapt to kindle." 95:122 

Platanus 
"Platanus, that so beautiful and precious tree, so 
doated on by Xerxes, that Aelian and other authors 
tell us he made halt, and stop'd his prodigious army of 
1700000 soldiers, which even covered the sea, exhausted 
rivers, and thrust Mount Athos from the continent, to 
admire the pulchritude and procerity of one of these 
goodly trees, and became so fond of it, that spoiling 
both himself, his concubines, and great persons of all 
their jewels, he covered it with gold, gems, necklaces, 
scarfs and bracelets, and infinite riches; in sum, was 
so enamored of it, that for some days, neither the con- 
cernment of his grand expedition, nor interest of honor, 
nor the necessary motion of his portentous army, could 
persuade him from it. He styled it his Mistress, his 
Minion, his Goddess; and when he was forced to part 
from it, he caused the figure of it to be stampt in 
a Medail of gold, which he continually wore about him." 
— "These trees the Romans first brought out of the 
Levant, and cultivated with so much industry and cost, 
for its stately and proud head only; that great ora- 
tors and statesmen, Cicero & Hortensius would exchange 



607 

now & then a turn at the bar, that they might have the 
pleasure to step to their villas, and refresh their plat- 
ans, which they would often irrigate with wine instead 
of water." 96:123 

The Italians having stripped the Appenines of pines 
& firs, so that Rome herself is exposed to the "nipping 
tra 'montane winds" — "in most of those parts of Italy 
flankered by those hills they are fain to house their 
orange and other tender trees, as we do here in England." 
"My Lord Bacon recommends for trial of a sound or 
knotty piece of timber, to cause one to speak at one 
of the extremes to his companion listening at the 
other; for if it be knotty, the sound, says he, will 
come abrupt." 97:124 

By the Roman laws trees might not be planted "on 
the very margent of navigable rivers, lest the boats 
and other vessels passing to and fro, should be hin- 
dered, and therefore such impediments were called 
retae, quia naves retinent, says the gloss; and be- 
cause the falling of the leaves corrupted the water. 
So nor within such a distance of Highways, that they 
might dry the better, and less cumber the traveller." 
97:125 



Ancient Forest Laws 
"The laws of our king Ina" "If any one set fire 
of a felled wood he shall be punished and besides pay 
3 pounds, and for those who clandestinely cut wood 
(of which the very sound of the axe shall be suffi- 
cient conviction) for every tree he shall be mulcted 
30 shillings. A tree so felled under whose shadow 
30 hogs can stand, shall be mulcted at 3 pounds, &c 
98:125 

The Armada 

I have heard that in the great expedition of 88, 
it was expressly enjoyned the Spanish commanders 
of that signal Armada; that if when they landed 
they should not be able to subdue our Nation, and 
make good their conquest; they should yet be sure 
not to leave a tree standing in the forest of Deane." 
98:125 

"In some parts of Germany, where a single tree 
is observed to be extraordinary fertile, a constant 
and plentiful mast bearer; there are laws to pro- 
hibit their felling without special leave: And it 
was well enacted amongst us that even the owners of 
woods within chases, should not cut down the timber 
without view of officers." Even the "Minuti blater- 
ones quercuum, culi, & curbi; as our law terms wind- 
falls, dotterels, scrags, &c. "had to be inspected 
by the proper officers lest something more valuable 
were carried off. Also "trespasses done de Viridi 
on boughs of trees &c" were noticed by the laws. 
Of the iron-mills that eat up the forests — he asks 
"what if some of them were even removed into another 
world? 'twere better to purchase all our iron out of 
America, than thus to exhaust our woods at home." 
98:126 

Forest Officers 
"We find in Aristotle's Politics, the Constitution 
of extra -urban magistrates to be sylvarum custodes; 
and such were the consulares sylvae, which the areat 
Caesar himself instituted." Calls himself "vAoye-i/tis' 
or "wood-born" at Wotton in Surrey. 99:126+ 

Great Trees from Small Seeds 
"And what mortal is there so perfect an atomist, 
who will undertake to detect the thousandth part or 
point of so exile a grain; as that insensible rudi- 
ment, or rather halituous spirit, which brings forth 



608 



the lofty fir tree, and the spreading oak? That trees 
of so enormous an height and magnitude, as we find 
some elms, planes and cypresses; some hard as iron, 
and solid as marble (for such the Indies furnish many) 
should be swaddled, and involved within so small a 
dimension (if a point may be said to have any) with- 
out the least luxation, confusion or disorder of 
parts, and in so weak and feeble a substance; being 
at first but a kind of tender mucilage, or rather rot- 
tenness, which so easily dissolves and corrupts sub- 
stances so much harder, when they are buried in the 
moist womb of the earth, whilst this tender and flex- 
ible as it is, shall be able in time to displace and 
rend in sunder, whole rocks of stones, and sometimes 
to cleave them beyond the force of iron wedges, so as 
even to remove mountains? For thus no weights are 
able to suppress the victorious palm; And thus our 
tree, (like man whose inverted symbol he is) being 
sown in corruption, rises in glory by little & little 
ascending into a hard erect stem of comely dimen- 
sions, into a solid tower as it were; and that which 
but lately a single ant would easily have born to 
his little cavern, now capable of resisting the fury, 
and braving the rage of the most impetuous storms." 
99:128 

Leaves 
The winds which destroy fleets "continually making 
war & sometimes joining forces with steeming showers 
against the poor leaf tyed on by a slender stalk! 
there it abides till God bids it fall:" 101:129 

Birch sap 
"Can we look on the prodigious quantity of liquor, 
which one poor wounded birch will produce in a few 
hours, and not be astonished how some trees should in 
so short a space, weep more than they weigh?" So of 
some doleful persons. 101:129 

Soil 

"This surface mould is the best and sweetest, being 
enriched with all that the air, dews, showers and ce- 
lestial influences can contribute to it;" 101:129 

Rainbow 
"My Lord Bacon directs to the observation of the 
rain-bow, where its extremity seems to rest, as point- 
ing to a more roscid and fertile mould; but this, I 
conceive, may be very fallacious, it having two horns, 
or bases, which are ever opposite." 102:130 

Hoeing 

"there being in truth no compost, or laetation 
whatsoever comparable to this continual motion, re— 
pastination , and turning of the mould with the spade." 
The soil requires "time, according to the depth from 
whence you fetch it, to purge and prepare itself, & 
render it fit for conception, evaporating the malig- 
nant halituses and impurities of the imprisoned air, 
laxing the parts, and giving easy deliverance to its 
offspring." — "I do not dispute whether all plants 
have their primiqenial seeds , and that nothing emerges 
spontaneously, and at adventure; but that these would 
rise freely, in all places, if impediments were re- 
moved (of which something has already been spoken;) 
and to show how pregnant most earths would become, 
were these indispositions cured, and that those sem- 
inal rudiments, wherever latent, were free to move, 
& exert their virtue, by taking off these chains & 
weights which fetter and depress them." 102:130 

"our worn out & exhausted lay-fields which enjoy 



their sabbaths." 

"For the earth, especially if fresh, has a certain 
magnetism in it, by which it attracts the salt, power, 
or virtue, (call it either,) which gives it life, and 
is the logic of all the labor and stir we keep about 
it, to sustain us; all dungings and other sordid tem- 
perings, being but the vicars succedaneous to this 
improvement," &c 103:131 

Sir Knelm Digby thinks the earth lying fallow 
attracts "vital spirits" from the air. 

"Even the biting of cattle gives a gentle loosen- 
ing to the roots of the herbage, and makes it to grow 
fine & sweet, and their very breath & treading, as 
well as soil, and the comfort of their warm bodies 
is wholesome, and marvellously cherishing:" [3ood 
for orchards] 103:132 

The Wilding 
"The wilding, (crab or pear) pomus sylvestris, 
being at the best the natural product of the soundest 
kernel in the firmest land, and therefore the gust 
of the fruit more strongly austere, fierce, & sharp, 
and also the fruit less and more woody; and the 
pleasanter or plumper and larger apple being the 
effect of some inteneration, which inclines to a 
kind of rebatement of the natural strength of the 
tree; the best choice of kernels for stocks, indef- 
initely, should be from the soundest wilding." 
104:132 

Cider 

Dr Beale says "In drawing, the best is nearest 
the heart or middle of the vessel, as the yolk in the 
egg . " 

That cider which drives out the cork or breaks the 
bottles is called "pot-gun drink." 

According to one Newburgh they called that "Life 
honey" which dropt freely out of the combs. 

The Red-strake was the famous cider apple of those 
days . 

Newburgh says "In Jersey, 'tis a general observa- 
tion, as I hear, that the more of red any apple hath 
in its rind, the more proper it is for this use. 
Palefaced apples they exclude as much as may be from 
their cider-vat." 104:133 

Under the oak 

Evelyn says— "The dew that impearls the leaves 
in May, insolated, meteorizes and sends up a liquor 
which is of admirable effect in ruptures." 105:118 

also "A timber tree is a merchant adventurer; you 
shall never know what he is worth till he be dead." 
105: — 

Facts from Linnaei Amoenitates 
Botanicae 

In a Chapter de Terra Habitabili, I think it is, 
Lin. says 

While the swine is rooting for acorns he is plant- 
ing acorns. 

Salicornia & salsola have cockle-shaped seeds & 
therefore birds & fishes devour them for shells, & 
so disperse them. 106:286 

The seeds of the equisetum or fern take short 
leaps on a sheet of paper, [i translate from the 
Latin]— 106:286 

The cones of the pine S. fir erect & open at first 
turn downward after the flowering & are closed all 
winter— but open again in April & drop their seed 
on the ground prepared for it. 106:286 



609 



He planted thistles in his father's garden, which 
to the latter' s sorrow did not all come up for 10 or 
20 years. 106:287 

Adhaerentes 
[For T's list of these, cf. 106:287.] [isacus] 
J. Biberg. In a treatise on the Oeconomia Natural 
in the same vol. says 107:278 



uity in the facial line, viz: from 70 to 100 . These 
embrace all the gradations, from the head of the Negro 
to the sublime beauty of the ancient Greek models. 
If we descent below 70 we have an orang outang, or a 
monkey; if we descend still lower we have a dog or a 
bird — a snipe, for example, of which the facial line 
is almost parallel with a horizontal plane." Camper 
quoted by Morton. 110:363 



The Seasons 
Sic vernum tempus, matutina hora, nostraque juven- 
alis aetas ad generationem quadrant. AEstas meridies 
et virilis toga cum conservatione convenient: autumnus 
vero, vespera et tristis senectus destructioni haud 
inepte assimilantur. 107:276 

Sponsalia Plantarum 

Meminisse tan turn insuper juvat quod plantarum geni- 
talia, quae in regno animali, utpote fere pudenda, 
plerumque a natura absconditur, in regno vegetabili 
omnium oculis exponantur, et quando hae celebrantur 
nuptiae, mirum est, quantas delicias afferunt specta- 
tori, dum colore gratissimo et odore jucundissimo sen- 
sus reficiunt omnium. Quid? quod codem tempore ex 
florum nectariis mel hauriunt apes, muscae aliaque in- 
secta; ut trochilum taceam, et ex eorum polline effoeto 
ceram colligunt itidem apes. J. Biberg 107:280 

He says the excrement of the dog is so tetra et sep- 
tica that no insects touch it. Therefore it is de- 
posited on a stone or trunk or some high place lest 
plants be injured by it. 108:283 

The sheep will not let one of her two lambs suck 
alone lest the other be famished. Ibid. 108:282 

Birds lay eggs because they could not carry their 
young in the womb conveniently. 108:282 

Bulls show a t orvam frontem oxen a serene front. 
Stags shed their horns after rutting. 108:281 

Thorny plants protect tender herbs beneath them 
from being browsed. 108:281+286 

Our walls & towers grow hard (or firm) with age. 
Ibid. 109:279 

Buphaga 
"Buphaga erythrohyncha the beef -eater of the English, 
the pique boeuf of the French" draws larvae out of the 
hides of cattle. Also the rhinoceros-bird. Leaves 
from the Note Book of a Naturalist by W. J. Broderip. 
109:73 

Serpents Feet 
"Those who define a serpent as an apod, or footless 
animal, carry their definition too far. The large 
constricting serpents, and not only those, but eryx 
and tortrix , are furnished with the rudiments of hind- 
er extremities, which appear to have escaped the no- 
tice of Sir Everard Home, but did not escape that of 
Dr. Mayer." Ibid. 109:74 

Pigeons 
Do not drink like most birds, but suck up the wa- 
ter like quadrupeds. Ibid. 109:129 

The Atures of the Orinoco 
The last families existed in 1767. "At the period 
of our voyage an old parrot was shown at Maypures, of 
which the inhabitants related that 'they did not under- 
stand what it said, because it spoke the language of 
the Atures.'" Humboldt's Personal Nar. 110:193 

The Facial Angle 
"I have thus established the two extremes of obliq- 



The Capacity of a Cranium 
"In order to measure the capacity of a cranium, 
the foramina were first stopped with cotton, and the 
cavity was then filled with white pepper seed poured 
into the foramen magnum until it reached the sur- 
face, and pressed down with the finger until the skull 
would receive no more." Morton's Crania Americana. 
110:365 

Hornets 
"I have seen six companies of infantry, with a 
train of artillery, and a squadron of horse, all put 
to the route by a single nest of hornets; and driven 
off some miles with all their horses and bullocks." 
Rambles &c of an Indian Official Sleeman. 111:463 

Burning of Widows 
The wife dreamed that- her husband had died on the 
road, "& began forthwith, in the middle of the night, 
to call out Sut, Sut, Sut! Nothing could dissuade 
her from burning;" She was burned with her husband's 
turban in her arms, but 10 days after her husband 
came back. Such a one — a woman, ie, is called a 
suttee. Ibid 111:462 

Cause of Blights 
affecting the wheat crops — very disastrous in 
their effects. Sleemans Hindoo friend told him 
"it was by most people attributed to our [the English] 
frequent measurement of the land, and inspection of 
fields, with a view to estimate their capabilities 
to pay; which the people considered a kind of incest , 
and which he himself, the Deity, can never tolerate. 
The land is" said he "considered as the mother of 
the prince or chief who holds it — the great parent 
from whom he derives all that maintains him — his 
family and his establishments. If well treated she 
yields this in abundance to her son; but if he pre- 
sumes to look upon her with the eye of desire , she 
ceases to be fruitful; or the Deity sends down hail 
or blight to destroy all that she yields!" Ibid. 
This which is apparently quoted as a puerility ex- 
presses a solemn truth. 111:463 

Nerbudda 
You must bathe in or drink of the Ganges "but 
the sight of the Nerbudda from a distant hill" can 
bless and purify. Ibid 112:463 

How to Cure the Blight 
"In the latter end of 1831, while I was at Saugor, 
a cowherd, in driving his cattle to water at a reach 
of the Beeose river, — was reported to have seen a 
vision, that told him the waters of that reach, 
taken up and conveyed to the fields in pitchers, 
would effectually keep off the blight from the wheat, 
provided the pitchers were not suffered to touch the 
ground on the way. On reaching the field a small 
hole was to be made at the bottom of the pitcher, so 
as to keep up a small but steady stream, as the bear- 
er carried it round the border of the field, that the 
water might fall in a complete ring except at a small 



opening, which was to be kept dry, in order that the 
monster or demon blight might make his escape through 
it, — " He says that when the blight appeared in '32 
"The roads from this reach of the Beeose river, up 
to the capital of the Orcha Rajah, more than a hun- 
dred miles, were literally lined with these water 
carriers; and I estimated the number of persons who 
passed with the water every day, for six weeks, at 
10 000 a day." Ibid 112:464 

The Peepul Tree 
"Three or four young peepul trees have begun to 
spread their delicate branches and pale green leaves 
rustling in the breeze from the dome of this fine tem- 
ple, which" they "doom to inevitable destruction. 
Pigeons deposit the seeds, on which they chiefly feed, 
in the crevices of buildings. No Hindoo dares [for 
they are sacred] to lop off the heads of these young 
trees, and if they did it would only put off the evil 
and inevitable day; for such are the vital powers of 
their roots, when they have once penetrated deeply in- 
to a building, that they will send out their branches 
again, cut them off as often as you may, and carry on 
their internal attack with undiminished vigor. — The 
palace, the castle, the temple, and the tomb — She 
rises triumphant over them all in her lofty beauty, 
bearing high in air amidst her light green foliage 
fragments of the wreck she has made, — " Ibid. 
114:465 

Janseyn the Singer 
"Popular belief ascribes to Janseyn [ the most cel- 
ebrated singer they have ever had in India] the power 
of stopping the river Jumna in its course. His con- 
temporary and rival, Brij Bowla, who, according to 
popular belief, could split a rock with a single note, 
is said to have learned his base from the noise of the 
stone-mills which the women use in grinding the corn 
for their families." Ibid. 115:466 

A Picturesque Village 
"Indeed I guestion whether it were possible for a 
single hand to build a picturesque village. Nothing 
contributes more to it, than the various styles in 
building, which result from the different ideas of 
different people. When all these little habitations 
happen to unite harmoniously; and to be connected with 
the proper appendages of a village — a winding road — 
a number of spreading trees — a rivulet with a bridge — 
and a spire, to bring the whole to an apex; — the vil- 
lage, is compleat." Gilpin's Lakes of Cumberland. 
115:141 

A Triumphal Column 
Adorning the approach to Blenheim Castle. "The 
top is crowned with the statue of the Duke of Marl- 
borough; and the pedestal is inscribed — not indeed 
with the terseness of a Roman altar — but with the 
less classical, tho more honorable detail of an act 
of parliament, granting the manor of Woodstock 
to the duke for his eminent services." Ibid. 116:141 

Warwick Castle 
"The armor & tilting spear of the celebrated Guy, 
earl of Warwick, a rib of the dun cow, and other monu- 
ments of the prowess of that hero, are shewn at the 
porter's lodge. These remains, (tho fictitious, no 
doubt,) are not improper appendages of the place; and 
give the imagination a kind of tinge, which throws an 
agreeable, romantic color on all the vestiges of this 
venerable pile." Ibid. 116:141 



610 



Falls 
Broken falls become a small stream — a regular one 
a large body of water. "Were the Niagara thus broken, 
at least if some considerable parts of it were not 
left broad & sheety, it might be a grand scene of con- 
fusion; but it could not be that vast, that uniform, 
and simple object, which is most capable of expressing 
the idea of greatness." Ibid. 

Beauty hard to describe 
"Scenes of this kind, (however pleasing) in which 
few objects occur, either of grandeur or peculiarity, 
in a singular manner elude the powers of verbal de- 
scription. They almost elude the power of colors. 
The soft and elegant form of beauty is hard to hit: 
while the strong, harsh feature is a mark, which 
every pencil can strike." Ibid. 117:143 

"Moral and picturesgue ideas do not 
always coincide" — 

"In a moral view, the industrious mechanic is a 
more pleasing object, than the loitering peasant. 
But in a picturesgue light, it is otherwise. The 
arts of industry are rejected; and even idleness, 
if I may so speak, adds dignity to a character. 
Thus the lazy cowherd resting on his pole; or the 
peasant lolling on a rock, may be allowed in the 
grandest scenes; while the laborious mechanic, with 
his implements of labor, would be repulsed. The fish- 
erman, it is true, may follow his calling upon the 
lake: but he is indebted for this privilege, not to 
his art; but to the picturesque apparatus of it — 
his boat, and his nets, which qualify his art." 
Ibid. 117:143 

"The characters, which are most suited to these 
scenes of grandeur are such as impress us with some 
idea of greatness, wildness, or ferocity; all which 
touch on the sublime." 

"Figures in long, folding draperies; gypsies; 
banditti; and soldiers, — not in modern regimentals; 
but as Virgil paints them, — longis adnixi hastis, 
et scuta tenentes: are all marked with one or other 
of these characters: and mixing with the magnificence, 
wildness, or horror of the place, they properly co- 
alesce; and reflecting the same images, add a deeper 
tinge to the character of the scene." Ibid. 118:144 

"Memorial of the battle of Marsden-moor 
"On examining it with more attention, it appeared, 
[the log could not be sawed] that great numbers of 
leaden bullets were in the hearts of several of the 
trees; which thus recorded the very spot, where the 
heat of the battle had raged." Ibid. 119:144 

Trees in the North 
At Disco Island Osborn was surprised by the sight 
of "a dwarf birch tree" — "full 13 inches high" — 
"the monarch of an Arctic forest!" Osborn 's Arctic 
Journal. 119:381 

An Arctic Night 
"The inhabitants of these regions, as well as the 
animals, retire to rest with as much regularity as 
is done in more southern climates; and the subdued 
tints of the heavens, as well as the heavy banking 
of clouds in the neighborhood of the sun, gives to 
the arctic summer night a quietude as marked as it 
is pleasant." Ibid. 119:381 

Winter -night 
"For some time after the sun had ceased to visit 



611 



our heavens, the southern side of the horizon, for a 
few hours at noon, was strongly illumined, the sky 
being shaded, from deep and rosy red through all the 
most delicate tints of pink & blue, until, in the north, 
a cold bluish black scowled angrily over the pale 
mountains, which, in widowed loneliness &c" Ibid 
120:382 

Wood at the North 
The "extacy" of the Esquimaux in the extreme N of 
Baffin's Bay "exceeded all bounds when each was pre- 
sented with a boat-hook staff, a piece of wood some 
12 feel long." Ibid. 120:382 

Man 
"Genus 1 — Homo. Species 1 — Homo Sapiens — Inhabit 
all parts of the earth, omnivorous, disputing for ter- 
ritory; uniting together for the express purpose of 
destroying their own species." Harlan's Fauna Ameri- 
cana 120:154 

Cat 
"prolific hybrids have been produced by the union 
of animals generically distinct, between the martin, 
(Mustela martes) and the domestic cat." Ibid. 120:155 

Finding water with worms 
"They wanted drink on board his ships, [King Harald 
Hardrada's] and went up into the island to seek water; 
but finding none, they reported it to the king. He 
ordered them to look for some long earth-worms on the 
island, and when they found them they brought them to 
the king. He ordered the people to bring the worms 
to a fire, and bake them before it, so that they should 
be thirsty. Then he ordered a thread to be tied round 
the tails of the worms, and to let them loose. The 
worms crept away immediately, while the threads were 
wound off from the clew as the worms took them away; 
and the people followed the worms until they sought 
downwards in the earth. There the king ordered them 
to dig for water, which they did, and found so much 
water, that they had no want of it." Snorro Sturle- 
son's chronicle 121:473 

Ancient swords 
"It is a singular physical circumstance, that in 
almost all the swords of those ages to be found in the 
collection of weapons in the Antiquarian Museum at 
Copenhagen, the handles indicate a size of hand very 
much smaller than the hands of modern people of any 
class or rank. No modern dandy, with the most deli- 
cate hands, would find room for his hand to grasp or 
wield with ease some of the swords of these Northmen." 
Laing. In a note to the last. 121:473 

Love 
"Affection's thoughts fly in the wind, 
And meet each other true & kind." 
Quoted by Snorro. 122:473 

King Eystein & King Sigurd 
There is a glorious conversation between Eystein & 
Sigurd the crusader — the two brothers who shared the 
Kingdom of Norway between them, too long to quote 
the whole. Finally Sigurd says: 

"It is the conversation of all that the expedition 
I made out of the country was a princely expedition, 
while you in the mean time sat at home like your 
father's daughter." 

"Eystein: Now you betake yourself to your cudgel. 
I would not have brought up this conversation if I had 
not known what to reply on this point. I can truly 



say that I equipped you from home like a sister before 
you went upon this expedition." 

"Sigurd: You must have heard that on this expedition 
I was in many a battle in the Saracen's land, and gained 
the victory in all; and you must have heard of the 
many valuable articles I acquired, the like of which 
were never seen before in this country, and I was the 
most respected wherever the most gallant men were; and 
on the other hand, you cannot conceal that you have 
only a home-bred reputation. I went to Palestine, 
and I came to Apulia; but I did not see you there, 
brother. I gave Roger the Great the title of king; 
I won seven battles, and you were in none of them. 
I was at our Lord's grave; but I did not see thee 
there, my brother. On this expedition I went all the 
way to Jordan, where our Lord was baptized, and swam 
across the river: but did not see thee there. On 
the edge of the river-bank there was a bush of wil- 
lows, and there I twisted a knot of willows which is 
waiting thee there; for I said this knot thou shouldst 
untie, and fulfil the vow, brother, that is bound 
up in it." 

"Eystein: It is but little I have to set up against 
this. I have heard that you had several battles 

abroad, but it was more useful for the country what 
I was doing in the mean time at home. In the north 
at Vaage I built fish-houses, so that all the poor 
people could earn a livelihood, and support them- 
selves. I built there a priest's house, and endowed 
a church where before all the people almost were 
heathen; and on this account I think all these people 
will remember that Eystein was once king of Norway. 
The road from Drontheim goes over the Dovrefields, 
and many people had to sleep out of doors, and make 
a very severe journey; but I built inns, and support- 
ed them with money; and all travellers know that 
Eystein has been king in Norway. Out at Agdaness 
was a barren waste, and no harbor, and many a ship 
was lost there; and now there is a good harbor & 
ship-station, and a church also built there. Then 
I raised beacons on all the high fielde, of which 
all the people in the interior enjoy the benefit. 
In Bergen I built a royal hall, and the church of the 
Apostles, with a stair between the two; so that all 
the kings who come after me will remember my name. 
I built Michael's church, and founded a monastery 
beside it. I settled the laws, brother, so that 
every man can obtain justice from his fellow-man; 
and according as these are observed the country will 
be better governed. I set a warping post and iron 
ring in the sound of Sinsholm. The Jemteland people 
are again joined to this kingdom, and more by pru- 
dence & kind words than by force and war. Now al- 
though, all this that I have reckoned up be but small 
doings, yet I am not sure if the people of the country 
have not been better served by it than by your killing 
bluemen for the devil in the land of the Saracens, and 
sending them to hell. Now if you prize yourself on 
your good deeds, I think the places I have raised 
for chaste people of God will serve me not less for 
my soul's salvation. So if you tied a knot for me, 
I will not go to untie it; and if I had been inclined 
to tie a knot for thee, thou wouldst not have been 
king of Norway at thy return to this country, when 
with a single ship you came into my fleet. Now let 
men of understanding judge what you have above me, and 
you will discover that here in Norway there are men 
equal to you." 

"Thereupon both were silent, and there was anger on 
both sides." Snorro. 122:473+ 



612 



Oestrus bovis & the Oe. ovis 
"At certain seasons the whole terrified herd, with 
their tails in the air, or turned upon their backs, 
or stiffly stretched out in the direction of the spine, 
gallop about their pastures, making the country re- 
echo with their lowings, and finding no rest till 
they get into the water." The oestrus wishes "merely 
to oviposit in their hides." V. Virgil. When oxen 
are employed in agriculture, the attack of this fly is 
often attended with great danger, since they then be- 
come perfectly unmanageable; and whether in harness 
or yoked to the plough, will run directly forward. 
At the season when the Oestrus infests them, close 
attention should be paid, and their harness so con- 
structed that they may easily be let loose." "The com- 
mon saying that a whimsical person is maggoty , or has 
got maggots in his head , perhaps arose from the freaks 
the sheep have been observed to exhibit when infest- 
ed by their bots." Kirby & Spence 1815. 126:218 

Honey-ratel 
"Sparrman [Sparmann] has given an amusing account 
of the Honey-ratel, (Viverra mellivora,) which has a 
particular instinct enabling it to discover bees, and 
attack them in their entrenchments. Near sun-set, the 
ratel will sit & hold one of his paws before his eyes, 
in order to get a distinct view of the object of his 
pursuit; and when, in consequence of his peering about 
in this manner, he sees any bees flying, he knows that 
at this time of the day they are making for their hab- 
itations, whither he follows them, and so attains his 
end." Ibid. Sparrman, 11.180 127:219 

Ephemerae 
"The season of different harvests is not better 
known to the farmer, than that in which the Ephemerae 
of a particular river are to emerge, is to the fisher- 
men — Between the io th & 15 th of August is the time 
when those of the Seine and Marne, which Reaumur de- 
scribed, are expected by the fishermen, who call them 
Manna : Reaumur describes a flight he observed in 1738 
at evening. "When the snow falls with the largest 
flakes," says he, "and with the least interval between 
them, the air is not so full of them as that which 
surrounded us was of Ephemerae. Scarcely had I re- 
mained in one place a few minutes, when the step on 
which I stood, was guite concealed with a layer of 
them from two to four inches in depth &c &c &c" They 
came out of the earth. The fishermen allow 3 days 
from them to come out — They are food for fishes. 
Ibid 128:219 

Bee-Cuckoo (Cuculus indicator) 
"Sparrman describes this bird, which is somewhat 
larger than a common sparrow, as giving this infor- 
mation in a singular manner. In the evening & morning, 
which are its meal times, it excites the attention of 
the Hottentots, colonists, and honey-ratel, by the 
cry of cherr , cherr, cherr, and conducts them to the 
tree or spot, in which the bees' nest is concealed, 
continually repeating this cry. When arrived at the 
spot, it hovers over it, and then alighting on some 
neighboring tree or bush, sits in silence, expecting 
to come in for its share of the spoil, which is that 
part of the comb containing the brood." Sparrman 
11.186 Ibid 128:220 

A Shower of Flies 
[T. clipped the following from the Boston Journal 
of July 26, 1858. See page 129A of the facsimile:] 
A recent number of the St. Louis Democrat says: 



"On the down trip of the steamer Editor in the 
Illinois, the other night, at 9 o'clock, a shower or 
stream of the Mormon or Shad fly poured upon her decks 
to the depth of six inches, and it was a very difficult 
matter to shovel them overboard. They were so numer- 
ous as to put out the watchman's light and envelop 
everything in midnight darkness. The trees along the 
shore look as if borne down by these short-lived 
insects. The visitation is said to prognosticate 
a sickly season." 

Bees 
"Columella says that the Greeks in like manner 
sent their bee-hives every year from Achaia into 
Attica; and a similar custom is not unknown in Italy, 
and even in this country in the neighborhood of 
heaths." Ibid. 129:220 

The Imago State 

"Some insects in their perfect state, though fur- 
nished with organs of feeding, make no use of them, 
and consume no food whatever. Of this description 
are the moth which proceeds from the silkworm, and 
several others of the same order;" — "Indeed it may 
be laid down as a general rule, that almost all in- 
sects in this state eat much less than in that of 
larvae. The voracious caterpillar when transformed 
into a butterfly needs only a small quantity of 
honey; and the gluttonous maggot when become a fly 
contents itself with a drop or two of any sweet liq- 
uid." Ibid. 129:220 

"Many caterpillars eat daily twice their weight 
of leaves." Ibid. 130:220 

Spider 
"The Rev. R. Sheppard has often noticed in the fen 
ditches of Norfolk a very large spider which actually 
forms a raft for the purpose of obtaining its prey 
with more facility. Keeping its station upon a ball 
of weeds about 3 inches in diameter, probably held 
together by slight silken cords, it is wafted along 
the surface of the water upon this floating island, 
which it quits the moment it sees a drowning insect — " 
Ibid. 130:220 

Temple 
Among Chinese characters a house and heart is the 
symbol of a temple . Kraitsir's Nature of Lang. 
130:234 



Runes 
[For T's interest in the sixteen Norse runes, 
especially in the third ( Thor-u or mountain spirit) 
cf. 131:235.] 



Irish Language 
One of the two kinds of writing in the Irish 
"agrees with our alphabetic series & contains but 
18 letters..." [See T's transcription of this al- 
phabet: 131:235] 

Ants 
"their labors are going on even in the night. — 
Yet this is a certain fact. — Long ago Aristotle 
affirmed that ants worked in the night when the moon 
was at the full; [Hist. Animal, l.ix.c.38.]" Gould 
"their historian["] Huber & Kirby & Spence make 
some species work at night whether the moon shines 
or not. Kirby & Spence 's Entomology. 131:221 



613 



Wasps 
"They — all perish, except a few of the females, 
upon the first attack of frost." Ibid. 132:222 

Aristotle on the sexes of plants 
"In another place he appears to think that the 
workers [bees] are hermaphrodites: — his words are 
remarkable, and seem to indicate that he was aware 
of the sexes of plants: 'having in themselves, says 
he, like plants , the male and the female.'" Ibid 
132:222 

Bees 
"The 2 authors who have given the clearest & most 
satisfactory account of them, Reaumur and the elder 
Huber;" Ibid 132:222 

Habit 
"the Egyptians who went bare headed, had their skulls 
remarkably thick; while the Persians, who covered 
the head with a turban or mitre, were distinguished 
by the tenuity of theirs." Ibid 132:222 

Creation of Queen Bee 
Under this quotes John Hunter for the fact that 
"When a cow brings forth two calves, and one of them 
is a female, it is always barren, and partakes in part 
of the characters of the other sex." (Kirby & Spence's 
words) again: "Women in advanced life are sometimes 
distinguished by beards; and after they have done lay- 
ing, hen-birds occasionally assume the plumage of the 
cock:" Ibid 133:222 

Bees 

— "bees of all ages unite to form the swarms. The 
numbers of which they consist vary much. Reaumur calls 
12 000 a moderate swarm; and he mentions one which 
amounts to more than three times that number ( 40 , 000 ) . " 

— "the principal object of the bees [in their ex- 
cursions] is to furnish themselves with three differ- 
ent materials: — the nectar of flowers, from which 
they elaborate honey & wax; the pollen or fertilizing 
dust of the anthers, of which they make what is called 
bee-bread, serving as food both to old & young; and 
the resinous substance called by the ancients Propolis 
and Pissoceros , &c, used in various ways in rendering 
the hive secure and giving the finish to the combs. 
The first of these substances is the pure fluid se- 
creted in the nectaries of flowers." The bee laps 
this up with its tongue, passes it to its mouth & 
thence it goes to its first stomach called the honey- 
bag. (Know not how the wax is made.) "It goes into 
the honey-bag as into a laboratory, where it is trans- 
formed into pure honey." This is regurgitated into 
the cells. 

"Long before Linne had discovered the nectary of 
flowers, our industrious creatures had made themselves 
intimate with every form & variety of them; and no 
botanist, even in this enlightened era of botanical 
science, can compare with a bee in this respect. The 
station of these reservoirs, even where the armed 
sight of science cannot discover it, is in a moment 
detected by the microscopic eye of this animal." 

"Aristotle says that in each journey from the hive, 
bees attend only one species of flower;" Reaumur 
thinks otherwise. But some other moderns agree with 
Aristotle. The bees seem to eat the pollen as they 
find it. As for the Propolis they draw from certain 
buds like the populus balsamifera before expanding 
threads of the "viscid matter" with which they are 
besmeared. "This is an old discovery confirmed by re- 



cent observation." Bees will go a mile for honey; 
Huber says half a league. Even K & S refer to the ac- 
count "in the Phil. Trans, for 1721, of the method 
practised in New England for discovering where the 
wild bees, &c, &c" 

"How long our little active creatures repose before 
they take a second excursion I cannot precisely say."!! 
"Reaumur observes, that in a hive the population of 

which amounts to 18,000, the number that enter the 
hive in a minute is a hundred; which, allowing 14 
hours in the day for their labor, makes 84,000: thus 
every individual must make four excursions daily, 
and some five." 

"It is a saying of the bee-keepers in Holland, 
that the first swallow & the first bee foretell each 
other. (Swanson.) This perhaps may be correct there; 
but with us the appearance of bees considerably pre- 
cedes that of the swallow; for when the early cro- 
cuses open, if the weather be warm, they may always 
be found busy in the blossom." 

"Thorley tells us that a swarm took possession of 
a spot under the leads of the study of Ludovicus 
Vives in Oxford, where they continued a hundred & 
ten years, from 1520 to 1630." 123+ : 222+ 

"Linne named another species [of bee] florisomnis " 
from its dozing in flowers, compositae &c &c 135: — ? 

Spectre Tribe 
"The Spectre tribe ( Phasma , Licht.) go still fur- 
ther in this mimicry, representing a small branch 
with its spray." — One species "the natives of Chili 
call 'The Devil's Horse.'" 136:225 

Froth on Plants 
— "the white froth often observable upon rose- 
bushes, and other shrubs and plants, called by the 
vulgar frog-spittle, — but which, if examined, will 
be found to envelop the larva of a small hemipterous 
insect ( Cicada spumaria , L.) from whose anus it ex- 
udes, although it is sometimes discovered even in 
this concealment by the indefatigable wasps, and 
becomes their prey, — serves to protect the insect, 
which soon dies when exposed, not only from the heat 
of the sun and from violent rains, but also to hide 
it from the birds and its other foes." Ibid 136:225 

Formic Acid 
"The effluvia produced by this acid are so sub- 
tile and penetrating, that it is impossible to hold 
your head near the nest of the hill-ant ( Formica 
rufa, L.) when the ants are much disturbed, without 
being almost suffocated." 136:225 

Cadis worms 
make may-flies ( Phryqanea ) some at least. Their 
cases being open at the ends to admit water — they 
have a grate or portcullis to keep out enemies when 
torpid. Ibid 137:225 

Gossamer 
"that sight occasionally noticed in fine days in 
the autumn, of webs — commonly called gossamer webs — 
covering the earth and floating in the air; " "It was 
an old & strange notion that these webs were composed 
of dew burned by the sun. 

' — The fine nets which oft we woven see 
Of scorched dew, ' 
says Spenser. — One of the first fellows of the Royal 
Society, Robert Hooke, the author of Microqraphia " — 
says — "Much resembling a cobweb, or a confused lock 



614 



of these cylinders, is a certain white substance 
which, after a fogg, may be observed to fly up and 
down the air." He examined them with a microscope 
and found them "most like to a flake of worsted pre- 
pared to be spun;" — S. says — "it is not unlikely, 
but that those great white clouds, that appear all 
the summer time, may be of the same substance." 

The French call them "Fils de la Vierge" Many of 
them at least are "air-balloons" of spiders. Ever 
Henry Moore the poet suspects they may be "the field- 
spider's loom." 

Showers of these webs in flakes nearly an inch wide 
& 5 or 6 inches long have fallen a whole day in England 
ac. to G. White. 

"In Germany these flights of gossamer appear so con- 
stantly in Autumn, that they are there metaphorically 
called 'Der fliegender Sommer' (the flying or depart- 
ing Summer):" Ibid 138:226 

Dragon-flies (Libellulidae) 
— "without turning they can fly in all directions 
— backwards and to the right & left," In one instance 
a swallow could not catch one of this tribe in a menag- 
erie 100 feet long. Ibid 138:227 

Ephemerae 
"It is still more extraordinary that these Ephem- 
erae — which aoDearing after sunset, and dying before 
sun-rise, are destined never to behold the light of that 
orb, — should have so strong an inclination for any 
luminous object." 138:227 

Swiftness of Insects 
It is remarkable that the smaller Tipulidae will 
fly unwetted in a heavy shower of rain, as I have often 
observed. How keen must be their sight, and how rapid 
their motions to enable them to steer between drops 
bigger than their own bodies, which, if they fall upon 
them, must dash them to the ground!" 138:227 

Glow Worms &c 

Glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca) — "'stars of the 
earth and diamonds of the night.'" K & S say "studding 
their mossy couch with mild effulgence." Chiefly ob- 
served in the most glorious & balmy evenings. "It is 
not however the larva of an insect, but the perfect 
female of a winged beetle, from which it is altogether 
so different" as hardly to be believed. The light of 
the males much less vivid. 

"Mr White even thinks that they regularly put it out 
[the light of the female glow-worm??] [Nat. Hist. 
11.279] between 11 and 12 every night: and they have 
also the power of rendering it for a while more vivid 
than ordinary." 

"In travelling at night they [the natives of St Dom- 
ingo] used to tie one [ of the cucuij ] to each great 
toe; and in fishing & hunting required no other flam- 
beau." fact from Pietro Martire. Quoted in Madoc. 
Ibid 139:228 

Ignes fatui 
"the very obscure subject of ignes fatui." — "there 
is considerable ground for the opinion long ago main- 
tained by Ray & Willughby, that the majority of these 
supposed meteors are no other than luminous insects." 
139:228 

Aphis 
speaks of the A. Betulae. Their eggs are hatched 
on the birch in the spring. Their wings have dark 
bands — Another species of A with oval black eggs on 



a birch was hatched as soon as the leaves began to ex- 
pand on which they feed. 140:228 

Winter gnat 
"A bright sun imparted animation to troops of the 
winter -gnat (Trichocera hiemalis, Meig.), which frisked 
under every bush." In Dec. "the gnat whose choral 
dances have been before described, may be constantly 
seen gambolling in the air in the depth of winter 
when it is mild & calm, accompanied by the little 
Psychoda ; so common in windows," & others. 

Freezing of Caterpillars &c 
Lister first noticed that caterpillars might be 
frozen so as to clink like stones when let fall & 
yet revive. Bonnet found that they — "yet produced 
butterflies." (K & S words) Hunter, though he be- 
lieved did not know from experience this fact with 
regard to fish. — could not reanimate them. 

Insects in Spring 
In the early spring of 1805 they were "generally 
out by the middle of March," but in the "untoward 
spring (of 1816) I did not observe even a bee abroad 
until the 20 tn of April; and the first butterfly 
that I saw did not appear until the 26 th ." — "the 
remarkable fact which Spallanzani has noticed, that 
insects reappear in spring at a temperature consid- 
erably lower than that at which they retired in 
autumn." 140:230 

Ball Beetle 
"It is the instinct of Scaraboeus vernalis to 
roll up pellets of dung, in each of which it deposits 
one of its eggs — " 141:230 

Bees Again 
— "even if a cloud pass before the sun, they re- 
turn to the hive in the greatest haste" ac to Huber. 
"When bees have found the direction in which their 
hive lies, Huber says they fly to it with an extreme 
rapidity, and as straight as a ball from a musket" 
(H 11. 367) Also ac to Huber— i.e.— the fact — 
"If a hive be removed out of its ordinary position, 
the first day after this removal, the bees do not fly 
to a distance without having visited all the neigh- 
boring objects. The queen does the same thing when 
flying into the air for fecundation" 141:230 

Book Worm (?) 
"M. Peignot mentions an instance where, in a public 
library but little frequented, 27 folio volumes were 
perforated in a straight line by the same insect (pro- 
bably one of these species [Anobium] ) , in such a man- 
ner that, on passing a cord through the perfectly 
round hole made by it, these 27 volumes could be 
raised at once." 142:219 

Water Insects 
"The little beetles called whirlwigs ( Gyrinus , L. ) 
— seem to be under the influence of the social prin- 
ciple — " Among insects that walk on the water he men- 
tions "the water -scorpion (Nepa)," & "the aquatic 
bugs Gerris Lacustris, Hydrometra Stagnorum, Velia 
Riverlorum, &c.,) 142:221+219 

Snow Flea. Concord name 
a tribe "found often under bark, sometimes in the 
water" &c "which Linne has named Podura , a term im- 
plying that they have a leg in their tail. This is 
literally the fact."— "There is a minute black 



615 



species (P. aquatica, L.) which in the spring is 
often seen floating on the [water] contained in ruts, 
hollows or even ditches, and in such infinite numbers 
as to resemble gunpowder strewed upon the surface." 
— one of the few insects "which do not seem ever to 
be torpid." The hive bee perhaps another. Kirby & 
Spence 142:225+229 

Derivation of Words 
Richard Chevenix Trench 

Sierra Span, for saw 143:506 

Tribulation separating the chaff from the 
wheat. 143:506 

Retract — handle over again — reconsider. 143:506 

Pain — poena — or punishment 143:507 

Heathen "at the introduction of Christianity 
into Germany, the wild dwellers on the 
'heaths' longest resisted the truth." Like 
pagan. 143:508 

Miscreant — from Crusaders hating infidels (? 
143:508 

[Saunter or saunterer — derived from La Sainte 
Terre — one who visits the Holy Land] 143:508 

Poltroon — pollice truncus (?) 143:508 

Craven who has craven his life 143:509 

Posthumous should not have the h being not post 
humum but superlative of posterus. 143:509 

Sur — or super-name — name over & above not Sire- 
name 143:509 

Shamefast originally like steadfast 143:509 

Stipulation from stipula (?) "Because it once 
was usual, when one person passed over landed 
property to another that a straw from the land, 
as a pledge or representative of the property 
transferred, should be handed from the seller 
to the buyer, which afterward was commonly 
preserved with, or inserted in the title-deeds." 
143:509 

Disaster — ascendant influence and astrologic (? 
143:510 

Philosopher — before Pythagoras they had called them- 
selves or been called wise men. 144:510 

Essay Bacon applies it as a novel word to his 
Essays 144:510 

Prune of the gardener & preen of the bird one word, 
dif. applied. 144:510 

Detest bear witness against. 144:511 

Felicitate — without sympathy but not congratulate 
144:511 

The brunt— the heat. 144:512 

Strong — past participle of "to string' well 
strung. 144:512 

Wild past participle of 'to will' — self-willed 
144:512 

to stick makes stuck or stock. 144:512 

Stories or stayeries of a house 144:512 

Desultor on[e] who in a circus leaps from "the 
back of one "running horse to another." 144:513 

Hawk— havoc (?) 144:513 

Raven makes ravenous. 144:513 

Field from felled opposed to forest hence wood 
& feld. 144:513 

Amusement — h musis away from study 144:513 

Marine Algae &c 
By W 1 - Henry Harvey. 1851 
Of the atmospheric dust "one the rigging of ships 
far out at sea" says that Dr. F. Conn, Ehrenberg, and 
others "now regard it as evidence of the existence 
of organic life in the air itself!" "the air itself 
as the proper abode of this singular fauna & flora, — 



for minute animals would seem to accompany and doubt- 
less to feed upon the vegetable atoms." 145:156 

"Where water lies long on the surface of the ground, 
as happens in cases of floods, it quickly becomes 
filled with Confervae or Silk-weeds , which rise to the 
surface in vast green strata." Use up & counteract 
ill effects of decaying vegetation — "When the water 
evaporates, their filaments, which consist of delicate 
membranous cells, shrivel up & become dry, and the 
stratum of threads, now no longer green, but bleached 
into a dull white, forms a coarsely interwoven film 
of varying thickness, spread like great sheets of pa- 
per over the decaying herbage. This natural paper , 
which has also been decribed under the name of water 
flannel , sometimes covers immense tracts, &c" — 
"green silken threads" 145:157+159 This both in 
salt & fresh water. "These threads cannot grow with- 
out emitting oxygen. If you examine such a pool on 
a sunny day, you may trace the beads of oxygen on 
the submerged threads, or see the gass collect in 
bubbles where the threads present a dense mass." 
146:159 

"Very few other plants [than Algae] vegetate in 
the sea, sea water being fatal to the life of most 
seeds; yet some notable exceptions to this law [in 
the case of the cocoa nut, mangrove, & a few other 
plants] serve a useful purpose in the economy of na- 
ture." 146:157 

"Probably one half of the species of Algae of the 
east coast of North America are identical with those 
of Europe — a very large portion when we contrast it 
with the strongly marked difference between the ma- 
rine animals of the 2 shores" — "The European species 
on the same length of coast, are greatly the more 
numerous, which appears to be owing to the prevalence 
of sands, nearly destitute of Algae, along so great a 
length of the American shore, and particularly along 
that portion which, from its latitude, ought to pro- 
duce the greatest variety of Algae, were the local 
circumstances favourable to their growth." 146:157 

As an instance of our poverty — of the common 
Fuci or Rock Kelp — there are 6 very common species 
in North Europe beside some rarer ones — but of these 
only 2 — Fucus vesiculosus & nodosus are commonly dis- 
persed here. 

"The number of species of marine plants which are 
not algae proper is extremely small. These on the 
American Coast are limited to less than half a dozen, 
only one of which, the common Eel Grass (Zostera mar- 
ina), is extensively dispersed." 147:158 

Laminaria 
"The plants commonly known as Oarweed, Tangle , 
Devil's Apron , Riband-weed , Sole-leather -kelp , &c. 
belong to this genus, which is more numerous in spe- 
cies, and possessed of a wider geographical range 
than any other of the Order. With the exception of 
L. Fascia, which is only a few inches long, they are 
all plants of a large size, varying from 3 to 12, or 
20 feet in length. They commence to grow about low- 
water mark, and descend, beyond that limit, to the 
depth of 5 to 10 fathoms." 147:160 

— "The Nereocystis of the N. W. coast is said when 
fully grown to have a stem measuring 300 feet in 
length, which bears at its summit a huge air vessel, 
six or 7 feet long. — Here the sea otter has his favor- 
ite lair, — " This "is exceeded by the Macrocystis , 
whose stems are calculated by Dr. Hooker occasionally 
to reach 700 feet, while Bory St. Vincent attributes 



616 



to them a length of 1500 feet." — the longest vege- 
tables that are known." 147:159 

The trunks of some cast ashore on the Falkland 
Islands resemble drift wood; '"on one occasion," (as 
related by Dr. Hooker) 'no persuasion could prevent 
the captain of a brig from employing his boat's crew, 
during 2 bitterly cold days, in collecting this in- 
combustible weed for fuel.'" The stem of one species, 
the trumpet-weed of the Cape of Good Hope "by the na- 
tive herdsmen is formed into a trumpet for collecting 
the cattle at evening." In Scotland knife handles are 
made of L. diqitata , the blades being stuck into the 
hollow stems which dry & shrink on & are tipped with 
metal. Ours is probably 

Laminaria Longicruris 
"In deep water, from 5 to 10 fathoms (or more?). 
Very abundant on the American shores, from Greenland to 
Cape Cod. — "It is by far the most abundant species on 
the northern coasts, and gradually diminishes, in the 
number of individuals, and in the size and luxuriance 
of growth, as it extends southward. In Boston Bay it 
is still plentiful, though of much smaller dimensions 
than at Halifax, where it is the chief ornament of the 
submarine flora. I have seen no specimen from a more 
southern locality than Cape Cod; but M. Chauvin is 
said to have received it from the Bahamas. In Europe 
it is scarcely known to grow beyond the limits of the 
Arctic Sea, whence water-worn specimens occasionally 
reach the coasts of Scotland, and of the north of Ire- 
land." 148:160 

"The Game 
of the U. S. & British Provinces" 
a list by H. W. Herbert from 
his "Field Sports." N.Y. '49 
[For T's detailed listings of game, cf. 149-155: 
169-172. Under "Sporting Nomenclature" he copies the 
following:] 

Grouse, before they can fly, brood 
" afterward , pack 

Quail, bevy 

Woodcock, brood 

Snipe, brood ." 154:171 

"For large flocks of wild-fowl we say of 
Swans, a whiteness 
Geese, a gaggle 
Brent, a gang 

Duck, a team , — smaller number, a plump 
Widgeon, a company or trip 
Teal, a flock . 
Snipe, a 
Grouse) 
Quail ) 



whisp . 
several hatchings united, 



a pack . 154:172 



"The young, not full grown, of Grouse, are cheepers , 
of Quail, sgueakers , of Wild-duck, flappers . " 

"The terms Stag or Hart & Hind, are applied to the 
Red Deer. Buck and Doe [are] applied to Fallow deer. 
The Deer of America is nearly akin to the Red Deer." 
Hence Buck & Doe are wrong. 

Of Grouse — Quail — Hares — 2 are a brace , 3 a 
leash . 

Of Woodcock — Snipe — Wild fowl of all kinds Plover 
and Shore birds — 2 are a couple, 3 a couple & a half. 

Two Hounds Harriers & Beagles are a couple, 3 a 
hurdle. 

2 Pointers — Setters, Spaniels, Greyhounds, Terriers, 
are a brace — 3 a leash. "All other dogs are reckoned 
numerically" — also large game, quadruped or bird. 



A pack of hounds is 5 & 20 couple. 

"When a stag breaks covert the cry is tayho : 

" fox " talliho ! whoop ! 

" Hare found sitting with Harriers, tantaro . 
" " " Greyhounds, Soho ! " 

"A horse never runs; he walks, ambles, trots, paces, 
canters, gallops. Tnese are all his paces." 

"The female of a Fox is a vixen ; of a Dog, a bitch , 
not a slut ;—" 155:172 

Ova of Frogs & Toads 
"The copulation of frogs & toads is performed 
in the same manner. The spermatic fluid is passed 
upon the ova at the time they are expelled from the 
female. The ova of the frog are laid in conglu- 
tinated masses; those of the toad, in long chain- 
like strings. The ova of the latter are also much 
smaller." 156:555 

"The beautiful spotted chains that are often seen 
in pools in spring, as if looped over each other, is 
their [the toads] ova newly deposited." Sir W™ 
Jardine Notes to Whites Selborne 156:558 

Hawks & Poultry 
"I lay it down as a maxim in ornithology, that as 
long as there is any incubation going on, there is 
music." White. 156:555 

Cold in England 
White says that in Jan. 1776 "just before sun- 
rise" — "the quicksilver sunk exactly to zero, being 
32 degrees below the freezing point — a most unusual 
degree of cold this for the south of England ! " 
[his points] On the 10 th of Dec "Dolland's glass 
went down to one degree below zero!" He accordingly 
secured his apples and potatoes &c in the cellar 
but his neighbors lost theirs such precautions not 
being commonly necessary. The last cold he says ex- 
ceeded in its effects "any since 1739-40." White 
156:556 

Signs of the Season 
"From a passage in the Birds of Aristophanes, we 
learn, that among the Greeks, the crane pointed out 
the time of sowing; the arrival of the kite, the time 
of sheep-shearing; and the swallow the time to put 
on summer clothes. — See Stillingfleets Tracts on 
Nat. Hist, p 234.— Mitford" [Note to White.] 
157:557 

Water-bug 
Cimex linearis is translated "the long water -bug" 
in note to White. 157:557 

Oaks 
White says that what "is deemed by Mr. Marsham 
to be the biggest [oak] in this island, at 7 feet 
from the ground, measures in circumference, 34 feet." 
157:558 

"Mist, called London Smoke" 
"This is a blue mist, which has somewhat the smell 
of coal-smoke, and as it always comes to us with a 
northeast wind, is supposed to come from London. — 
When wet mists appear, they are usually followed by 
dry weather." White. 157:558 

"Honey Dew 
is the exuviae of insects. They are little green 
aphides and harbor under the leaves of trees, from 
whence their dew is dropped on the leaves below. 



617 



This is collected by bees & ants; — Ed[ward] Jessie's 
note to White. 158:558 

Nuthatch & crows 
"The nuthatch hides nuts as crows do acorns. Mag- 
pies, ravens, and other such birds" do likewise. 
R. C. Norman. Note to White. 158:558 

Elements of Ornithology by 

Charles Brooks. Boston. J Munroe — &c — '47 

A bird's power of flight depends upon the length of 
the primaries or quills of the hand. 159:83 

Among the swiftest birds are the Frigates, Falcons, 
Condors and Swallows, [and ac to one author the Pra- 
tincole]. — "The Condor & Albatross have the largest 
wings being from 10 to 12 feet spread." 159:83 

"In the greater number the female differs from the 
male by colors less vivid, and the young of both sexes 
then resemble the female." 159:83 

"All birds, which are a year or two in acquiring 
their permanent plumage, breed before that is 
acquired." 159:84 

"Birds which must get their living on the wing, 
shed 2 feathers of their wings at the same time, one 
from each wing; thus keeping the balance exactly ad- 
justed." 159:84 

"Nature guards a particular bird's breakfast on 
every side but one, and that bird only can come at it 
upon the unguarded side." e.g. the woodpecker. 
159:84 

Among those which build cold and slender nests, 
the male does not assist in incubation; while those on 
the contrary, whose young have no down, construct warm 
nests, and the male does assist." 159:84 

"The Eagle has but 2, [eggs] one of which is a male 
and the other a female." These 2 unite for life The 
same the case with pigeons. 160:84-85 

The common hen has sometimes laid 100 eggs in one 
nest. Will lay for months if she finds only one egg 
left 160:84 

"It is said that the roundest eggs contain males, 
and the longest ones females." 160:84 

"The young bird has on the tip of its beak a horny 
point, which serves to break the shell, and which 
falls off a few days after birth." 160:84 

"The habits of the European Cuckoo & our Cow-Bunt- 
ing, in confiding their young to foster-parents, be- 
long to no other birds." 160:85 

The Bob-o-links "come north in pairs & return in 
flocks." 160:85 

"The no of species of birds already known is about 
5000." 160:85 

The Classification of Cuvier seems to have the 
most authority, which divides all the birds into the 
six following orders; 160:86 [Here follows a large 
chart. 161:85] 

"The names used in Zoology to distinguish the dif . 
parts of the animal kingdom are Divisions, Classes, 
Orders, Families, Genera, Species, & Individuals." 
162:86 

"The Animal Kingdom is arran-*°d in 4 great Divi- 
sions: 1 st , the Vertebrates; 2 , the Annelides, or 
Articulate Animals; 3 d , the Molluscous Animals; & 
4 tn , the Zoophytes." The 1st Division is divided 
into 4 classes "i st Mamalia; 2 nd > Birds; 3 d , Reptiles; 
4 th , Fishes." The Birds are divided into 6 orders as 
on last page — orders into Families as Accipitres 
into Diurnal & Nocturnal birds of Prey. Then Genera 
as the Eagles — then Species — then Individuals. 
162:86 

"These birds [diurnal birds of prey] come to their 



growth in 4 years, and as their plumage is each year 
more advanced, one bird during this time may appear 
to belong to 4 different species." 162:86 

The Falcons, the 2 nd & most numerous division of 
the Diurnal Birds of Prey number about 230 species. 
Except in the Osprey their eye brows project, unlike 
the vultures. "The female is generally 1/3 larger 
than the male." 162:86 

The Cherry Bird "is not regular in its appearance 
at any given place." 163:87 

st 
Swallows "return in the following order: 1 , the 

Bank-Swallows, then the White-Bellied, then the Pur- 
ple Martin, then the Barn, and lastly the Chimney- 
Swallows." 163:87 

"It [the song-sparrow] salutes us even before 
the Pewee or Blue-Bird. Its sweet & earnest trills 
resemble the canary's, and they are continued through 
the summer, because this bird raises 3 broods a year, 
6 in the first, 5 in the 2 nd > & 3 in the 3 d brood." 
163:87 

[King-fisher or Halcyon] 
The European king-fisher or Halcyon of the An- 
cients. It was believed "that its nest was made of 
fish-bones & glue, and that this nest was placed by 
the bird on the sea at a time when it would be calm 
for 14 days, which time would be long enough for in- 
cubation. On this account these 14 days obtained, 
from this bird, the appellation of Halcyon-days . " 
163:88 

Ducks 
"We have 26 dif. species in the US, 16 of which 
are sea ducks, and the rest frequent ponds & lakes. — 
One character in the plumage of most of them is a 
patch upon the secondary quills, of different colors 
in the different species, but with a sort of metallic 
lustre; and thence called the 'speculum 1 , and also 
the 'wing spot', or the 'beauty spot.'" 163:88 

Aurora Boreal is 
Ac. to Humboldt — "the end of a magnetic storm." 
Seen within the tropics. "A self-luminousness of the 
earth, a light-development of the planet, in a word 
an earth-light in opposition to the sun-light. The 
planet Venus also phosphoresces on that side not 
illuminated by the sun" — "There are other forms of 
terrestrial light. Humboldt includes among them the 
yet unexplained weather-lights, the dry luminous fog 
of 1783 & 1831, the steady light of large clouds 
which Rozier and Beccaria observed, the bright nights 
of autumn 8. winter, &c. Juliette Bauer's Life of 
Humboldt. 164:589 

"The exudation of ice from the stems of vege- 
tables, and the protrusion of icy columns from cer- 
tain kinds of earth." 165:259 

A paper was read on this subject by Prof. John 
Le Conte at a meeting of the Am. Association at 
Charleston. He observed it near the sea coast of 
Georgia in Nov. 1848 especially about 2 species of 
plants. Pulchea bifrons & P. Camphorata , "in the 
first clear frosty weather in Nov. & Dec. when the 
earth is warm & there is considerable dif. between 
the temperature of the day & the night." About the 
foot stalks of the former plant the "semi-pellucid 
ice" appears like "locks of common-wool, varying 
from 4 to 5 inches in diameter." 165:260 Refers 
it to the moist earth not to any vitality in the stem. 
An. Scient Disc. '51 p 157 q.v. 165:261 



618 



Forms of Trees 
"In forests all trees, no matter what may be their 
typical form, imitate the pine, and strain upward to 
the light in perpendicular shafts. By the side of 
running water, all trees imitate the willow and bend 
their limbs downward in bowery masses; and wherever 
the atmosphere is charged with moisture, the trees 
expand their branches in a peculiarly indolent and 
luxurious manner difficult to discribe, but easily 
recognized. Whenever, therefore, you see a tree with 
its limbs hanging downward like those of a willow, you 
may be pretty sure that there are brooks running below 
the surface, if not visible above it; and when you see 
trees spreading themselves out in every direction, 
leaning their branches this way & that, like the trees 
which the Italian painters loved to draw in their pic- 
ture of the Flight into Egypt, you may recognize the 
presence of an excess of aqueous vapor in the air." 
Clarke's 11 Weeks in Europe (Switzerland) 165:101 

Origin of Schooners 
V. His. Coll gth vol i st series p 234 
also i st vol 4 tn series p 90 
"The year 1714, near which time the first vessel 
of the class called schooner was built at Gloucester, 
by Andrew Robinson. The account is well confirmed, 
and in substance is that having masted and rigged a 
vessel in a manner unknown either in Europe or America, 
and to his own fancy, a bystander at the launch ex- 
claimed , as she started from the stocks , "0 , how she 
scoons ! " and that Robinson replied, "A schooner let 
her be ." Sabine's Report on the Fisheries 1853 p 130 
166:455+517+332 

But Walker gives the Germ. Schuner. In old Bailey 
to Skue means to go sideling along, to waddle. V 
Potter on [?] Scoops or Schoot [See John Walker, A_ 
Critic al Pronouncing Dictio nary , and Expositor of the 
English Langu age~[N.Y. , 1823), a copy of which was in 
T's library; also one of Nathan Bailey's etymological 
dictionaries, not identifiable. "Potter" not identi- 
fied. K.W.C.] 

Rain in Egypt 
"the sky of Egypt has been, at least, 6000 years 
without raining, and — this phenomenon of celestial 
irrigation, yet unknown in these localities at the time 
of the French expedition, now produces itself 40 days 
in the year, by will of the present viceroy, Mohammed 
Ali." Trans, from the French of A. Toussenel 167:504 

The Bat 
"the skeleton with the scythe sailing through the 
regions of darkness with silent flight. — By day, hang- 
ing from the vault of sepulchral grottoes, it imitates 
the absolute stillness of the dead in his shroud." 
ibid. 167:505 

La Plata 
"In breadth, La Plata equals that of the Amazon, 
and is navigable by vessels of considerable tonnage, 
even to the distance of 400 leagues from its mouth." — 
(The Uruguay, a tributary, surpasses the Rhine-) "At 
its mouth its breadth is so great that the eye cannot 
at any point take in both its banks at one view — not 
even from the center of the river; and that proceeding 
200 leagues higher up, it requires an hour to cross 
it." Household Words. 167:177 

Plants of Aboriginal Introduction 
"I found 2 weeds growing abundantly around the Chi- 



nook villages , Polygonum aviculare , & Chenopodium al- 
bum [?] and Mr. Brackenridge met with a third, Plantago 
major , [?] in the secluded district of Gray's Harbour." 
Pickerings Races 168:395 

Plants recently introduced 
into N. W. America 
Anthemis cotula — Amaranthus — & Capsella bursa-pastor- 
is at Fort Colville. Sonchus oleraceus at Fort Nis- 

qually. Campanula amplexicaulis — s. Polygfonum] per- 
sicaria — in Oregon Mollugo verticillata Ibid. 
168:395-397 

Found by Cook & Foster in New Zealand 

Aborig(inal) Introduction] 

Sonchus oleraceus, — one of tne first to extend 

itself over the new countries where it gets foothold — 

Sicyos angulata — Calystegia sepium Ibid 168:397 

"The natives of Australia, being for the most part 
devoid of clothing, and possessing very few manufac- 
tures, have contributed perhaps less than any other 
branch of the human family to the dispersion of seeds 
& plants." Calystegia sepium & Sicyos angulata were 
found there. Aborig. Introd. Ibid 169:397 

Of European Introduction 
Sicyos angulata at Hawaiian Islands. 
Portulaca oleracea " " & elsewhere — 
Sonchus oleraceus — Peru — Patagonia &c Ibid 

Introduced Plants of Egypt 
Polyg. aviculare — Chenopodium album. Urtica dioica — 
urtica circus — Lamiam amplexicaule — Arvenaria rubra- 
stellaria media — Polygonum persicana — 

Deer in Wyoming County Perm. 
Their Winter Life 
'"They inhabit,' he said in [Letter] 42 (i.e. a 
hunter of that county] 'the swamps of mountain-laurel 
thickets, through which a man would find it almost 
impossible to make his way. The laurel bushes, & 
the hemlocks scattered among them, intercept the snow 
as it falls, and form a thick roof, under the shelter 
of which, near some pool or rivulet, the animals re- 
main until spring opens, as snugly protected from the 
severity of the weather as sheep under the sheds of 
a farm-yard. Here they feed upon the leaves of the 
laurel and other evergreens. It is contrary to the 
law to kill them after the Christmas holidays, but 
sometimes their retreat is invaded, and a deer or 2 
killed; their flesh, however, is not wholesome, on 
account of the laurel leaves on which they feed, & 
their skin is nearly worthless . ' " Bryant ' s Letters 
of a Traveller 2 nd Ed - P 311 169:93 

The Arab & his Horse 
"Whenever a horse falls into the hands of an Arab, 
his first thought is how to ascertain its descent. 
If the owner be dismounted in battle, or if he be 
even about to receive his death blow from the spear 
of his enemy, he will frequently exclaim, "0 Fellan ! 
(such a one) the mare that fate has given to you is 
of noble blood. She is of the breed of Saklawiyah, 
and her dam is ridden by Awaith, a sheikh of the 
Fedhan" (or as the case may be. Nor will a lie come 
from the mouth of a Bedouin as to the race of his 
mare. — The descent of a horse is preserved by tradi- 
tion, and the birth of a colt is an event known to 
a whole tribe. If a townsman or stranger buy a horse, 
and is desirous of having written evidence of its 



619 



race, the seller, with his friends, will come to the 
nearest town to testify before a person specially 
qualified to take the evidence, called 'the cadi of 
the horses,' who makes out a written pedigree, — and 
then affixes to it his seal." Layard's Nineveh & 
Babylon 1853. 170:257 

Site of Babylon 
"On all sides fragments of glass, marble, pottery, 
and inscribed brick are mingled with that peculiar ni- 
trous and blanched soil, which, bred from the remains 
of ancient habitations,